About this topic
Summary Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher who for the most significant period of his career held a position at the London School of Economics.  Popper was a philosopher of science, who also made contributions in epistemology, philosophy of mind and social and political philosophy.  He argued that scientific theories are distinguished from non-scientific theories and pseudo-science by being falsifiable claims about the world.  Popper proposed a "solution" to the problem of induction by arguing that there is no need for induction in the scientific method.  The method of science is to propose conjectural theories which are then submitted to rigorous tests in the attempt to falsify them.  Theories which fail these tests are to be rejected.  Theories which survive attempts to refute them may be accepted tentatively, but are not proven to be true.  At best, they may be highly corroborated.  This "falsificationist" philosophy of science has a more general application beyond the method of the sciences.  The attempt to falsify a theory is an attempt to criticize the theory.  For Popper, criticism lies at the heart of rational thought, which he took to consist in the method of critical discussion and reflection.  The resulting general position is known as "critical rationalism".  Popper extended these ideas as well into the social and political realm.  He introduced the distinction between open and closed societies.  Open societies welcome and foster critical discussion and change whereas closed societies, which are usually tribal societies, are based on unchanging social custom and ritual.
Key works The classic statement of Popper's philosophy of science is The Logic of Scientific Discovery.  Perhaps the best introduction to his work is his collection of essays, Conjectures and Refutations.  Popper's social and political thought may be found in The Poverty of Historicism and The Open Society and its Enemies.  A good anthology of his writings has been edited by David Miller, Popper Selections.  A useful way into Popper's ideas is by way of his intellectual autobiography, Unended Quest, as is Bryan Magee's short book, Popper.  Alan Musgrave's Common Sense, Science and Scepticism presents a broadly Popperian introduction to epistemology.  David Miller's Critical Rationalism presents good discussion of many critical points that have been made against Popper's views.  Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, edited by Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave, contains a number of important papers which bring Popper's views into contact with T.S. Kuhn's theory of science.  Wesley Salmon's 'Rational Prediction' is an important criticism of Popper's solution to the problem of induction.  See also Adolf Grunbaum's paper 'Is the method of bold conjectures and attempted refutations justifiably the method of science?'.
Introductions A good place to start is the entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Thornton 2008.  Alan Chalmers provides an introductory discussion in What is this thing called science?, chapters 4-6.  Gurol Irzik provides an overview in 'Critical Rationalism', and Alan Musgrave presents his interpretation of Popper's solution of the problem of induction in his paper 'How Popper (might have) solved the problem of induction'.
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  1. Science Real and Ideal: Popper and the Dogmatic Scientist.Joseph Agassi - 1998 - ProtoSociology 12:297-304.
  2. Theoretical Bias in Evidence: A Historical Sketch.Joseph Agassi - 1983 - Philosophica 31 (1):7-24.
    The studies of theoretical bias in evidence are these days developed by many clever psychologists, social psychologists, and philosophers. It therefore comes as a surprise to realize that most of the material one can find in the up-to -date literature repeats discoveries which are due to the heroes of the present sketch, namely Galileo Galilei, Sir Francis Bacon, and Robert Boyle; William Whewell, Pierre Duhem, and Karl Popper. We may try to raise scholarly standards by familiarizing ourselves with their ideas (...)
  3. Between Science and Technology.Joseph Agassi - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (1):82-99.
    Basic research or fundamental research is distinct from both pure and applied research, in that it is pure research with expected useful results. The existence of basic or fundamental research is problematic, at least for both inductivists and instrumentalists, but also for Popper. Assuming scientific research to be the search for explanatory conjectures and for refutations, and assuming technology to be the search of conjectures and some corroborations, we can easily place basic or fundamental research between science and technology as (...)
  4. The Lakatosian Revolution.Joseph Agassi - 1976 - In R. S. Cohen, P. K. Feyerabend & M. Wartofsky (eds.), Essays in Memory of Imre Lakatos. Reidel. pp. 9--21.
  5. Popper on Learning From Experience'.Joseph Agassi - 1969 - In Peter Achinstein (ed.), Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford, Published by Basil Blackwell with the Cooperation of the University of Pittsburg. pp. 162--71.
  6. The Novelty of Popper's Philosophy of Science.Joseph Agassi - 1968 - International Philosophical Quarterly 8 (3):442-463.
  7. Towards an Historiography of Science.Joseph Agassi - 1965 - Philosophical Review 74 (1):115-117.
    Bacon's inductivist philosophy of science divides thinkers into the scientific and the prejudiced, using as a standard the up-to-date science textbook. Inductivists regard the history of science as progressing smoothly, from facts rather than from problems, to increasingly general theories, undisturbed by contending scientific schools. Conventionalists regard theories as pigeonholes for classifying facts; history of science is the development of increasingly simple theories, neither true nor false. Conventionalism is useless for reconstructing and weighing conflicts between schools, and overemphasizes science's internal (...)
