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Summary Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher who for the most significant period of his career held a position at the London School of Economics.  Popper was a philosopher of science, who also made contributions in epistemology, philosophy of mind and social and political philosophy.  He argued that scientific theories are distinguished from non-scientific theories and pseudo-science by being falsifiable claims about the world.  Popper proposed a "solution" to the problem of induction by arguing that there is no need for induction in the scientific method.  The method of science is to propose conjectural theories which are then submitted to rigorous tests in the attempt to falsify them.  Theories which fail these tests are to be rejected.  Theories which survive attempts to refute them may be accepted tentatively, but are not proven to be true.  At best, they may be highly corroborated.  This "falsificationist" philosophy of science has a more general application beyond the method of the sciences.  The attempt to falsify a theory is an attempt to criticize the theory.  For Popper, criticism lies at the heart of rational thought, which he took to consist in the method of critical discussion and reflection.  The resulting general position is known as "critical rationalism".  Popper extended these ideas as well into the social and political realm.  He introduced the distinction between open and closed societies.  Open societies welcome and foster critical discussion and change whereas closed societies, which are usually tribal societies, are based on unchanging social custom and ritual.
Key works The classic statement of Popper's philosophy of science is The Logic of Scientific Discovery.  Perhaps the best introduction to his work is his collection of essays, Conjectures and Refutations.  Popper's social and political thought may be found in The Poverty of Historicism and The Open Society and its Enemies.  A good anthology of his writings has been edited by David Miller, Popper Selections.  A useful way into Popper's ideas is by way of his intellectual autobiography, Unended Quest, as is Bryan Magee's short book, Popper.  Alan Musgrave's Common Sense, Science and Scepticism presents a broadly Popperian introduction to epistemology.  David Miller's Critical Rationalism presents good discussion of many critical points that have been made against Popper's views.  Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, edited by Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave, contains a number of important papers which bring Popper's views into contact with T.S. Kuhn's theory of science.  Wesley Salmon's 'Rational Prediction' is an important criticism of Popper's solution to the problem of induction.  See also Adolf Grunbaum's paper 'Is the method of bold conjectures and attempted refutations justifiably the method of science?'.
Introductions A good place to start is the entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Thornton 2008.  Alan Chalmers provides an introductory discussion in What is this thing called science?, chapters 4-6.  Gurol Irzik provides an overview in 'Critical Rationalism', and Alan Musgrave presents his interpretation of Popper's solution of the problem of induction in his paper 'How Popper (might have) solved the problem of induction'.
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  1. Citation Concept Analysis (CCA): A New Form of Citation Analysis Revealing the Usefulness of Concepts for Other Researchers Illustrated by Exemplary Case Studies Including Classic Books by Thomas S. Kuhn and Karl R. Popper.Lutz Bornmann, K. Brad Wray & Robin Haunschild - 2020 - Scientometrics 122 (2):1051-1074.
    In recent years, the full text of papers are increasingly available electronically which opens up the possibility of quantitatively investigating citation contexts in more detail. In this study, we introduce a new form of citation analysis, which we call citation concept analysis (CCA). CCA is intended to reveal the cognitive impact certain concepts—published in a highly-cited landmark publication—have on the citing authors. It counts the number of times the concepts are mentioned (cited) in the citation context of citing publications. We (...)
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  2. Philosophy of Science Viewed Through the Lense of “Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy” (RPYS).K. Brad Wray & Lutz Bornmann - 2015 - Scientometrics 102 (3):1987-1996.
    We examine the sub-field of philosophy of science using a new method developed in information science, Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS). RPYS allows us to identify peak years in citations in a field, which promises to help scholars identify the key contributions to a field, and revolutionary discoveries in a field. We discovered that philosophy of science, a sub-field in the humanities, differs significantly from other fields examined with this method. Books play a more important role in philosophy of science (...)
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  3. Bemerkung zur Popper-Diskussion.H. Merkens - 1980 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 11 (1):162-163.
