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Summary Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher who for the most significant period of his career held a position at the London School of Economics.  Popper was a philosopher of science, who also made contributions in epistemology, philosophy of mind and social and political philosophy.  He argued that scientific theories are distinguished from non-scientific theories and pseudo-science by being falsifiable claims about the world.  Popper proposed a "solution" to the problem of induction by arguing that there is no need for induction in the scientific method.  The method of science is to propose conjectural theories which are then submitted to rigorous tests in the attempt to falsify them.  Theories which fail these tests are to be rejected.  Theories which survive attempts to refute them may be accepted tentatively, but are not proven to be true.  At best, they may be highly corroborated.  This "falsificationist" philosophy of science has a more general application beyond the method of the sciences.  The attempt to falsify a theory is an attempt to criticize the theory.  For Popper, criticism lies at the heart of rational thought, which he took to consist in the method of critical discussion and reflection.  The resulting general position is known as "critical rationalism".  Popper extended these ideas as well into the social and political realm.  He introduced the distinction between open and closed societies.  Open societies welcome and foster critical discussion and change whereas closed societies, which are usually tribal societies, are based on unchanging social custom and ritual.
Key works The classic statement of Popper's philosophy of science is The Logic of Scientific Discovery.  Perhaps the best introduction to his work is his collection of essays, Conjectures and Refutations.  Popper's social and political thought may be found in The Poverty of Historicism and The Open Society and its Enemies.  A good anthology of his writings has been edited by David Miller, Popper Selections.  A useful way into Popper's ideas is by way of his intellectual autobiography, Unended Quest, as is Bryan Magee's short book, Popper.  Alan Musgrave's Common Sense, Science and Scepticism presents a broadly Popperian introduction to epistemology.  David Miller's Critical Rationalism presents good discussion of many critical points that have been made against Popper's views.  Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, edited by Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave, contains a number of important papers which bring Popper's views into contact with T.S. Kuhn's theory of science.  Wesley Salmon's 'Rational Prediction' is an important criticism of Popper's solution to the problem of induction.  See also Adolf Grunbaum's paper 'Is the method of bold conjectures and attempted refutations justifiably the method of science?'.
Introductions A good place to start is the entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Thornton 2008.  Alan Chalmers provides an introductory discussion in What is this thing called science?, chapters 4-6.  Gurol Irzik provides an overview in 'Critical Rationalism', and Alan Musgrave presents his interpretation of Popper's solution of the problem of induction in his paper 'How Popper (might have) solved the problem of induction'.
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  1. Philosophy of Science, Network Theory, and Conceptual Change: Paradigm Shifts as Information Cascades.Patrick Grim, Joshua Kavner, Lloyd Shatkin & Manjari Trivedi - forthcoming - In Euel Elliot & L. Douglas Kiel (eds.), Complex Systems in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: Theory, Method, and Application. University of Michigan Press.
    Philosophers have long tried to understand scientific change in terms of a dynamics of revision within ‘theoretical frameworks,’ ‘disciplinary matrices,’ ‘scientific paradigms’ or ‘conceptual schemes.’ No-one, however, has made clear precisely how one might model such a conceptual scheme, nor what form change dynamics within such a structure could be expected to take. In this paper we take some first steps in applying network theory to the issue, modeling conceptual schemes as simple networks and the dynamics of change as cascades (...)
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  2. Karl Popper și problema demarcației între știință și ne-știință.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Karl Popper, ca raționalist critic, a fost un oponent al tuturor formelor de scepticism, convenționalism și relativism în știință. Multe dintre argumentele sale sunt îndreptate împotriva membrilor "Cercului Vienez". Popper este de acord cu aceștia cu privire la aspectele generale ale metodologiei științifice și neîncrederea lor în metodologia filosofică tradițională, dar soluțiile sale au fost semnificativ diferite. A contribuit semnificativ la dezbaterile privind metodologia științifică generală, demarcarea științei de pseudoștiință, natura probabilității și metodologia științelor sociale. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27356.85127/1 .
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  3. Decision-Based Epistemology: Sketching a Systematic Framework of Feyerabend’s Metaphilosophy.Daniel Kuby - forthcoming - Synthese:1-29.
