About this topic
Summary In addition to its positive account of synthetic a priori cognition in mathematics and natural science, The Critique of Pure Reason also had the goal of exposing the fraudulent basis for the putatively synthetic a priori cognition contained in the doctrines of traditional metaphysics, namely, rational psychology, general cosmology, and natural theology. Kant has long been judged particularly successful in achieving this latter goal, to the extent that Moses Mendelssohn dubbed him the 'all destroying Kant.' 
Key works Grier 2001 brought renewed attention to Kant's doctrine of illusion and its systematic role in his criticism of metaphysics. Other discussions of Kant's general criticism of traditional metaphysics can be found in Bennett 1974, Allison 1988, and Bird 2006.
Introductions Useful introductions to Kant's criticism of traditional metaphysics can be found in Ameriks' contribution to Guyer 1992, and in Grier's SEP entry on the topic
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  1. Fugate D. Courtney and Hymers John , Baumgarten and Kant on Metaphysics Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018 Pp. 256 ISBN 9780198783886 $65.00. [REVIEW]Matthew McAndrew - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (3):483-487.
  2. Noumenal Ignorance: Why, For Kant, Can't We Know Things in Themselves?Alejandro Naranjo Sandoval & Andrew Chignell - 2017 - In Matthew Altman (ed.), The Palgrave Companion to Kant. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 91-116.
    In this paper we look at a few of the most prominent ways of articulating Kant’s critical argument for Noumenal Ignorance — i.e., the claim that we cannot cognize or have knowledge of any substantive, synthetic truths about things-in-themselves — and then provide two different accounts of our own.
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  3. R. Lanier Anderson: The Poverty of Conceptual Truth. Kant’s Analytic/Synthetic Distinction and the Limits of Metaphysics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. XVIII U. 408 Seiten. ISBN: 978-0-19872457-5. [REVIEW]Michael Pluder - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (2):294-297.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 110 Heft: 2 Seiten: 294-297.
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  4. How is Metaphysics Possible? Kant's Great Question and His Great Answer.Nicholas Stang - 2018 - In Stephen Hetherington (ed.), What Makes a Great Philosopher Great? Thirteen Arguments for Twelve Philosophers. Routledge.
  5. A Guide to Ground in Kant's Lectures on Metaphysics.Nicholas Stang - 2019 - In Courtney Fugate (ed.), Kant's Lectures on Metaphysics: A Critical Guide. pp. 74–101.
    While scholars have extensively discussed Kant’s treatment of the Principle of Sufficient Ground in the Antinomies chapter of the Critique of Pure Reason, and, more recently, his relation to German rationalist debates about it, relatively little has been said about the exact notion of ground that figures in the PSG. My aim in this chapter is to explain Kant’s discussion of ground in the lectures and to relate it, where appropriate, to his published discussions of ground.
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  6. Los sueños de un visionario y la única realidad en que habitamos.Stéfano Straulino - 2016 - In Juan Manuel Navarro Cordón, Rogelio Rovira & Rafael Orden Jiménez (eds.), Nuevas perspectivas sobre la filosofía de Kant. Madrid: Escolar y Mayo. pp. 33-39.
    The Dreams of a Spirit-Seer and the one reality in which we live [English] Traüme eines Geistersehers usually constitutes a problematic work for Kant’s scholars for its unusual style and for the apparent break with the problems that occupied him at the beginning of the 1760s. However, this work is to a large extent the natural outcome of those themes, especially of the search for an appropriate method for metaphysics. In this paper we are particularly interested in highlighting two ideas (...)
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  7. Wolff's Logic, Kant's Critique, and the Foundations of Metaphysics.Colin McQuillan - 2017 - In Arnaud Pelletier & Karin De Boer (eds.), 300 Years of Christian Wolff’s German Logic: Sources, Significance and Reception. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.
  8. Beyond the Limits of Reason: Kant, Critique, and Enlightenment.Colin McQuillan - 2012 - In Karin De Boer & R. Sonderegger (eds.), Conceptions of Critique in Modern and Contemporary Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 66-82.
  9. The Possibility of Ontology.Dino Jakušić - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Warwick
    This thesis investigates the development of ontology as a philosophical discipline in the German philosophical tradition. It starts from what can be considered the invention of ontology and proceeds to the way it was received in the philosophy of Hegel. It is separated into two parts. The first part argues that what can be called the ‘traditional’ form of ontology is developed by Christian Wolff in his 1730 monograph Philosophia prima sive Ontologia, and it traces both the history of the (...)
