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Summary Within the Anglophone philosophical world, Leibniz is recognized chiefly as a metaphysician, logician, and mathematician. However, he made wide-ranging contributions to the natural sciences of his day, participating in a number of discussions and controversies in fields as diverse as physics--in which he developed a science of force or "dynamics"--the sciences of life, medicine, optics, and geology. In scientific investigation, Leibniz relied on theoretical principles such as continuity, non-contradiction, and sufficient reason to constrain proposed hypotheses, and he maintained the compatibility of efficient and final causal explanation. As an inventor and a designer, he developed an early mechanical calculator, and, famously, failed in an attempt to harness wind-power to extract water from flooded mines in the Harz mountains. This theoretical and practical work was coupled by a life-long interest in furthering the growth of natural knowledge, including his project of a general science and encyclopedia aimed at organizing existing knowledge and aiding discovery. Leibniz also promoted the development of scientific societies, and was the founder and first president of what is now the Berlin-Brandenburgische Academy of Sciences and Humanities.  
Key works The following primary texts, listed chronologically and in English translation, have been selected to provide the reader with an overview of Leibniz's approach both to particular sciences including physics, cosmology, and geology, as well as to general topics of scientific discovery and methodology such as hypothesis, causal explanation, and the organization of knowledge in encyclopedic form. They also exhibit Leibniz's views regarding the utility of scientific knowledge for human life and highlight the interconnection of Leibniz's natural philosophy and metaphysics. Leibniz 1678-79? is an outline of an unrealized book on physics composed in the late 1670s, and is followed by a useful appendix on scientific methodology. In a text known as the Project of a New Encyclopedia to be Written Following the Method of Invention (Leibniz 1679), we find one of Leibniz's many sketches for an Encyclopedia that would organize, catolog, and promote the growth of knowledge. In the Brief Demonstration (Leibniz 1686), Leibniz provides an important critique of Cartesian physics focusing on the correct formulation of conservation laws. The Protogaea (Leibniz et al 2008) is Leibniz's speculative geological treatise on the origins of the Earth that was intended (in Leibniz's typically ambitious, incisive, yet diffuse intellectual manner) to serve as the opening of his never completed history of the House of Hannover. The Specimen Dynacum (Leibniz 1989) presents Leibniz's new science of force, or dynamics. In the Tentamen Anagogicum (Leibniz 1696), Leibniz defends the use of final causes in physics and features an early version of the principle of least action. Leibniz argues in De Ipsa Natura (Leibniz 1698) that a coherent philosophy of nature requires the postulation of an inherent force within natural substances. The New Essays on Human Understanding (Leibniz 1981) represents Leibniz's point by point critique of Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and covers a number of topics related to the philosophy of science. The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence (Leibniz et al 2000) is Leibniz's well-known debate with the Newtonian Samuel Clarke, highlighting the differences between the Leibnizian and Newtonian accounts of nature.
Introductions For a general overview of Leibniz's scientific methodology, see Duchesneau 1993. Smith 2011 focuses on Leibniz's involvement with the life sciences of his day, and reveals the tight connection between Leibniz's metaphysics and his attempts to explain living, organic bodies..
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  1. added 2020-05-28
    Samuel Clarke.Timothy Yenter - 2020 - In Dana Jalobeanu & Charles T. Wolfe (eds.), Encyclopedia of Early Modern Philosophy and the Sciences.
    Samuel Clarke (1675–1729) profoundly shaped early eighteenth-century European philosophy with an a priori demonstration of the existence of God and influential defenses of substance dualism and human freedom. Throughout his works, he defended absolute space, the passivity of matter, and constant divine activity in the world, which jointly provided a metaphysical basis for the quickly popularizing Newtonian thought.
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  2. added 2020-05-26
    Leibnizian Conservation in D’Alembert’s Traité de Dynamique.Tzuchien Tho - 2019 - In Lloyd Strickland & Julia Weckend (eds.), Leibniz’s Legacy and Impact. New York and Oxford: Routledge. pp. 129-164.
  3. added 2020-05-22
    G.W. Leibniz: Sign and the Problem of Expression.Dimitri A. Bayuk & Olga B. Fedorova - 2020 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 57 (1):146-165.
    The disciplinary differentiation of sciences attracted Leibniz’s attention for a long period of time. From nowadays prospects it looks very well grounded as soon as in Leibniz’s manuscripts a modern scholar finds clue ideas of any research field which would tempt him to consider Leibniz as one of the founders of this particular discipline. We argue that this is possible only in retrospection and would significantly distort the essence of Leibniz’s epistemology. Our approach implies, in contrary, the investigation of the (...)