    In this paper I defend the claim that Paul Feyerabend held a robust metaphilosophical position for most of his philosophical career. This position I call Decision-Based Epistemology and reconstruct it in terms of three key components: a form of epistemic voluntarism concerning the justification of philosophical positions and a behaviorist account of philosophical beliefs, which allows him to cast normative arguments concerning philosophical beliefs in scientific methodology, such as realism, in terms of means-ends relations. I then introduce non-naturalist and naturalist (...)
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  4. Review of Schubert (1995): Platon: «Der Staat». Ein einfuhrender Kommentar & Döring (1996): Karl R. Popper: «Die offene Gesellschaft und ihre Feinde». Ein einfuhrender Kommentar. [REVIEW]Orrin F. Summerell - 1998 - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 3 (1):230-233.
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  5. Citation Concept Analysis (CCA): A New Form of Citation Analysis Revealing the Usefulness of Concepts for Other Researchers Illustrated by Exemplary Case Studies Including Classic Books by Thomas S. Kuhn and Karl R. Popper.Lutz Bornmann, K. Brad Wray & Robin Haunschild - 2020 - Scientometrics 122 (2):1051-1074.
    In recent years, the full text of papers are increasingly available electronically which opens up the possibility of quantitatively investigating citation contexts in more detail. In this study, we introduce a new form of citation analysis, which we call citation concept analysis (CCA). CCA is intended to reveal the cognitive impact certain concepts—published in a highly-cited landmark publication—have on the citing authors. It counts the number of times the concepts are mentioned (cited) in the citation context of citing publications. We (...)
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  6. Philosophy of Science Viewed Through the Lense of “Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy” (RPYS).K. Brad Wray & Lutz Bornmann - 2015 - Scientometrics 102 (3):1987-1996.
    We examine the sub-field of philosophy of science using a new method developed in information science, Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS). RPYS allows us to identify peak years in citations in a field, which promises to help scholars identify the key contributions to a field, and revolutionary discoveries in a field. We discovered that philosophy of science, a sub-field in the humanities, differs significantly from other fields examined with this method. Books play a more important role in philosophy of science (...)
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  7. Karl Popper's Critique of Idealism.İsmail Kurun - 2018 - Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 8 (1):273-301.
    Karl Popper’s critique of idealism manifests itself with the application of his method, falsificationism, to metaphysics, epistemology, and social and political philosophy. According to Popper, who identifies himself as a philosophical realist, idealism has emerged as a result of the idea that reality cannot be known by reason and of the search for certainty which is erroneous, and it has begotten two mistaken and detrimental views. These views are historicism, the notion that history has an irresistible course, and holism, the (...)
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  8. Bemerkung zur Popper-Diskussion.H. Merkens - 1980 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 11 (1):162-163.
    Poppers doppelter Falsifikationismus führt dazu, daß der Kritische Rationalismus nicht als die Metatheorie der empirischen Sozialwissenschaften angesehen werden kann. Außerdem ist in diesem Ansatz die logische Asymmetrie von Verifikation und Falsifikation nicht realisiert.
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  9. Popper's Tetradic Schema, Progressive Research Programs, and the Case of Parity Violation in Elementary Particle Physics 1953–1958.Kostas Gavroglu - 1985 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 16 (2):261-286.
    Die Frage der Erhaltung der Parität bei der Wechselwirkung von Elementarteilchen, der Vorschlag ihrer Verletzung, die experimentelle Bestätigung dieses Vorschlags und die daraus sich ergebenden Folgerungen, die zur Formulierung der mathematischen Struktur der schwachen Wechselwirkungen führten, sind die wichtigsten Entwicklungen in der Elementarteilchenphysik während der Periode von 1953 bis 1958. Vorliegender Aufsatz versucht die rationale Rekonstruktion dieser Periode und des Forschungsprogrammes, welches als eines der progressivsten Programme der modernen Physik angesehen wird. Hierzu benutzen wir eine modifizierte Fassung von Poppers tetradischem (...)
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  10. Ein Vergleich der von Ludwig bzw. Popper vorgeschlagenen Interpretationen der Quantenmechanik.Ursula Wegener - 1980 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 11 (2):357-366.
    Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede in den Interpretationen von Ludwig und Popper werden aufgezeigt. Daß überhaupt Unterschiede festzustellen sind, erscheint zunächst verwunderlich, da zum einen von verschiedenen Autoren eine enge Korrelation zwischen Interpretationen der Quantenmechanik und Wahrscheinlichkeitsinterpretationen behauptet wird, zum anderen aber Ludwigs Chancengewichtungen als propensities im Sinne Poppers interpretiert werden können. Es zeigt sich, daß die Unterschiede in den Interpretationen der Quantenmechanik auf Unterschieden in dem jeweils verwendeten wahrscheinlichkeitstheoretischen Formalismus beruhen, die jedoch für die Möglichkeit, Chancengewichtungen als propensities zu interpretieren, ohne (...)
