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Summary Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher who for the most significant period of his career held a position at the London School of Economics.  Popper was a philosopher of science, who also made contributions in epistemology, philosophy of mind and social and political philosophy.  He argued that scientific theories are distinguished from non-scientific theories and pseudo-science by being falsifiable claims about the world.  Popper proposed a "solution" to the problem of induction by arguing that there is no need for induction in the scientific method.  The method of science is to propose conjectural theories which are then submitted to rigorous tests in the attempt to falsify them.  Theories which fail these tests are to be rejected.  Theories which survive attempts to refute them may be accepted tentatively, but are not proven to be true.  At best, they may be highly corroborated.  This "falsificationist" philosophy of science has a more general application beyond the method of the sciences.  The attempt to falsify a theory is an attempt to criticize the theory.  For Popper, criticism lies at the heart of rational thought, which he took to consist in the method of critical discussion and reflection.  The resulting general position is known as "critical rationalism".  Popper extended these ideas as well into the social and political realm.  He introduced the distinction between open and closed societies.  Open societies welcome and foster critical discussion and change whereas closed societies, which are usually tribal societies, are based on unchanging social custom and ritual.
Key works The classic statement of Popper's philosophy of science is The Logic of Scientific Discovery.  Perhaps the best introduction to his work is his collection of essays, Conjectures and Refutations.  Popper's social and political thought may be found in The Poverty of Historicism and The Open Society and its Enemies.  A good anthology of his writings has been edited by David Miller, Popper Selections.  A useful way into Popper's ideas is by way of his intellectual autobiography, Unended Quest, as is Bryan Magee's short book, Popper.  Alan Musgrave's Common Sense, Science and Scepticism presents a broadly Popperian introduction to epistemology.  David Miller's Critical Rationalism presents good discussion of many critical points that have been made against Popper's views.  Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, edited by Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave, contains a number of important papers which bring Popper's views into contact with T.S. Kuhn's theory of science.  Wesley Salmon's 'Rational Prediction' is an important criticism of Popper's solution to the problem of induction.  See also Adolf Grunbaum's paper 'Is the method of bold conjectures and attempted refutations justifiably the method of science?'.
Introductions A good place to start is the entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Thornton 2008.  Alan Chalmers provides an introductory discussion in What is this thing called science?, chapters 4-6.  Gurol Irzik provides an overview in 'Critical Rationalism', and Alan Musgrave presents his interpretation of Popper's solution of the problem of induction in his paper 'How Popper (might have) solved the problem of induction'.
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  1. Review of Schubert (1995): Platon: «Der Staat». Ein einfuhrender Kommentar & Döring (1996): Karl R. Popper: «Die offene Gesellschaft und ihre Feinde». Ein einfuhrender Kommentar. [REVIEW]Orrin F. Summerell - 1998 - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 3 (1):230-233.
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  2. Karl Popper I Rossiia.V. N. Sadovskii & Institut Sistemnogo Analiza Nauk) - 2002
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  3. Physics as Metaphor an Inaugural Lecture Given in the University of Fort Hare on the 9th May, 1974.R. H. Hobart - 1974
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  4. Popper on Learning From Experience'.Joseph Agassi - 1969 - In Peter Achinstein (ed.), Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford, Published by Basil Blackwell with the Cooperation of the University of Pittsburg. pp. 162--71.
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  5. Sense-Critisizm-Oppenes. Life Links of the Philosopher KR Popper.Jozef Katina - 2009 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 16 (2):268-271.
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  6. Review: K. R. Popper, William Kneale, A. J. Ayer, Symposium: What Can Logic Do for Philosophy? [REVIEW]Charles A. Baylis - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (4):290-290.
  7. Wijsgerig Misverstand: Het Probleem van Het Idealisme: Wetenschapsfilosofische Opstellen van Plato Tot Popper.Broer Jansma - 2010 - Deventer Universitaire Pers.