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  4. added 2020-05-22
    Science and Ethics in Leibniz.Konrad Moll - 1998 - The Leibniz Review 8:126-131.
  5. added 2020-05-22
    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. La Réforme de la Dynamique: De Corporum Concursu Et Autres Textes Inédits. [REVIEW]François Duchesneau - 1997 - The Leibniz Review 7:103-109.
    This is a truly outstanding contribution to contemporary scholarship on Leibniz’s methodology and natural philosophy. By providing the original edition of Leibnizian manuscripts dating back to the period 1676-1680, in particular the De corporum concursu, Michel Fichant has confirmed what some previous scholars had surmised—that Leibniz had substituted his new principle of conservation of vis viva for the Cartesian principle of conservation of quantity of motion measured by mv shortly after his return from France, and quite a few years before (...)
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  6. added 2020-05-22
    La dynamique de Leibniz.Emily Grosholz - 1997 - The Leibniz Review 7:110-115.
    The significance of Leibniz’s work as a physical scientist has long been underestimated or misunderstood. This stems in part from the great success of Newton’s physics on the one hand and the influence of Kant’s account of scientific knowledge on the other, both of which tend to obscure Leibniz’s successes and intentions. It is also due to the unavailability or scholarly neglect of key texts which, if properly assessed, illuminate the work of Leibniz in dynamics. In La dynamique de Leibniz, (...)
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  7. added 2020-05-22
    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. La réforme de la dynamique.François Duchesneau - 1997 - The Leibniz Review 7:103-109.
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  8. added 2020-05-22
    Der junge Leibniz III. Eine Wissenschaft für ein aufgeklärtes Europa.Philip Beeley - 1996 - The Leibniz Review 6:155-159.
  9. added 2020-05-18
    The ‘Dynamics’ of Leibnizian Relationism: Reference Frames and Force in Leibniz’s Plenum.Edward Slowik - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 37:617-634.
    This paper explores various metaphysical aspects of Leibniz’s concepts of space, motion, and matter, with the intention of demonstrating how the distinctive role of force in Leibnizian physics can be used to develop a theory of relational motion using privileged reference frames. Although numerous problems will remain for a consistent Leibnizian relationist account, the version developed within our investigation will advance the work of previous commentators by more accurately reflecting the specific details of Leibniz’s own natural philosophy, especially his handling (...)
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  10. added 2020-05-12
    Cristina Marras, Metaphora translata voce. [REVIEW]Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2010 - Rivista di Filosofia 101 (3):450-452.
    The theses in this book are: 1) the tension between the Leibnizian theory of the tropes and their use is resolved in a "pragmatic of discourse" that gives the metaphor a richer dimension than the theorized one, that is, that of "a mechanism capable of combining elements coming from different conceptual spaces into a new metaphorical conceptual space, 'shapeless' to which the metaphor itself provides an adequate language to describe and structure it"; 2) the role of metaphors is placed for (...)
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  11. added 2020-03-10
    Potentia, Actio, Vis: The Quantity Mv2 and its Causal Role.Tzuchien Tho - 2018 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 100 (4):411-443.
    This article aims to interpret Leibniz’s dynamics project through a theory of the causation of corporeal motion. It presents an interpretation of the dynamics that characterizes physical causation as the structural organization of phenomena. The measure of living force by mv2 must then be understood as an organizational property of motion conceptually distinct from the geometrical or otherwise quantitative magnitudes exchanged in mechanical phenomena. To defend this view, we examine one of the most important theoretical discrepancies of Leibniz’s dynamics with (...)
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  12. added 2020-02-02
    Newton and Leibniz.Julia Jorati - 2020 - Encyclopedia of Early Modern Philosophy and the Sciences.
    It is easy to get the impression that Newton and Leibniz do not see eye to eye on anything. Yet, as is so often the case, a closer look reveals that matters are much more complicated. Despite their disagreements, the two are frequently on the same side of central scientific and philosophical debates. This entry discusses some of the main agreements and disagreements between Newton and Leibniz, starting with their methodologies and then turning to their views on space, motion, and (...)
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  13. added 2020-02-02
    Teleology and Realism in Leibniz's Philosophy of Science.Nabeel Hamid - 2019 - In Vincenzo De Risi (ed.), Leibniz and the Structure of Sciences. Berlin: Springer. pp. 271-298.