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  11. Karl Popper as a Point of Departure for a Philosophy of Theology.David E. Schrader - 1983 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 14 (4):193.
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  12. Problems and Psychologism: Popper as the Heir to Otto Selz.Michel ter Hark - 1993 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (4):585-609.
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  13. Jacques G. Ruelland, De l’épistémologie à la politique. La philosophie de l’histoire de K. R. Popper, Paris, P.U.F. , 1991, 248 pages. [REVIEW]François Tournier - 1994 - Philosophiques 21 (2):636-640.
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  14. Exploring Schumacher and Popper: A Quest for the Philosophical Foundations of Project Cycle Management.Katri Targama & Patrick Rang - 2011 - Philosophy of Management 10 (2):41-52.
    In this article we interlink the philosophical ideas of Ernst Schumacher and Karl Popper within the framework of planning and management, describe project management cases implemented using the principles of project cycle management and study whether the success or failure can be attributed to following these concepts.We consider two basic concepts for perceiving the world surrounding us: the concept of organisation and that of self-organisation. The former emphasises the predictability of the future, where the results of each activity are predetermined (...)
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  15. Contrastando a Popper. [REVIEW]Ramón Queraltó - 2010 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 25 (1):108-111.
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  16. Karl Popper: Kłopoty Z Racjonalizmem, Kłopoty Z Filozofią.Ryszard Kleszcz - 2014 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 92.
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  17. Popper Jako Antyindukcjonista.Krystyna Misiuna - 2014 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 92.
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  18. The Two Fundamental Problems of the Theory of Knowledge.Troels Eggers Hansen (ed.) - 2008 - Routledge.
    In a letter of 1932, Karl Popper described _Die beiden Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie – The Two Fundamental Problems of the Theory of Knowledge_ – as ‘…a child of crises, above all of …the crisis of physics.’ Finally available in English, it is a major contribution to the philosophy of science, epistemology and twentieth century philosophy generally. The two fundamental problems of knowledge that lie at the centre of the book are the problem of induction, that although we are able to (...)
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  19. Karl Popper I Rossiia.V. N. Sadovskii & Institut Sistemnogo Analiza Nauk) - 2002
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  20. Physics as Metaphor an Inaugural Lecture Given in the University of Fort Hare on the 9th May, 1974.R. H. Hobart - 1974
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  21. Karl Popper: The Formative Years, 1902–45: Politics and Philosophy in Interwar Vienna. [REVIEW]Philip Mirowski - 2002 - Isis 93:324-325.
    What could be the motives for producing a Popperian half‐life such as the present volume? This work, which takes Karl Popper right up to his debut on the world stage with the assumption of his position at the London School of Economics, displays no inclination to follow up with the complementary second half of Popper's life sometime in the future. Indeed, the author admits that the omitted subsequent “public Popper” was frequently an embarrassment. Here is truncation with a purpose: this (...)
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  22. Popper by Frederic Raphael. [REVIEW]I. Grattan-Guinness - 2000 - Isis 91:840-840.
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  23. The Philosophy of Karl Popper by Robert John Ackermann. [REVIEW]R. Dolby - 1977 - Isis 68:456-457.
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  24. Karl Popper by Anthony O'Hear. [REVIEW]Toby Huff - 1983 - Isis 74:261-262.
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  25. Popper, Karl.Stefano Gattei - unknown
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  26. Karl Raimund Popper.Stefano Gattei - unknown
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  27. Karl Popper 1902-1994.Stefano Gattei - unknown
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  28. Critical Remarks on an Argumentation by K. Popper and D. Miller: Discussion About Induction.Giovanni Blandino - 1984 - Epistemologia 7 (2):183-203.
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  29. Recent Popper Literature.J. W. Grove - 1995 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 25 (3):376-383.
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  30. Karl R. Popper o El Signo de la Ambivalencia.Juan García-Morán Escobedo - 1994 - Isegoría: Revista de Filosofía Moral y Política 9:207-212.
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  31. Karl Popper-the Thinker and the Man.Ernest Gellner - 1996 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 49:75-86.
