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Summary Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher who for the most significant period of his career held a position at the London School of Economics.  Popper was a philosopher of science, who also made contributions in epistemology, philosophy of mind and social and political philosophy.  He argued that scientific theories are distinguished from non-scientific theories and pseudo-science by being falsifiable claims about the world.  Popper proposed a "solution" to the problem of induction by arguing that there is no need for induction in the scientific method.  The method of science is to propose conjectural theories which are then submitted to rigorous tests in the attempt to falsify them.  Theories which fail these tests are to be rejected.  Theories which survive attempts to refute them may be accepted tentatively, but are not proven to be true.  At best, they may be highly corroborated.  This "falsificationist" philosophy of science has a more general application beyond the method of the sciences.  The attempt to falsify a theory is an attempt to criticize the theory.  For Popper, criticism lies at the heart of rational thought, which he took to consist in the method of critical discussion and reflection.  The resulting general position is known as "critical rationalism".  Popper extended these ideas as well into the social and political realm.  He introduced the distinction between open and closed societies.  Open societies welcome and foster critical discussion and change whereas closed societies, which are usually tribal societies, are based on unchanging social custom and ritual.
Key works The classic statement of Popper's philosophy of science is The Logic of Scientific Discovery.  Perhaps the best introduction to his work is his collection of essays, Conjectures and Refutations.  Popper's social and political thought may be found in The Poverty of Historicism and The Open Society and its Enemies.  A good anthology of his writings has been edited by David Miller, Popper Selections.  A useful way into Popper's ideas is by way of his intellectual autobiography, Unended Quest, as is Bryan Magee's short book, Popper.  Alan Musgrave's Common Sense, Science and Scepticism presents a broadly Popperian introduction to epistemology.  David Miller's Critical Rationalism presents good discussion of many critical points that have been made against Popper's views.  Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, edited by Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave, contains a number of important papers which bring Popper's views into contact with T.S. Kuhn's theory of science.  Wesley Salmon's 'Rational Prediction' is an important criticism of Popper's solution to the problem of induction.  See also Adolf Grunbaum's paper 'Is the method of bold conjectures and attempted refutations justifiably the method of science?'.
Introductions A good place to start is the entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Thornton 2008.  Alan Chalmers provides an introductory discussion in What is this thing called science?, chapters 4-6.  Gurol Irzik provides an overview in 'Critical Rationalism', and Alan Musgrave presents his interpretation of Popper's solution of the problem of induction in his paper 'How Popper (might have) solved the problem of induction'.
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  1. Popper Versus Wittgenstein on Truth, Necessity, and Scientific Hypotheses.Victor Rodych - 2003 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 34 (2):323-336.
    Most philosophers of science maintain Confirmationism's central tenet, namely, that scientific theories are probabilistically confirmed by experimental successes. Against this dominant conception of experimental science, Popper's well-known, anti-inductivistic Falsificationism has stood, virtually alone, since 1934. Indeed, it is Popper who tells us that it was he who killed Logical Positivism. It is also pretty well-known that Popper blames Wittgenstein for much that is wrong with Logical Positivism, just as he despises Wittgenstein and Wittgensteinian philosophers for abdicating philosophy's true mission. What (...)
  2. Review of Jeremy Shearmur and Geoffrey Stokes (Eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Popper. [REVIEW]Adam Tamas Tuboly - 2018 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy (AO):1-4.
    Book review of Jeremy Shearmur and Geoffrey Stokes (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Popper. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016. x + 394 pp. Hardback ISBN 978-0-521-85645-4. GBP 84.99.
  3. Distincția dintre falsificare și respingere în problema demarcației la Karl Popper.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    În această lucrare argumentez faptul că, în ciuda criticilor teoriei falsificabilității propuse de Karl Popper pentru demarcarea între știință și ne-știință, în principal pseudoștiință, acest criteriu este încă foarte util, și perfect valabil după perfecționarea lui de către Popper și adepții lui. Mai mult, chiar și în versiunea sa inițială, considerată de Lakatos ca ”dogmatică”, Popper nu a afirmat că această metodologie este un criteriu absolut de demarcare: un singur contra-exemplu nu este suficient pentru a falsifica o teorie; mai mult, (...)