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  8. Popper i Koło Wiedeńskie.Artur Koterski - 1998 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 25 (1):47-72.
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  9. Karla Poppera kilka myśli o muzyce (K. Popper Nieustanne poszukiwania. Autobiografia intelektualna).Krzysztof Lipka - 2003 - Estetyka I Krytyka 4 (4):167-176.
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  10. Moralność U Podstaw Racjonalności [Recenzja] Mariano Artigas, The Ethical Nature of Karl Popper's Theory of Knowledge, 1999.Bogdan Wójcik - 2000 - Zagadnienia Filozoficzne W Nauce 26.
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  11. Falsyfikowanie falsyfikacji (w stylu retro) [recenzja] T. Mendelski, Karl R. Popper: metodolog czy ideolog?, 1978.Józef Życiński - 1980 - Zagadnienia Filozoficzne W Nauce 2.
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  12. Karl Popper i wiek jazzu.D. C. Stove - 1989 - Zagadnienia Filozoficzne W Nauce 11.
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  13. Czy księżyc może rzucić światło na drogi Parmenidesa?Karl R. Popper - 2006 - Studia Philosophica Wratislaviensia:161-169.
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  14. Karl Popper: teoria ewolucji a logika sytuacji.Sławoj Olczyk - 2003 - Filozofia Nauki 2.
    The article aims at reconstruction of a importance of Popper's situational logic to his analysis of an epistemological status of evolution theory. The paper consists of four parts. In the first one I present Popper's arguments on an epistemological status of Darwinism he exposed in „The Poverty of Historicism”. In the second part I put forward Popper's views on evolution theory in the 60-th. The third part aims at outlining of his idea of situational logic. And in the last part (...)
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  15. Popper's Spruch "Zuruck zu den Vorsokratikern" aus der Sicht der Biowissenschaften.Nelly Tsouyopoulos - 1982 - Philosophical Inquiry 4 (1):17-29.
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  16. Naturbeschreibung und Naturgeschichte bei Kant. Einige Überlegungen zum Verhältnis von Popper und Kant.Silvestro Marcucci - 1986 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 68 (2):174-188.
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  17. Zur Kritik der unkritischen Kritik. Ein Vergleich zwischen T. W. Adorno und K. R. Popper.Heinz Jansohn - 1975 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 29 (4):544 - 561.
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  18. Filosofia E Filosofar Em Karl R. Popper.Norberto Amadeu F. G. Da Cunha - 1982 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 38 (2/3):219 - 252.
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  19. The Lakatosian Revolution.Joseph Agassi - 1976 - In R. S. Cohen, P. K. Feyerabend & M. Wartofsky (eds.), Essays in Memory of Imre Lakatos. Reidel. pp. 9--21.
  20. Book reviews : Lernen aus dem irrtum—die bedeutung Von Karl Poppers lerntheorie für die psychologie und die philosophie der wissenschaft. By William Berkson and John Wettersten. Hamburg: Hoffmann & campe-verlag, 1982. 222 seiten. 38 dm. learning from error—Karl Popper's psychology of learning. La salle: Open court, 1984. Pp. XIII + 155. $14.95. [REVIEW]Michael Schmid - 1986 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 16 (2):260-262.
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  21. Book Reviews : Sheldon Richmond, Aesthetic Criteria: Gombrich and the Philosophies of Science of Popper and Polanyi. Series in the Philosophy of Karl R. Popper, Volume VI. Edited by Kurt Salamun. Editions Rodopi, Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA, 1994. Pp. 152. $28.00. [REVIEW]Michael Chiariello - 1997 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 27 (1):151-152.
  22. Book Review: Karl R. Popper, Bibliographie 1925-2004. [REVIEW]John Wettersten - 2006 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 36 (2):248-248.
  23. Two Kinds of Values. By L. M. Loring. Foreword by Karl R. Popper. (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966. Pp. Xii + 188. Price 28s.). [REVIEW]D. Z. Phillips - 1967 - Philosophy 42 (161):293-.