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  32. From Epistemology to Rational Science Policy: Popper Versus Kuhn.G. G. Pinter & Vera Pinter - 1998 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 41 (2):291-298.
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  33. Rocco Pezzimenti, Dynamic Order. The Problem of Method in Evolving Nature. With Letters From N. Rescher, L. Pauling, J. Accles and KR Popper. [REVIEW]Olivier Perru - 2000 - Revue Philosophique De Louvain 98 (2):412-419.
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  34. A Pluralist Challenge to 'Integrative Medicine': Feyerabend and Popper on the Cognitive Value of Alternative Medicine.Ian Kidd - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):392–400.
    This paper is a critique of ‘integrative medicine’ as an ideal of medical progress on the grounds that it fails to realise the cognitive value of alternative medicine. After a brief account of the cognitive value of alternative medicine, I outline the form of ‘integrative medicine’ defended by the late Stephen Straus, former director of the US National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Straus’ account is then considered in the light of Zuzana Parusnikova’s recent criticism of ‘integrative medicine’ and (...)
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  35. Popper's Philosophy and Practical Politics.Bryan Magee - 2007 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 93 (1):55.
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  36. William Berkson and John Wettersten, Learning From Error: Karl Popper's Psychology of Learning Reviewed By. [REVIEW]Sheldon Richmond - 1987 - Philosophy in Review 7 (1):1-3.
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  37. Popper, Karl.Jonathan Lieberson - 1982 - Social Research 49 (1):68-115.
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  38. Some Scientism, Some Historicism, Some Critics: Hayek's and Popper's Critiques Revisited.'.Thomas Uebel - 2000 - In M. W. F. Stone & Jonathan Wolff (eds.), The Proper Ambition of Science. Routledge. pp. 151--73.
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  39. Karl Raimund Popper.Anthony Quinton - 1967 - In Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Macmillan. pp. 6--398.
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  40. Popper on Learning From Experience'.Joseph Agassi - 1969 - In Peter Achinstein (ed.), Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford, Published by Basil Blackwell with the Cooperation of the University of Pittsburg. pp. 162--71.
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  41. Karl R. Popper's View of History Translated by Martin J. Jandl.Helmut Reinalter - 2005 - In Friedrich Wallner, Martin J. Jandl & Kurt Greiner (eds.), Science, Medicine, and Culture: Festschrift for Fritz G. Wallner. Peter Lang. pp. 72.
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  42. Popper and Sen on Rationality and Economics: Two (Independent) Wrong Turns Can Be Remedied with the Same Program.John Wettersten - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 369--378.
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  43. Popper and Communitarianism: Justification and Criticism of Moral Standards.Harald Stelzer - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 273--285.
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  44. Why, and to What Extent, May a False Hypothesis Yield the Truth?Stefano Gattei - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 47--61.
    Some of Kepler's works seem very different in character. His youthful Mysterium cosmographicum (1596) argues for heliocentrism on the basis of metaphysical, astronomical, astrological, numerological and architectonic principles. By contrast, Astronomia nova (1609) is far more tightly argued on the basis of only a few dynamical principles. In the eyes of many, such a contrast embodies a transition from Renaissance to early modern science. I suggest that Karl Popper's fallibilist and piecemeal approach, and especially his theory of errors, might prove (...)
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  45. Popper's Continuing Relevance.Ian Jarvie - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 217--235.
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  46. A Neo-Popperian Advance on Popper?John Watkins - 1992 - In W. Newton-Smith, Tʻien-chi Chiang & E. James (eds.), Popper in China. Routledge. pp. 138--157.
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  47. Karl Raimund Popper.Volker Schürmann - 2004 - In Gisela Riescher (ed.), Politische Theorie der Gegenwart in Einzeldarstellungen. Von Adorno Bis Young. Alfred Kröner Verlag. pp. 343--389.
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  48. Otto Selz: Ein Pionier der Kognitionspsychologie.M. Hanke - 1993 - In Christopher Hookway (ed.), Philosophy and the Cognitive Sciences. Cambridge University Press. pp. 185--190.
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  49. Karl Popper: A Memoir.John Watkins - 2004 - In Anthony O'Hear (ed.), Karl Popper: Critical Assessments of Leading Philosophers. Routledge.
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  50. Popper, Karl Raimund.P. Schroeder-Heister - 2001 - In N. J. Smelser & B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences.
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