  8. The Philosophy of Karl Popper.W. W. Bartley - 1976 - Philosophia 6 (3-4):463-494.
  9. Review: K. R. Popper, William Kneale, A. J. Ayer, Symposium: What Can Logic Do for Philosophy? [REVIEW]Charles A. Baylis - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (4):290-290.
  10. I. C. Jarvie: The Republic of Science: The Emergence of Popper's Social View of Science 1935–1945,.reviewed John Wettersten - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (1):108-121.
    I. C. Jarvie interprets Popper's philosophy of science as a theory of the institution of science, explains how the social aspect of his theory developed, and suggests that an updated version of Popper's social theory should be used to study both scientific and nonscientific societies today. Although (1) Jarvie's description of the emergence of Popper's theory suffers because he takes no account Popper's research conducted before Logik der Forschung (1994), (2) his portrayal of Popper's framework overlooks important problems, and (3) (...)
  11. Review: Chaudhury, M. (2004). Bounds of Freedom: Popper, Liberty and Ecological Rationality. Rodopi: Amsterdam--New York. [REVIEW]H. K. Cakmak - 2007 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (2):251-255.
  12. Review: David Kaplan, Richard Montague, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic: A Paradox Regained; Martin Gardner, The British Journal of Philosophy of Science: A New Prediction Paradox; K. R. Popper, The British Journal of Philosophy of Science:A Comment on the New Prediction Paradox. [REVIEW]James Cargile - 1965 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 30 (1):102-103.
  13. Ian C. Jarvie, The Republic of Science: The Emergence of Popper's Social View of Science 1935–1945. [REVIEW]Jordi Cat - 2003 - Metascience 12 (1):75-77.
  14. Karl R. Popper, Philosophical Quest for a Better World-An Intellectual Portrait of the Founder of Critical Rationalism, on the Occasion of His Centennial Birthday.M. Cehelnik - 2002 - Filozofia 57 (7):510-524.
  15. Karl R. Popper: A Philosophy of the Quest for a Better World.M. Cehelník - 2002 - Filozofia 57:510-524.
  16. Bounds of Freedom: Popper, Liberty and Ecological Rationality.Mahasweta Chaudhury (ed.) - 2004 - Rodopi.
    Dr Chaudhury is concerned to defend what is responsible and hopeful in contemporary ecological thinking, but to avoid the trap of denying that any positive contribution can be made by western science and technology. Critical rationalists do not need to agree with her suggestions and recommendations in order to welcome her positioning of environmental issues alongside the traditional human and political debates about freedom. The Indian perspective that informs this book is particularly impressive and interesting. David Miller Professor Mahasweta Chaudhury (...)
  17. Book Reviews : Sheldon Richmond, Aesthetic Criteria: Gombrich and the Philosophies of Science of Popper and Polanyi. Series in the Philosophy of Karl R. Popper, Volume VI. Edited by Kurt Salamun. Editions Rodopi, Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA, 1994. Pp. 152. $28.00. [REVIEW]M. Chiariello - 1997 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 27 (1):151-152.
  18. Filozofia Poppera Analiza Krytyczna.Adam Chmielewski - 1995
  19. Sir Karl Popper.Adam Chmielewski - 1994 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 12 (4):5-9.
  20. The Future is Open: A Conversation with Sir Karl Popper.Adam J. Chmielewski & Karl R. Popper - 1999 - In I. C. Jarvie & Sandra Pralong (eds.), Popper's Open Society After Fifty Years: The Continuing Relevance of Karl Popper. Routledge.
  21. K°Al P°Op°Æo Æui Kwahak Ch°Æorhak.Yong-hyæon Cho - 1992
  22. Practical Knowledge and Realism: Linking Andrew Collier on Lay Knowledge to Karl Popper on the Philosophy of Science.'.Justin Cruickshank - 2004 - In Andrew Collier, Margaret Scotford Archer & William Outhwaite (eds.), Defending Objectivity: Essays in Honour of Andrew Collier. Routledge.
  23. Filosofia E Filosofar Em Karl R. Popper.Norberto Amadeu F. G. Da Cunha - 1982 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 38 (2/3):219 - 252.
  24. Filosofia E Filosofar Em Karl R. Popper.Norberto Amadeu F. G. da Cunha - 1982 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 38 (2):219-252.
  25. Karl Popper, The Lesson of This Century.J. Dance - 1997 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 4:376-378.
  26. Matching Popperian Theory to Practice.Fred Eidlin - 1999 - In I. C. Jarvie & Sandra Pralong (eds.), Popper's Open Society After Fifty Years: The Continuing Relevance of Karl Popper. Routledge.
  27. Popper en D66?•.Den Draak Erik & Siegelaar Gaston - 1991 - Idee 500.
  28. Karl R. Popper o El Signo de la Ambivalencia.Juan García-Morán Escobedo - 1994 - Isegoría: Revista de Filosofía Moral y Política 9:207-212.