    This paper argues for an interpretation of Leibniz’s claim that physics requires both mechanical and teleological principles as a view regarding the interpretation of physical theories. Granting that Leibniz’s fundamental ontology remains non-physical, or mentalistic, it argues that teleological principles nevertheless ground a realist commitment about mechanical descriptions of phenomena. The empirical results of the new sciences, according to Leibniz, have genuine truth conditions: there is a fact of the matter about the regularities observed in experience. Taking this stance, however, (...)
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  14. added 2019-10-09
    Universal Gravitation and the (Un)Intelligibility of Natural Philosophy.Matias Slavov - 2020 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 101 (1):129-157.
    This article centers on Hume’s position on the intelligibility of natural philosophy. To that end, the controversy surrounding universal gravitation shall be scrutinized. It is very well-known that Hume sides with the Newtonian experimentalist approach rather than with the Leibnizian demand for intelligibility. However, what is not clear is Hume’s overall position on the intelligibility of natural philosophy. It shall be argued that Hume declines Leibniz’s principle of intelligibility. However, Hume does not eschew intelligibility altogether; his concept of causation itself (...)
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  15. added 2019-09-10
    Leibniz's Legacy and Impact.Julia Weckend & Lloyd Strickland (eds.) - 2019 - New York: Routledge.
    This volume tells the story of the legacy and impact of the great German polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716). Leibniz made significant contributions to many areas, including philosophy, mathematics, political and social theory, theology, and various sciences. The essays in this volume explores the effects of Leibniz’s profound insights on subsequent generations of thinkers by tracing the ways in which his ideas have been defended and developed in the three centuries since his death. Each of the 11 essays is concerned (...)
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  16. added 2019-09-04
    Locke and Leibniz on Matter and Solidity.Idan Shimony - 2019 - In Adriano Fabris & Giovanni Scarafile (eds.), Controversies in the Contemporary World. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: pp. 49-67.
    In this paper I analyze the virtual debate between Locke and Leibniz on solidity as proposed in Leibniz’s chapter on solidity in his New Essays on Human Understanding. I first track the oddities of the dialogue presented in the New Essays’ chapter on solidity. In this virtual dialogue, Leibniz’s representative often digresses and sometimes overlooks or misrepresents some of Locke’s most important insights. I then argue that these oddities reflect Leibniz’s sentiment that a productive controversy on this issue cannot be (...)
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  17. added 2019-07-08
    Monads, Composition, and Force: Ariadnean Threads Through Leibniz’s Labyrinth, by Richard Arthur. [REVIEW]Julia Jorati - 2020 - Mind 129 (514):664-673.
    Monads, Composition, and Force: Ariadnean Threads through Leibniz’s Labyrinth, by ArthurRichard. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018. Pp. ix + 329.
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  18. added 2019-06-22
    Equivalence of Hypotheses and Galilean Censure in Leibniz: A Conspiracy or a Way to Moderate Censure?Laurynas Adomaitis - 2019 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 72 (1):63-85.
    Spending six months in Rome in 1689 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) occupied himself with the question of Copernican and Galilean censure. An established reading of the Rome papers suggests that Leibniz’s attempt to have the Copernican censure lifted was derived solely from the equivalence of hypotheses stemming from the relativity of motion; and involved Leibniz’s compromising his belief in the truth of the Copernican hypothesis by arguing that it should only be interpreted instrumentally; and that Leibniz believed in the unrestricted (...)
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  19. added 2019-06-06
    Kant’s 1768 Attack on Leibniz’ Conception of Space.Stefan Storrie - 2013 - Kant-Studien 104 (2):145-166.
    : This paper examines two features of Kant’s 1768 critique of Leibniz’ conception of space. Firstly, Leibniz’ proposed geometrical calculus called ‘analysis situs’; secondly, Leibniz’ relational conception of space. The main thesis of the paper is that Kant’s arguments are more powerful than generally recognized. With regard to the analysis situs, I will show that Kant was quite well informed about this proposed science and that his arguments severely undermine Leibniz’ claims to what it could perform. With regard to the (...)
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  20. added 2019-06-06
    Leibniz on the Laws of Nature and the Best Deductive System.Joshua L. Watson - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (4):577-584.