    Poppers doppelter Falsifikationismus führt dazu, daß der Kritische Rationalismus nicht als die Metatheorie der empirischen Sozialwissenschaften angesehen werden kann. Außerdem ist in diesem Ansatz die logische Asymmetrie von Verifikation und Falsifikation nicht realisiert.
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  4. Knowing and Guessing.Gerard Radnitzky - 1982 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 13 (1):110-121.
    Summary Popper's methodology does not entail any playing down of the various indispensible distinctions such as the distinction between knowing and guessing, the distinction between myth and science, the distinction between the observational and the theoretical, and between the vernacular and technical sublanguages or technical vocabulary. By avoiding both the totalization that led to the foundationalist position and the scepticist reactions to these frustrated foundationalist hopes, Popper's methodology makes it possible to combine fallibilism with a realist view of theories. It (...)
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  5. Popper's Tetradic Schema, Progressive Research Programs, and the Case of Parity Violation in Elementary Particle Physics 1953–1958.Kostas Gavroglu - 1985 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 16 (2):261-286.
    Die Frage der Erhaltung der Parität bei der Wechselwirkung von Elementarteilchen, der Vorschlag ihrer Verletzung, die experimentelle Bestätigung dieses Vorschlags und die daraus sich ergebenden Folgerungen, die zur Formulierung der mathematischen Struktur der schwachen Wechselwirkungen führten, sind die wichtigsten Entwicklungen in der Elementarteilchenphysik während der Periode von 1953 bis 1958. Vorliegender Aufsatz versucht die rationale Rekonstruktion dieser Periode und des Forschungsprogrammes, welches als eines der progressivsten Programme der modernen Physik angesehen wird. Hierzu benutzen wir eine modifizierte Fassung von Poppers tetradischem (...)
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  6. Ein Vergleich der von Ludwig bzw. Popper vorgeschlagenen Interpretationen der Quantenmechanik.Ursula Wegener - 1980 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 11 (2):357-366.
    Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede in den Interpretationen von Ludwig und Popper werden aufgezeigt. Daß überhaupt Unterschiede festzustellen sind, erscheint zunächst verwunderlich, da zum einen von verschiedenen Autoren eine enge Korrelation zwischen Interpretationen der Quantenmechanik und Wahrscheinlichkeitsinterpretationen behauptet wird, zum anderen aber Ludwigs Chancengewichtungen als propensities im Sinne Poppers interpretiert werden können. Es zeigt sich, daß die Unterschiede in den Interpretationen der Quantenmechanik auf Unterschieden in dem jeweils verwendeten wahrscheinlichkeitstheoretischen Formalismus beruhen, die jedoch für die Möglichkeit, Chancengewichtungen als propensities zu interpretieren, ohne (...)
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  7. Eberhard Döring, Karl R. Popper: «Die offene Gesellschaft und ihre Feinde».Orrin Summerell - 1998 - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 3 (1):230-233.
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  8. Karl Popper as a Point of Departure for a Philosophy of Theology.David E. Schrader - 1983 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 14 (4):193.
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  9. Problems and Psychologism: Popper as the Heir to Otto Selz.Michel ter Hark - 1993 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (4):585-609.
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  10. Jacques G. Ruelland, De l’épistémologie à la politique. La philosophie de l’histoire de K. R. Popper, Paris, P.U.F. , 1991, 248 pages. [REVIEW]François Tournier - 1994 - Philosophiques 21 (2):636-640.
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  11. Exploring Schumacher and Popper: A Quest for the Philosophical Foundations of Project Cycle Management.Katri Targama & Patrick Rang - 2011 - Philosophy of Management 10 (2):41-52.
    In this article we interlink the philosophical ideas of Ernst Schumacher and Karl Popper within the framework of planning and management, describe project management cases implemented using the principles of project cycle management and study whether the success or failure can be attributed to following these concepts.We consider two basic concepts for perceiving the world surrounding us: the concept of organisation and that of self-organisation. The former emphasises the predictability of the future, where the results of each activity are predetermined (...)