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  10. Moral Theory and Moral Motivation in Dilthey’s Critique of Historical Reason.David J. Zoller - 2016 - Idealistic Studies 46 (1):97-118.
    Dilthey’s moral writings have received scant attention over the years, perhaps due to his apparent tendency toward relativism. This essay offers a unified look at Dilthey’s moral writings in the context of his Kantian-styled “Critique of Historical Reason.” I present the Dilthey of the moral writings as an observer of reason in the spirit of Kant, watching practical reason devolve into error when it applies itself beyond the bounds of possible experience. Drawing on moral writings from across Dilthey’s corpus, I (...)
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  11. On Kant’s Refutation of Metaphysics.Edward G. Ballard - 1958 - New Scholasticism 32 (2):235-252.
  12. Knowledge, Discipline, System, Hope: The Fate of Metaphysics in the Doctrine of Method.Andrew Chignell - 2017 - In James O'Shea (ed.), Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: A Critical Guide. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. pp. 259-279.
    In this chapter I highlight the apparent tensions between Kant’s very stringent critique of metaphysical speculation in the “Discipline of Pure Reason” chapter and his endorsement of Belief (Glaube) and hope (Hoffnung) regarding metaphysical theses in the subsequent “Canon of Pure Reason.” In the process I will examine his distinction between the theoretical and the practical bases for holding a “theoretical” conclusion (i.e. a conclusion about “what exists” rather than “what ought to be”) and argue that the position is subtle (...)
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  13. Kant's Attack on Metaphysics.A. C. Ewing - 1954 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 30 (4):371.
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  14. Scepticism and the Development of the Transcendental Dialectic.Brian A. Chance - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (2):311-331.
    Kant's response to scepticism in the Critique of Pure Reason is complex and remarkably nuanced, although it is rarely recognized as such. In this paper, I argue that recent attempts to flesh out the details of this response by Paul Guyer and Michael Forster do not go far enough. Although they are right to draw a distinction between Humean and Pyrrhonian scepticism and locate Kant's response to the latter in the Transcendental Dialectic, their accounts fail to capture two important aspects (...)
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  15. Kant’s Conception of Analytic Judgment.Ian Proops - 2005 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 70 (3):588–612.
    In the Critique of Pure Reason Kant appears to characterize analytic judgments in four distinct ways: once in terms of “containment,” a second time in terms of “identity,” a third time in terms of the explicative–ampliative contrast, and a fourth time in terms of the notion of “cognizability in accordance with the principle of contradiction.” The paper asks: Which of these characterizations—or apparent characterizations—best captures Kant’s conception of analyticity in the first Critique? It suggests: “the second.” It argues, further, that (...)
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Kant: Rational Psychology
  1. Kant on de Se.Luca Forgione - 2018 - In Violetta Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur und Freiheit: Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Berlino, Germania: De Gruyter. pp. 3779-3786.
    Since the classic works by Castañeda, Perry and Lewis, de se thoughts have been described as thoughts about oneself ‘as oneself’. In recent years, various theoretical perspectives have gained ground, and even if the transcendental system does not seem to contemplate an explicit articulation of de se thoughts, apparently a few features of transcendental apperception and I think do anticipate a few points in Perry and Recanati’s claims on the so-called implicit de se thoughts in the specific terms of Transcendentalism.
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  2. Béatrice Longuenesse, I, Me, Mine: Back to Kant, and Back Again Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017 Pp. Xx+257 ISBN 9780199665761 $45.00. [REVIEW]Curtis Sommerlatte - 2018 - Kantian Review 23 (3):504-510.
  3. Kant, Epistemic Phenomenalism, and the Refutation of Idealism.Michael Oberst - 2018 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 100 (2):172-201.
    This paper takes issue with the widespread view that Kant rejects epistemic phenomenalism. According to epistemic phenomenalism, only cognition of states of one’s own mind can be certain, while cognition of outer objects is necessarily uncertain. I argue that Kant does not reject this view, but accepts a modified version of it. For, in contrast to traditional skeptics, he distinguishes between two kinds of outer objects and holds that we have direct access to outer appearances in our mind; but he (...)
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  4. Transcendental Paralogisms as Formal Fallacies - Kant’s Refutation of Pure Rational Psychology.Toni Kannisto - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (2):195-227.