  4. Eberhard Döring, Karl R. Popper: «Die offene Gesellschaft und ihre Feinde».Orrin Summerell - 1998 - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 3 (1):230-233.
  5. In Pursuit of Truth: Essays on the Philosophy of Karl Popper.Paul Levinson ed - 1982
  6. Karl Popper.Terence Horgan & Anthony O'Hear - 1983 - Philosophical Review 92 (1):126.
  7. Popper's Views on Natural and Social Science. Simkin - 1993 - Brill.
    Explains Popper's views on natural and social science, ranging in Part I from metaphysical considerations to his interpretation of the formalism of quantum mechanics, and in Part II from the errors of historicism and holism to the roles of theoretical models, institutions, traditions and history.
  8. Popper: Una Lectura Escéptica.Isidoro Reguera Pérez - 2003 - Endoxa 1 (17):327.
  9. The Myth of the Framework: In Defence of Science and Rationality. Karl R. Popper, M. A. NotturnoKnowledge and the Body-Mind Problem: In Defence of Interaction. Karl R. Popper, M. A. Notturno. [REVIEW]Matteo Motterlini - 1999 - Isis 90 (3):639-641.
  10. Karl Popper: Antes y Después de Kyoto.Gabriel Zanotti - 1999 - Arbor 163 (642):229-243.
  11. Popper, Karl: Philosophy of Science.Brendan Shea - 2016 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Karl Popper: Philosophy of Science Karl Popper was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the 20th century. He made significant contributions to debates concerning general scientific methodology and theory choice, the demarcation of science from non-science, the nature of probability and quantum mechanics, and the methodology of the social sciences. His … Continue reading Popper, Karl: Philosophy of Science →.
  12. Bühler and Popper: Kantian Therapies for the Crisis in Psychology.Thomas Sturm - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (2):462-472.
    I analyze the historical background and philosophical considerations of Karl Bühler and his student Karl Popper regarding the crisis of psychology. They share certain Kantian questions and methods for reflection on the state of the art in psychology. Part 1 outlines Bühler’s diagnosis and therapy for the crisis in psychology as he perceived it, leading to his famous theory of language. I also show how the Kantian features of Bühler’s approach help to deal with objections to his crisis diagnosis and (...)
  13. Popper, Karl: Philosophy of Science.Brendan Shea - 2016 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Karl Popper: Philosophy of Science Karl Popper was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the 20th century. He made significant contributions to debates concerning general scientific methodology and theory choice, the demarcation of science from non-science, the nature of probability and quantum mechanics, and the methodology of the social sciences. His … Continue reading Popper, Karl: Philosophy of Science →.
  14. Między Światami. Karl Popper o Problemie Psychofizycznym.Tożsamość Podmiotu - 2014 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 92.
  15. Karl Popper: Kłopoty Z Racjonalizmem, Kłopoty Z Filozofią.Ryszard Kleszcz - 2014 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 92.
  16. Popper Jako Antyindukcjonista.Krystyna Misiuna - 2014 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 92.
  17. Popper's Legacy: Rethinking Politics, Economics and Science.Raphael Sassower - 2014 - Routledge.
    The work of Karl Popper has had extraordinary influence across the fields of scientific and social thought. Widely regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the twentieth century, he was also a highly influential social and political philosopher, a proponent and defender of the "open society". "Popper's Legacy" examines Popper in the round, analysing in particular his moral and psychological insights. Once Popper's scientific legacy is couched in political and moral terms, it becomes apparent that his concern (...)