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  12. Contrastando a Popper. [REVIEW]Ramón Queraltó - 2010 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 25 (1):108-111.
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  13. Karl Popper: Kłopoty Z Racjonalizmem, Kłopoty Z Filozofią.Ryszard Kleszcz - 2014 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 92.
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  14. Popper Jako Antyindukcjonista.Krystyna Misiuna - 2014 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 92.
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  15. Karl Popper I Rossiia.V. N. Sadovskii & Institut Sistemnogo Analiza Nauk) - 2002
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  16. Physics as Metaphor an Inaugural Lecture Given in the University of Fort Hare on the 9th May, 1974.R. H. Hobart - 1974
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  17. Popper, Karl.Stefano Gattei - unknown
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  18. Karl Raimund Popper.Stefano Gattei - unknown
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  19. Karl Popper 1902-1994.Stefano Gattei - unknown
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  20. Recent Popper Literature.J. W. Grove - 1995 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 25 (3):376-383.
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  21. Karl R. Popper o El Signo de la Ambivalencia.Juan García-Morán Escobedo - 1994 - Isegoría: Revista de Filosofía Moral y Política 9:207-212.
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  22. Karl Popper-the Thinker and the Man.Ernest Gellner - 1996 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 49:75-86.
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  23. Rocco Pezzimenti, Dynamic Order. The Problem of Method in Evolving Nature. With Letters From N. Rescher, L. Pauling, J. Accles and KR Popper. [REVIEW]Olivier Perru - 2000 - Revue Philosophique De Louvain 98 (2):412-419.
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  24. A Pluralist Challenge to 'Integrative Medicine': Feyerabend and Popper on the Cognitive Value of Alternative Medicine.Ian Kidd - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):392–400.
    This paper is a critique of ‘integrative medicine’ as an ideal of medical progress on the grounds that it fails to realise the cognitive value of alternative medicine. After a brief account of the cognitive value of alternative medicine, I outline the form of ‘integrative medicine’ defended by the late Stephen Straus, former director of the US National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Straus’ account is then considered in the light of Zuzana Parusnikova’s recent criticism of ‘integrative medicine’ and (...)
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  25. William Berkson and John Wettersten, Learning From Error: Karl Popper's Psychology of Learning Reviewed By. [REVIEW]Sheldon Richmond - 1987 - Philosophy in Review 7 (1):1-3.
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  26. Popper, Karl.Jonathan Lieberson - 1982 - Social Research 49 (1):68-115.
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  27. Some Scientism, Some Historicism, Some Critics: Hayek's and Popper's Critiques Revisited.'.Thomas Uebel - 2000 - In M. W. F. Stone & Jonathan Wolff (eds.), The Proper Ambition of Science. Routledge. pp. 151--73.
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  28. Karl Raimund Popper.Anthony Quinton - 1967 - In Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Macmillan. pp. 6--398.
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  29. Popper on Learning From Experience'.Joseph Agassi - 1969 - In Peter Achinstein (ed.), Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford, Published by Basil Blackwell with the Cooperation of the University of Pittsburg. pp. 162--71.
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  30. Karl R. Popper's View of History Translated by Martin J. Jandl.Helmut Reinalter - 2005 - In Friedrich Wallner, Martin J. Jandl & Kurt Greiner (eds.), Science, Medicine, and Culture: Festschrift for Fritz G. Wallner. Peter Lang. pp. 72.
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  31. Popper and Sen on Rationality and Economics: Two (Independent) Wrong Turns Can Be Remedied with the Same Program.John Wettersten - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 369--378.
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  32. Popper and Communitarianism: Justification and Criticism of Moral Standards.Harald Stelzer - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 273--285.
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  33. Popper's Continuing Relevance.Ian Jarvie - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 217--235.