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  24. Theoretical Bias in Evidence: A Historical Sketch.Joseph Agassi - 1983 - Philosophica 31 (1):7-24.
    The studies of theoretical bias in evidence are these days developed by many clever psychologists, social psychologists, and philosophers. It therefore comes as a surprise to realize that most of the material one can find in the up-to -date literature repeats discoveries which are due to the heroes of the present sketch, namely Galileo Galilei, Sir Francis Bacon, and Robert Boyle; William Whewell, Pierre Duhem, and Karl Popper. We may try to raise scholarly standards by familiarizing ourselves with their ideas (...)
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  25. The Philosophy of Karl Popper.W. W. Bartley - 1976 - Philosophia 6 (3-4):463-494.
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  26. The Future is Open: A Conversation with Sir Karl Popper.Adam J. Chmielewski & Karl R. Popper - 1999 - In I. C. Jarvie & Sandra Pralong (eds.), Popper's Open Society After Fifty Years: The Continuing Relevance of Karl Popper. Routledge.
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  27. Matching Popperian Theory to Practice.Fred Eidlin - 1999 - In I. C. Jarvie & Sandra Pralong (eds.), Popper's Open Society After Fifty Years: The Continuing Relevance of Karl Popper. Routledge.
  28. Ein Erkenntnismodell Des Nikolaus Von Kues Und der Grad der Bewährung Einer Wissenschaftlichen Hypothese.Otto-Joachim Grüsser - 1988 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 19 (2):232-238.
    The degree of corroboration of a scientific hypothesis is an issue that has been repeatedly discussed in modern theory of sciences . In a preceding paper it was shown that the formulae advanced by Popper to calculate the degree of corroboration C are not very satisfactory because the probability values required in the computation of C are not available as a rule. Another equation to measure the degree of corroboration B was proposed ), whereby only the number n of unsuccessful (...)
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  29. Comments on Farr's Paper (I) Sir Karl Popper: Tributes and Adjustments.John King-Farlow & Wesley E. Cooper - 1983 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 13 (2):177-182.
  30. A Realist View of Logic, Physics, and History.Karl Popper - 1970 - In Hermann Bondi, Wolfgang Yourgrau & Allen duPont Breck (eds.), Physics, Logic, and History. New York: Plenum Press. pp. 1--37.
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  31. Ein Kriterium Des Empirifchen Charakters Theoretifcher Syfteme.Karl Popper - 1932 - Erkenntnis 3 (1):426-427.
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  32. Humanism and Reason.K. R. Popper - 1952 - Philosophical Quarterly 2 (7):166-171.
  33. In Pursuit of Truth: Essays on the Philosophy of Karl Popper on the Occasion of His 80th Birthday.Karl R. Popper & Paul Levinson (eds.) - 1982 - Harvester Press.
    Essays over de in Oostenrijk geboren Engelse wijsgeer (geb. 1902).
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  34. Joseph Henry Woodger.Karl Popper - 1981 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 32 (3):328-330.
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  35. Kirk on Heraclitus, and on Fire as the Cause of Balance.Karl R. Popper - 1963 - Mind 72 (287):386-392.
  36. New Foundations for Logic.K. R. Popper - 1947 - Mind 56 (223):193-235.
  37. Obituary: Joseph Henry Woodger.Karl Popper - 1981 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 32 (3):328-330.
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  38. On Subjunctive Conditionals with Impossible Antecedents.Karl R. Popper - 1959 - Mind 68 (272):518-520.
  39. Self-Reference and Meaning in Ordinary Language.Karl R. Popper - 1954 - Mind 63 (250):162-169.
    This article is a modern socratic dialogue between socrates and theaetetus presented in the "ordinary language." the discussion centers on self-Referring statements and their meaning. (staff).