  18. The Myth of the Framework: In Defence of Science and Rationality.Mark Amadeus Notturno (ed.) - 1994 - Routledge.
    In a career spanning sixty years, Sir Karl Popper has made some of the most important contributions to the twentieth century discussion of science and rationality. _The Myth of the Framework_ is a new collection of some of Popper's most important material on this subject. Sir Karl discusses such issues as the aims of science, the role that it plays in our civilization, the moral responsibility of the scientist, the structure of history, and the perennial choice between reason and revolution. (...)
  19. Karl Popper: Philosophy and Problems.Anthony O'Hear - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    Few philosophers in this century have had either Karl Popper's range or his influence, inside and outside philosophy. This collection of essays by fifteen distinguished philosophers, several of whom have been closely associated with Popper and his work, provides a timely assessment of Popper's contributions in a number of key areas: the methodology and philosophy of science; probability and determinism; quantum theory; biology; the theory of evolution; and the theory and practice of politics. The volume offers the specialist and the (...)
  20. Our Knowledge of the Growth of Knowledge: Popper or Wittgenstein?Peter Munz - 2015 - Routledge.
    Peter Munz, a former student of both Popper and Wittgenstein, begins his comparison of the two great twentieth-century philosophers, by explaining that since the demise of positivism there have emerged, broadly speaking, two philosophical options: Wittgenstein, with the absolute relativism of his theory that meaning is a function of language games and that social configurations are determinants of knowledge; and Popper’s evolutionary epistemology – conscious knowledge is a special case of the relationship which exists between all living beings and their (...)
  21. Our Knowledge of the Growth of Knowledge : Popper or Wittgenstein?Peter Munz - 2014 - Routledge.
    Peter Munz, a former student of both Popper and Wittgenstein, begins his comparison of the two great twentieth-century philosophers, by explaining that since the demise of positivism there have emerged, broadly speaking, two philosophical options: Wittgenstein, with the absolute relativism of his theory that meaning is a function of language games and that social configurations are determinants of knowledge; and Popper’s evolutionary epistemology – conscious knowledge is a special case of the relationship which exists between all living beings and their (...)
  22. Popper: Philosophy, Politics and Scientific Method.Geoffrey Stokes - 1998 - Polity.
    Karl Popper is a philosopher of knowledge and politics, rationality and freedom. His ideas have won acceptance and provoked controversy among an academic as well as a more general audience. This book aims to broaden our understanding of Popper's philosophy. It is one of the few studies to present his work as an evolving "system of ideas", and to take account of the full range of his writings. The book discusses Popper's early philosophy of politics, science and social science, as (...)
  23. Science and Politics in the Philosophy of Science: Popper, Kuhn, and Polanyi.Mary Jo Nye - 2010 - In Claus Zittel & Moritz Epple (eds.), Science as Cultural Practice: Vol. I: Cultures and Politics of Research From the Early Modern Period to the Age of Extremes. Akademie Verlag. pp. 201-216.
  24. The Philosophy of Karl Popper.Karl Raimund Popper & Paul Arthur Schilpp - 1974
  25. Due Filosofie Della Libertáa Karl Popper E Robert Nozick.Giovanni Scattone - 2002
  26. K°Al P°Op°Æo Æui Kwahak Ch°Æorhak.Yong-hyæon Cho - 1992
  27. P°Op°Æo Wa Hyæondae Æui Kwahak Ch°Æorhak.Chung-sæop Sin - 1992
  28. Filozofia Poppera Analiza Krytyczna.Adam Chmielewski - 1995
  29. A Pocket Popper.Karl Raimund Popper & David Miller - 1983
  30. Karl Popper I Rossiia.V. N. Sadovskii & Institut Sistemnogo Analiza Nauk) - 2002
  31. The Open Society and its Friends with Letters From Isaiah Berlin and the Late Karl R. Popper.Rocco Pezzimenti, Isaiah Berlin & Karl Raimund Popper - 1997
  32. The Problem of Rationality in Science and its Philosophy on Poper Vs. Polanyi, the Polish Conferences 1988-89.Jâozef Misiek - 1994
  33. Popper on Objectivity.John Howard Sceski - 1999 - Dissertation, Saint Louis University
    The aim of this dissertation is to present Popper's account of objectivity. To this end, we follow the general chronology of his thought, however our emphasis in our critical exposition is on his confrontation with particular problems in the philosophy of science and the picture of objectivity that results. Popper identifies science as the locus of objectivity. For Popper all knowledge begins as common-sense knowledge and is inherently self-critical. Science is characterized by the refinement of the critical process initiated by (...)