    : According to Kant, the arguments of rational psychology are formal fallacies that he calls transcendental paralogisms. It remains heavily debated whether there actually is any formal error in the inferences Kant presents: according to Grier and Allison, they are deductively invalid syllogisms, whereas Bennett, Ameriks, and Van Cleve deny that they are formal fallacies. I advance an interpretation that reconciles these extremes: transcendental paralogisms are sound in general logic but constitute formal fallacies in transcendental logic. By formalising the paralogistic (...)
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  5. Uberzeugender Beweis Aus der Vernunft von der Unsterblichkeit Sowohl der Menschen Seelen Insgemein, Als Besonders der Kinder-Seelen.Israel Gottlieb Canz & Corey W. Dyck (eds.) - 2017 - Hildesheim: Olms.
    Israel Gottlieb Canz’s Uberzeugender Beweiß, first published in 1741 and reprinted here in its second, expanded edition stands as his most influential discussion of the soul’s immortality, with one contemporary pronouncing it to be “one of the best [treatments of immortality] that we have.” In this text, Canz seeks to augment and supplement traditional Wolffian proofs by considering, first, the grounds for the soul’s immortality that are contained in its own nature and, second, the grounds for the same that are (...)
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  6. Karl Ameriks, "Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason". [REVIEW]Michael Washburn - 1984 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 22 (2):245.
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  7. Kant and the Demands of Self-Consciousness. [REVIEW]Frederick Rauscher - 2000 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 38 (2):285.
    Keller (Univ. of California, Riverside) offers an original reading of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason that combines thematic focus and comprehensive scope." Choice \n\nBook Description\n\nIn Kant and the Demands of Self-Consciousness, Pierre Keller examines\nKant's theory of self-consciousness and argues that it succeeds in\nexplaining how both subjective and objective experience are possible.\nPrevious interpretations of Kant's theory have held that he treats\nall self-consciousness as knowledge of objective states of affairs,\nand also that self-consciousness can be interpreted as knowledge\nof personal identity. By developing this (...)
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  8. V. Satura, Kants Erkenntnispsychologie in den Nachschriften seiner Vorlesungen über empirische Psychologie. [REVIEW]H. Drüe - 1974 - Kant-Studien 65 (4):479.
  9. Der transzendentale Schein in den Paralogismen der reinen Vernunft nach der ersten Auflage der Kritik der reinen Vernunft: Ein Kommen-tar zu KrV, A 396-405.Matthias Koßler - 1998 - Kant-Studien 90 (1):1-22.
    At the end of the chapter on paralogisms in the first edition of his _Critique of Pure Reason, Kant treats the problem of the transcendental illusion in a very detailed way which is not exceeded in the second edition. The essay gives an exhaustive commentary to this passage leading to the result that the unavoidability of transcendental illusion has to be taken seriously in that sense that human reason in his theoretical use cannot conceived other than liable to illusion.
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  10. Personal Identity and Kant’s “Refutation of Idealism”.Richard E. Aquila - 1979 - Kant-Studien 70 (3):259.
  11. Fundamental Singleness: How to Turn the 2nd Paralogism Into a Valid Argument: Galen Strawson.Galen Strawson - 2010 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 67:61-92.
    [1] Experience is a real concrete phenomenon. The existence of experience entails the existence of a subject of experience. Therefore subjects of experience are concretely real. [2] The existence of a subject of experience in the lived present or living moment of experience, e.g. the period of time in which the grasping of a thought occurs, provably involves the existence of singleness or unity of an unsurpassably strong kind. The singleness or unity in question is a metaphysically real, concrete entity. (...)
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  12. Review of Kant's Transcendental Psychology by P. Kitcher. [REVIEW]Arthur Melnick - 1993 - Philosophy of Science 60 (3):513-515.
  13. Kant’s Transcendental and Empirical Psychology of Cognition.Claudia M. Schmidt - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (4):462-472.
    One of the perennially intriguing questions regarding Kant’s approach to the human sciences is the relation between his ‘transcendental psychology’ and empirical cognitive psychology. In this paper I compare his analysis of the a priori conditions of human cognition in the Critique of pure reason with his empirical account of the human cognitive faculties in his Anthropology from a pragmatic point of view. In comparing his approach to self-consciousness, sensibility, imagination, and understanding in these two works, I argue that Kant (...)
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  14. A Double Edged Sword? Kant's Refutation Of Mendelssohn's Proof Of The Immortality Of The Soul And Its Implications For His Theory Of Matter.Lorne Falkenstein - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (4):561-588.