    Many philosophers who do not analyze laws of nature as the axioms and theorems of the best deductive systems nevertheless believe that membership in those systems is evidence for being a law. This raises the question, “If the best systems analysis fails, what explains the fact that being a member of the best systems is evidence for being a law?” In this essay I answer this question on behalf of Leibniz. I argue that although Leibniz’s philosophy of laws is inconsistent (...)
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  21. added 2019-06-06
    Justin E.H. Smith, Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2011. Pp. Xii+380. ISBN 978-0-691-478-7. £30.95. [REVIEW]Stephanie Eichberg - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Science 45 (1):131-132.
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  22. added 2019-06-06
    The Concept of Transition and its Role in Leibniz’s and Whitehead’s Metaphysics of Motion.Tamar Levanon - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (2):352-361.
    Leibniz’s and Whitehead’s analyses of motion are at the heart of their metaphysical schemes. These schemes are to be considered as two blueprints of a similar metaphysical intuition that emerged during two breakthrough eras, that is, the 17th century and the beginning of the 20th century, and retained the Aristotelian idea that existence requires an active principle. The two philosophers’ attempts to elucidate this idea in the context of their analyses of motion still interact with central, longstanding questions in philosophy, (...)
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  23. added 2019-06-06
    Daniel Garber, Leibniz: Body, Substance, Monad. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Pp. Xiii+428. ISBN 978-0-19-956664. £35.00. [REVIEW]Andrew Pyle - 2010 - British Journal for the History of Science 43 (3):487-488.
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  24. added 2019-06-06
    Leery Bedfellows: Newton and Leibniz on the Status of Infinitesimals.Richard Arthur - 2008 - In Douglas Jesseph & Ursula Goldenbaum (eds.), Infinitesimal Differences: Controversies Between Leibniz and His Contemporaries. Walter de Gruyter.
    Newton and Leibniz had profound disagreements concerning metaphysics and the relationship of mathematics to natural philosophy, as well as deeply opposed attitudes towards analysis. Nevertheless, or so I shall argue, despite these deeply held and distracting differences in their background assumptions and metaphysical views, there was a considerable consilience in their positions on the status of infinitesimals. In this paper I compare the foundation Newton provides in his Method Of First and Ultimate Ratios (sketched at some time between 1671 and (...)
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  25. added 2019-06-06
    Perpetuum Mobile: The Leibniz-Papin Controversy.Gideon Freudenthal - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (3):573-637.
    ‘Controversy’ is here introduced as a technical term referring to one aspect of dispute. ‘Controversy’ is here understood as referring to an ongoing antagonistic exchange over a disagreement that cannot be readily resolved by the means at hand. However, the issue is being discussed because the participants believe that the controversy will be resolveable in the framework of a more advanced view which will be generated by the dispute. It is claimed that this ‘controversy’ merits study; it is not claimed (...)
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  26. added 2019-06-06
    Equivalence and Priority: Newton Versus Leibniz: Including Leibniz's Unpublished Manuscript on the Principia.Domenico Bertoloni Meli - 1997 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Leibniz's dispute with Newton over the physico-mathematical theories expounded in the Principia Mathematica have long been identified as a crucial episode in the history of science. Dr. Bertoloni Meli examines several hitherto unpublished manuscripts in Leibniz's own hand illustrating his first reading of and reaction to Newton's Principia. Six of the most important manuscripts are here edited for the first time. Contrary to Leibniz's own claims, this new evidence shows that he had studied Newton's masterpiece before publishing An Essay on (...)
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  27. added 2019-06-06
    Les projets de Campanella revus et corrigés par la physique du jeune Leibniz.Richard Bodéüs - 1996 - Dialogue 35 (1):3-14.
    On ne retient plus guère aujourd'hui le nom de T. Campanella parmi les philosophes qui ont compté à l'aube du XVIIe siècle. Cet ardent défenseur de Galilée, longtemps emprisonné pour la hardiesse de ses propres idées, a cependant joué un rôle non négligeable dans l'avènement d'une philosophie naturelle affranchie des traditions aristotéliciennes. Je voudrais attirer ciaprès l'attention sur quelques-unes de ses positions qui semblent avoir été prises en compte par Leibniz dans l'élaboration de sa première physique.
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  28. added 2019-06-06
    Leibniz sur l’espace, le continu et la substance : mathématique, physique et métaphysique: François Duchesneau, La dynamique de Leibniz, Paris, Vrin, coll. Mathesis, 1994.Luciano Boi - 1995 - Philosophiques 22 (2):407-436.