  29. Popper and After.Roger Fellows - 1984 - Philosophical Books 25 (4):250-252.
  30. Deduction and Novelty.Danny Frederick - 2011 - The Reasoner 5 (4):56-57.
    It is often claimed that the conclusion of a deductively valid argument is contained in its premises. Popper refuted this claim when he showed that an empirical theory can be expected always to have logical consequences that transcend the current understanding of the theory. This implies that no formalisation of an empirical theory will enable the derivation of all its logical consequences. I call this result ‘Popper-incompleteness.’ This result appears to be consistent with the view of deductive reasoning as a (...)
  31. Popper, Karl.Stefano Gattei - unknown
  32. Introduzione a Popper.Stefano Gattei - 2008 - Laterza.
  33. Karl Raimund Popper.Stefano Gattei - unknown
  34. Karl R. Popper, All Life is Problem Solving Reviewed By.Stefano Gattei - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20 (5):372-373.
  35. Karl R. Popper, All Life is Problem Solving. [REVIEW]Stefano Gattei - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20:372-373.
  36. Karl Popper 1902-1994.Stefano Gattei - unknown
  37. Popper's Tetradic Schema, Progressive Research Programs, and the Case of Parity Violation in Elementary Particle Physics 1953–1958.Kostas Gavroglu - 1985 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 16 (2):261-286.
    Die Frage der Erhaltung der Parität bei der Wechselwirkung von Elementarteilchen, der Vorschlag ihrer Verletzung, die experimentelle Bestätigung dieses Vorschlags und die daraus sich ergebenden Folgerungen, die zur Formulierung der mathematischen Struktur der schwachen Wechselwirkungen führten, sind die wichtigsten Entwicklungen in der Elementarteilchenphysik während der Periode von 1953 bis 1958. Vorliegender Aufsatz versucht die rationale Rekonstruktion dieser Periode und des Forschungsprogrammes, welches als eines der progressivsten Programme der modernen Physik angesehen wird. Hierzu benutzen wir eine modifizierte Fassung von Poppers tetradischem (...)
  38. Karl Popper-the Thinker and the Man.Ernest Gellner - 1996 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 49:75-86.
  39. Karl Popper.Petros Gemtos - 1995 - Neusis 2:143-149.
  40. Why Has British Education Gone So Wrong, and Why Can’T We Stop the Rot?: Popper’s Nightmare.Richard Gombrich - 2013 - Synthesis Philosophica 55 (1):31-37.
  41. Hacia Una Filosofía Social de la Ciencia En Karl R. Popper.Ambrosio Velasco Gómez - 2003 - Signos Filosóficos 6 (11s):71-84.
    Popper is commonly considered as an analytical philosopher who focuses on epistemological and methodological aspects of scientific development, disregarding any social, cultural or political consideration. Against this popular image of Popper’s philosophy, I argue in this paper that Popper’s acco..
  42. Truths and Contradictions About Karl Popper.I. Grattan-Guinness - 2002 - Annals of Science 59 (1):89-96.
  43. An Egalitarian Epistemology: A Note on E. P. Thompson's Critique of Althusser and Popper.David G. Green - 1984 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 14 (2):183-189.
  44. Arithmetic and Reality: A Development of Popper's Ideas.Frank Gregory - 2011 - Philosophy of Mathematics Education Journal 26.
  45. Karl Popper, in Search of a Better World: Lectures and Essays From Thirty Years. Routledge, London and New York, 1992. Pp. X, 245. £25.00. Karl Popper, a World of Propensities. Thoemmes, Bristol, 1990. Pp. IX, 51. £5.99 (Paper). John R. Wettersten, the Roots of Critical Rationalism. Rodopi, Amsterdam and Atlanta, Ga, 1992. Pp. 254. $68.97. [REVIEW]J. W. Grove - 1995 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 25 (3):376-383.
  46. Recent Popper Literature.J. W. Grove - 1995 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 25 (3):376-383.
  47. The Degeneration of Popper's Theory of Demarcation in Freedom and Rationality. Essays in Honor of John Watkins.A. Grunbaum - 1989 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 117:141-161.
  48. Ein Erkenntnismodell Des Nikolaus Von Kues Und der Grad der Bewährung Einer Wissenschaftlichen Hypothese.Otto-Joachim Grüsser - 1988 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 19 (2):232-238.
    The degree of corroboration of a scientific hypothesis is an issue that has been repeatedly discussed in modern theory of sciences . In a preceding paper it was shown that the formulae advanced by Popper to calculate the degree of corroboration C are not very satisfactory because the probability values required in the computation of C are not available as a rule. Another equation to measure the degree of corroboration B was proposed ), whereby only the number n of unsuccessful (...)
  49. Popper E Lo Storicismo.Lillo Gullo - 1975 - Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 4 (3-4):328-343.
  50. Otto Selz: Ein Pionier der Kognitionspsychologie.M. Hanke - 1993 - In Christopher Hookway (ed.), Philosophy and the Cognitive Sciences. Cambridge University Press. pp. 185--190.
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