  15. Fichte’s Critique of Kant’s Doctrine of Inner Sense.Garth W. Green - 2007 - Idealistic Studies 37 (3):157-178.
    In this paper, the thematic context for Fichte’s early concern with the character of the forms of intuition, and specifically inner intuition, is adumbrated. This context is provided by means of a brief exposition of Kant’s doctrine of time as the form of inner sense, and its dual role; its positive role in the “order of cognition” or ordo cognoscendi, and its negative role in the critique of Seelenlehre or “doctrine of the soul.” It is then argued, on this basis, (...)
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  16. Personal Identity and Kant’s Third Person Perspective.Pierre Keller - 1994 - Idealistic Studies 24 (2):123-146.
    In recent philosophy there has been increasing interest in the relation between the first and third person perspective on experience. The first person perspective has a certain epistemic priority with regard to the ascription of inner states. An agent knows his or her beliefs and desires in a way which no one else can. There is thus a presumption in favor of the agent’s self-ascriptions when it comes to the ascription of inner states. This first person authority over such inner (...)
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  17. Kant’s Critique of Mysticism: The Critical Dreams.Stephen R. Palmquist - 1989 - Philosophy and Theology 3 (4):355-383.
    This is a series of two articles examining Kant’s attitude toward mystical experiences and the relation between his interest in these and his interest in constructing a Critical system of metaphysics.“The Critical Dreams” begins by questioning the traditional division between “Critical” and “pre-Critical” periods in Kant’s development. After explaining Kant’s Critical method, his 1766 book, Dreams of a Spirit-Seer... is examined and found to contain all the essential elements of that method. The onlykey element which is missing is his “Copernican” (...)
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  18. Selbstbewußtsein und Objektbewußtsein bei Kant: Eine Studie zu den Paralogismen der reinen Vernunft.Richard Schantz - 2000 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 60 (1):151-169.
    In the Paralogisms of Pure Reason Kant casts a critical glance at that doctrine of the soul which was called "rational psychology" by the classical metaphysics of his time, and which can best be understood as a systematic reconstruction of Descartes' theory of mind. Kant agrees with the proponents of rational psychology that our representation of a subject of experience is necessarily the representation of a simple, unitary and persisting subject. But Kant's decisive objection to his opponents is that from (...)
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  19. The Embodiment of Reason: Kant on Spirit, Generation and Community. By Susan Meld Shell. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1996. Pp. Vii, 483. ISBN 0-226-75215-1 , ISBN 0-226-75217-8. [REVIEW]Andrew N. Carpenter - 1998 - Kantian Review 2:134-143.
  20. Karl Ameriks, Kant's Theory of Mind. An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason. New Edn, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000. Xxxviii, 348 Pp. ISBN 0-19-823896-7, £45.00 ; ISBN 0-19-823897-5, £4.99. [REVIEW]Udo Thiel - 2003 - Kantian Review 7:152-154.
  21. Kant’s Transcendental Psychology. [REVIEW]Steve Naragon - 1991 - International Studies in Philosophy 23 (3):126-127.
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  22. Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason. [REVIEW]Paul Guyer - 1983 - Review of Metaphysics 37 (1):97-100.
    This work makes the revisionist claim that "the theory of mind in the Critique [of Pure Reason] is much more traditional and rationalistic than it at first appears, but that it is also more defensible than is generally recognized". Specifically, Ameriks aims to show that "Kant can be seen as wanting, above all else, to put... into a respectable form" the "core of the rationalist commitment" "to the idea that we have a special kind of identity that can withstand all (...)
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  23. Schwärmerei und Geisterseherei, Aufklärung und analytische Psychologie: Kant und Swedenborg aus der Sicht von C. G. Jung.Friedemann Stengel - 2008 - In Kant Und Swedenborgkant and Swedenborg. Approaches to a Controversial Relationship: Zugänge Zu Einem Umstrittenen Verhältnis. Walter de Gruyter – Max Niemeyer Verlag.
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  24. Was ist der Mensch? – Das Gehirn-Geist-Problem aus kantischer Sicht Plädoyer für eine transzendentale Anthropologie.Thorsten Streubel - 2012 - Kant-Studien 103 (3):370-376.
    : It is the aim of the following considerations to use Kantian epistemology to advance the current debate about the relation between mind and brain. First of all the naturalistic assumption that all mental phenomena are based on neuronal processes is called into question. Secondly it is shown that naturalism leads necessarily to an absurd constructivism that is very similar to Kant’s transcendental position, but which conflicts with naturalism’s empirical premise. In spite of the progress in brain research Kant’s transcendental (...)