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  40. To the Editor of "Mind".K. B. Popper - 1941 - Mind 50 (199):311-b-312.
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  41. An Apologia for Theoretical History In Memory of Sir Karl Raimund Popper1.Nikolai S. Rozov - 1997 - History and Theory 36 (3):336–352.
    Karl Popper's critique of theoretical history remains formidable but contains serious flaws. Popper held erroneous views about the practice of the natural sciences and created overly severe strictures for theoretical statements in the social sciences. General theory and general theoretical statements play a legitimate role in the social sciences. Merton has promoted middle-range theories and models and Lakatos multiple ontologies. One can answer Popper's criticisms of either the impossibility or triviality of long-term historical laws by searching for stable constellations of (...)
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  42. Popper on Deduction.Patrick D. Shaw & William Lyons - 1977 - Philosophical Studies 31 (3):215 - 218.
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  43. Popper Versus Analytical Philosophy?Jeremy Shearmur - 2004 - In Philip Catton & Graham Macdonald (eds.), Karl Popper: Critical Appraisals. Routledge.
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  44. What is Popper's Problem?Dr Skoyles Jr - 1988 - Cogprints.
    "We are not students of some subject matter but students of problems" Conjectures and Refutations, p. 67. But what problem was Popper a student of? Asked this question, Popper might no doubt reply that he has already answered it. And, of all philosophers, he has tried hardest to articulate what motivated his philosophy. Yet there is something missing. Other philosophers following Plato and Descartes have taken philosophy to be a search for the justification of our beliefs. Popper though has explicitly (...)
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  45. The Problem of Objectivity in Law and Ethics.Christoph von Mettenheim - 1999 - In I. C. Jarvie & Sandra Pralong (eds.), Popper's Open Society After Fifty Years: The Continuing Relevance of Karl Popper. Routledge.
  46. Obituary: Karl Popper (1902-1994).John Watkins - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (4):1089-1090.
  47. After Popper.John Wettersten - 1996 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 26 (1):92-112.
Popper: Epistemology
  1. Interrogating Edmund Gettier’s Idea of Justification with Karl Popper’s Anti-Foundationalism.Michael Aina Akande - 2021 - In Oseni Taiwo Afisi (ed.), Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 247-256.
    Karl Popper’s ‘non-foundationalist’ critical rationalism had been established before Edmund Gettier came up with his analysis of knowledge. Popper’s critique of foundationalism shook the foundation of the hall mark of Western traditional epistemology as defended by Descartes, the logical empiricists and invariably Gettier. The position I am defending in this paper is that, Gettier is not correct to have presented the epistemic agent in his counterexamples as justified. I have arrived at this conclusion because it is uncritical of Smith to (...)
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  2. Notas sobre el principio de racionalidad.Agustina Borella - 2006 - Revista Libertas (45):1-5.
    El objetivo del presente trabajo es señalar algunas primeras aproximaciones a la cuestión del principio de racionalidad en el pensamiento de Karl Popper. Si bien este tema específicamente pareciera no mostrarse con precisión, (cuestión marcada por diversos autores), al menos no como lo es su propuesta falsacionista, se intentará retomar las principales notas sobre el principio de racionalidad e indicar algunas aproximaciones al debate epistemológico que surge en torno a este principio.
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  3. Chess Masters' Hypothesis Testing.Michelle B. Cowley-Cunningham - 2004 - In K. D. Forbus, D. Gentner & Regier (eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty- Sixth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Chicago, IL, USA: pp. pp. 250- 255..
    Falsification may demarcate science from non-science as the rational way to test the truth of hypotheses. But experimental evidence from studies of reasoning shows that people often find falsification difficult. We suggest that domain expertise may facilitate falsification. We consider new experimental data about chess experts’ hypothesis testing. The results show that chess masters were readily able to falsify their plans. They generated move sequences that falsified their plans more readily than novice players, who tended to confirm their plans. The (...)
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