  34. Popper's Views of Theory Formation Compared with the Development of Post-Relativistic Cosmological Models.Thomas Henry Leith - 1963 - Dissertation, Boston University
  35. Conjectures and Refutations: A Critique of Popper's Theory of Corroboration.Daniel Rothbart - 1978 - Dissertation, Washington University
  36. Karl R. Popper, All Life is Problem Solving. [REVIEW]Stefano Gattei - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20:372-373.
  37. Truth, Representation and Interpretation: The Popper Case.Gerard Stan - 2009 - Meta 1 (1):66-84.
    The aim of this study is to determine several points of reference regarding the way in which Karl Popper built up his philosophical discourse. I locate two specific ways in which Popper interpreted and used ideas belonging to other philosophers. Thus I distinguish in Popper between a projective hermeneutics and an ideological hermeneutics . In so doing I also highlight the considerable asymmetry between a representationalist hermeneutics, and a projective and, respectively, an ideological one. Whereas in the first case the (...)
  38. Perspectives on the Kuhn-Popper Debate--New Directions in Epistemology.Albert Gene Mosley - 1975 - Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
  39. Popper for the People.Roger Harris - 1973 - Radical Philosophy 6:38.
  40. Johansson: A Critique of Karl Popper's Methodology. [REVIEW]David Murray - 1979 - Radical Philosophy 21:42.
  41. Karl Popper's Realism and the Philosophical Schism in Modern Science.Lionel W. Rood - 1988 - Dissertation, University of Florida
    This dissertation describes and assesses Karl Popper's commonsense realism. The evaluation focuses upon his arguments against nonrealism in modern physics rather than his purely philosophical arguments. Motivated by a few central concepts, Popper presented a detailed critique of the orthodox interpretation of physics. He created a "quantum mechanics without an observer" based upon an "epistemology without a subject." ;Popper believed that certain philosophical presuppositions were necessary for progressive and objective science. He claimed that a "serious crisis exists in modern physics" (...)
  42. Can Science Progress? A Critique of Sir Karl Popper's Philosophy.Gail S. Wintersteiner - 1973 - Dissertation, Boston University Graduate School
  43. Towards a Scientific Psychology: A Popperian Approach.John Russell Wettersten - 1970 - Dissertation, Boston University Graduate School
  44. Filosofia E Filosofar Em Karl R. Popper.Norberto Amadeu F. G. da Cunha - 1982 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 38 (2):219-252.
  45. On Popper's Implicit Hegelianism.N. Yulina - 1984 - Philosophia Naturalis 21 (2/4):652-661.
  46. Reason, Criticism, Openness: Living Legacy of the Philosophy of K. R. Popper.T. Sedová - 2009 - Filozofia 64:713-715.
  47. Parusniková, Z.: Reason, Criticism, Openness: Living Legacy of the Philosophy of K. R. Popper.T. Sedová - 2009 - Filozofia 64:713-715.
  48. Karl R. Popper: A Philosophy of the Quest for a Better World.M. Cehelník - 2002 - Filozofia 57:510-524.
  49. Popper and After Four Modern Irrationalists /by D.C. Stove. --. --.D. C. Stove - 1982 - Pergamon Press, 1982.
  50. On Popper.Mark Amadeus Notturno - 2003
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