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  25. Le Moi de Descartes et la « Psychologie de la Connaissance ».Siegfried Marck - 1937 - Travaux du IXe Congrès International de Philosophie 1:173-180.
    Dans la doctrine cartésienne du Cogito, ergo sum, on peut dégager deux idées : l’idée d’une vérité indépendante, fournissant d’elle-même des preuves suffisantes d’authenticité ; l’idée d’une évidence vécue dont toute la force tiendrait à la conscience plus ou moins riche et plus ou moins précise que le moi pourrait prendre de sa réalité intime. L’interprétation cartésienne du moi flotte entre le moi qui se définit par la pensée et le moi qui se définit par l’expérience. Kant, inspiré lui aussi (...)
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  26. Physiologische Psychologie des Selbstbewusstseins zwischen Wolff und Kant.Udo Thiel - 2014 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 62 (5).
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  27. Kant and the Demands of Self-Consciousness.Pierre Keller - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    In Kant and the Demands of Self-Consciousness, Pierre Keller examines Kant's theory of self-consciousness and argues that it succeeds in explaining how both subjective and objective experience are possible. Previous interpretations of Kant's theory have held that he treats all self-consciousness as knowledge of objective states of affairs, and also that self-consciousness can be interpreted as knowledge of personal identity. By developing this striking new interpretation Keller is able to argue that transcendental self-consciousness underwrites a general theory of objectivity and (...)
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  28. Kant’s Criticism of Metaphysics.Arthur Melnick & W. H. Walsh - 1977 - Journal of Philosophy 74 (3):181.
  29. Mental Powers and the Soul in Kant’s Subjective Deduction and the Second Paralogism.Steven Tester - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (3):426-452.
    Kant’s claim in the Subjective Deduction that we have multiple fundamental mental powers appears to be susceptible to some a priori metaphysical arguments made against multiple fundamental mental powers by Christian Wolff who held that these powers would violate the unity of thought and entail that the soul is an extended composite. I argue, however, that in the Second Paralogism and his lectures on metaphysics, Kant provides arguments that overcome these objections by showing that it is possible that a composite (...)
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  30. Ein “so lange aufgenommener Fremdling”. Kant und die Entwicklung der Psychologie.R. Martinelli - 2004 - .
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  31. Zur Psychologie der Metaphysik.Arthur Liebert - 1917 - Kant-Studien 21 (1-3):42.
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  32. The Scope of Inner Sense: The Development of Kant’s Psychology In The Silent Decade.Corey W. Dyck - 2016 - Con-Textos Kantianos 3:1-19.
    In this paper I argue, contrary to a widely influential account of Kant’s development in the “silent decade,” that key changes in his empirical and rational psychology throughout the 1770’s are traceable to changes in the scope he assigns to inner sense. Kant’s explicit inclusion of our access to the I or soul within the scope of inner sense in the early 1770’s (after its apparent exclusion in the Dissertation) yields a more robust empirical psychology. Given the Wolffian character of (...)
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  33. Kant and the Mind.Andrew Brook - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    Kant made a number of highly original discoveries about the mind - about its ability to synthesise a single, coherent representation of self and world, about the unity it must have to do so, and about the mind's awareness of itself and the semantic apparatus it uses to achieve this awareness. The past fifty years have seen intense activity in research on human cognition. Even so, Kant's discoveries have not been superseded, and some of them have not even been assimilated (...)
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  34. Kant's Doctrine of Transcendental Illusion.Michelle Grier - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    This major study of Kant provides a detailed examination of the development and function of the doctrine of transcendental illusion in his theoretical philosophy. The author shows that a theory of 'illusion' plays a central role in Kant's arguments about metaphysical speculation and scientific theory. Indeed, she argues that we cannot understand Kant unless we take seriously his claim that the mind inevitably acts in accordance with ideas and principles that are 'illusory'. Taking this claim seriously, we can make much (...)
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  35. Metaphysics: A Critical Translation with Kant's Elucidations, Selected Notes, and Related Materials.Courtney Fugate, John Hymers & Alexander Baumgarten - 2013 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Available for the first time in English, this critical translation draws from the original seven Latin editions and Georg Friedrich Meier's 18th-century German translation. Together with a historical and philosophical introduction, extensive glossaries and notes, the text is supported by translations of Kant's elucidations and notes, Eberhard's insertions in the 1783 German edition and texts from the writings of Meier and Wolff. For scholars of Kant, the German Enlightenment and the history of metaphysics, Alexander Baumgarten's Metaphysics is an essential, authoritative (...)
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