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  34. A Neo-Popperian Advance on Popper?John Watkins - 1992 - In W. Newton-Smith, Tʻien-chi Chiang & E. James (eds.), Popper in China. Routledge. pp. 138--157.
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  35. Karl Raimund Popper.Volker Schürmann - 2004 - In Gisela Riescher (ed.), Politische Theorie der Gegenwart in Einzeldarstellungen. Von Adorno Bis Young. Alfred Kröner Verlag. pp. 343--389.
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  36. Otto Selz: Ein Pionier der Kognitionspsychologie.M. Hanke - 1993 - In Christopher Hookway (ed.), Philosophy and the Cognitive Sciences. Cambridge University Press. pp. 185--190.
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  37. Karl Popper: A Memoir.John Watkins - 2004 - In Anthony O'Hear (ed.), Karl Popper: Critical Assessments of Leading Philosophers. Routledge.
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  38. Popper, Karl Raimund.P. Schroeder-Heister - 2001 - In N. J. Smelser & B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences.
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  39. Ein Brief an Popper.A. Riel & K. Popper - 1990 - Schopenhauer Jahrbuch 71:193-195.
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  40. Karl Popper.A. Liberális Gondolat A. Tudományban & ÉSA POLITIKÁBAN - 1991 - Social Research 58:81.
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  41. In-Memoriam Popper, Karl, Raimund.G. Penati - 1994 - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 86 (3):590-590.
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  42. Popper.Lewis Wolpert - 2000 - Bioessays 22 (3):308-308.
  43. Karl R. Popper, Philosophical Quest for a Better World-An Intellectual Portrait of the Founder of Critical Rationalism, on the Occasion of His Centennial Birthday.M. Cehelnik - 2002 - Filozofia 57 (7):510-524.
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  44. The Philosophy of Karl Popper.R. G. Swinburne & P. A. Schilpp - 1975 - Philosophical Quarterly 25 (101):365.
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  45. Was wir Karl R. Popper und seiner Philosophie verdanken. Zu seinem 100. Geburtstag.Edgar Morscher (ed.) - 2002 - Academia Verlag.
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  46. Hacia Una Filosofía Social de la Ciencia En Karl R. Popper.Ambrosio Velasco Gómez - 2003 - Signos Filosóficos 6 (11s):71-84.
    Popper is commonly considered as an analytical philosopher who focuses on epistemological and methodological aspects of scientific development, disregarding any social, cultural or political consideration. Against this popular image of Popper’s philosophy, I argue in this paper that Popper’s acco..
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  47. The Uses of Karl Popper.Günter Wächtershäuser - 1995 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 39:177-189.
    Karl Popper's work is of great diversity. It touches on virtually every intellectual activity. But he himself considered his philosophy of science one of his most important achievements. And indeed his achievement here is revolutionary. It destroyed the philosophy of inductivism which held sway over science for hundreds of years.
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  48. Does Popper Explain Historical Explanation?Kenneth Minogue - 1995 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 39:225-240.
    It is one of Karl Popper's great distinctions that he has an intense—some would say too intense—awareness of the history of philosophy within which he works. He knows not only its patterns, but also its comedies, and sometimes he plays rhetorically against their grain. He knows, for example, that the drive to consistency tends to turn philosophy into compositions of related doctrines, each seeming to involve the others. Religious belief, for example, tends to go with idealism and free will, religious (...)
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  49. karl Popper como punto de partida para una filosofía de la teología.Dawn E. Schrader - 1987 - Diálogo Filosófico 8:139-144.
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  50. La Objetividad Como Logro Práctico.Ester Isabel Llinás & María Inés González Carella - 2002 - Cinta de Moebio 13.
    In the last decades the concept of objectivity has been criticized by the ?new epistemologies?. These criticisms favour the consolidation of relativist and subjective positions, which condition the objectivity of scientific knowledge to such an extent that it seems to be a goal impossible to achiev..
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