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  29. added 2019-06-06
    Leibniz’s Metaphysics of Nature. [REVIEW]Lois Frankel - 1985 - International Studies in Philosophy 17 (1):88-89.
  30. added 2019-06-06
    On the Metaphysics of Leibnizian Space and Time.A. T. Winterbourne - 1982 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 13 (3):201.
  31. added 2019-06-06
    "Conatus", Hobbes, and the Young Leibniz.Howard R. Bernstein - 1980 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 11 (1):25.
  32. added 2019-06-06
    Seventeenth Century - Leibniz and Dynamics: The Texts of 1692. By Pierre Costabel. Trans. By R. E. W. Maddison. London: Methuen, 1973. Pp. 141. £3.00. [REVIEW]Carolyn Iltis - 1977 - British Journal for the History of Science 10 (2):176-177.
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  33. added 2019-06-06
    The Philosophy of Leibniz in its Influence Upon Herder’s View of Nature. [REVIEW]Karl W. Maurer - 1975 - Philosophy and History 8 (2):178-179.
  34. added 2019-05-19
    Leibniz on the Divine Preformation of Souls and Bodies.Christopher P. Noble - 2019 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 9 (2):327-342.
  35. added 2019-03-22
    Leibniz on Infinite Number, Infinite Wholes, and the Whole World: A Reply to Gregory Brown.Richard Arthur - 2001 - The Leibniz Review 11:103-116.
    Reductio arguments are notoriously inconclusive, a fact which no doubt contributes to their great fecundity. For once a contradiction has been proved, it is open to interpretation which premise should be given up. Indeed, it is often a matter of great creativity to identify what can be consistently given up. A case in point is a traditional paradox of the infinite provided by Galileo Galilei in his Two New Sciences, which has since come to be known as Galileo’s Paradox. It (...)
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  36. added 2019-03-08
    Kontinuität Und Mechanismus: Zur Philosophie des Jungen Leibniz in Ihrem Ideengeschichtlichen Kontext. [REVIEW]Richard Arthur, Christia Mercer, Justin Smith & Catherine Wilson - 1997 - The Leibniz Review 7:25-64.
  37. added 2019-03-07
    The Wedge and the Vis Viva Controversy: How Concepts of Force Influenced the Practice of Early Eighteenth-Century Mechanics.Jip Besouw - 2017 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 71 (2):109-156.
    This article discusses the quest for the mechanical advantage of the wedge in the eighteenth century. As a case study, the wedge enlightens our understanding of eighteenth-century mechanics in general and the controversy over “force” or vis viva in particular. In this article, I show that the two different approaches to mechanics, the one that favoured force in terms of velocities and the one that primarily used displacements—known as the ‘Newtonian’ and ‘Leibnizian’ methods, respectively—were not at all on par in (...)
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  38. added 2019-03-07
    Primitive and Derivative Forces in Leibnizian Bodies.Paul Lodge - 2001 - In H. Poser (ed.), Nihil Sine Ratione: Mensch, Natur und Technik im Wirken von G. W. Leibniz. pp. 720-727.
    It is well known that Leibniz believes that the motion of bodies is caused by an internal force.1 Moreover, he distinguishes between two kinds of force that are associated with bodies, which he calls primitive and derivative forces respectively. My aim is to explain Leibniz’s account of the relation between these two kinds of force, and to address a puzzle that arises in connection with this relation. In fact Leibniz speaks of two different kinds of derivative force. The first, and (...)
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  39. added 2019-02-15
    Substantivalism and Relationism as Bad Cartography: Why Spatial Ontology Needs a Better Map.Edward Slowik - 2018 - In S. Wuppuluri & F. A. Doria (eds.), The Map and the Territory: Exploring the Foundations of Science, Thought and Reality. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 185-198.
    While there are numerous difficulties with the standard spacetime ontological dichotomy, namely, substantivalism versus relationism, this investigation will focus on two specific issues as a means of examining and developing alternative ontological conceptions of space that go beyond the limitations imposed by the standard dichotomy. First, while Newton and Leibniz are often upheld as the progenitors of, respectively, substantivalism and relationism, their own work in the natural philosophy of space often contradicts the central tenets of that dichotomy. Second, while the (...)
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  40. added 2019-02-11
    Cause and Effect in Leibniz’s Brevis Demonstratio.Laurynas Adomaitis - 2019 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 9 (1):120-134.
    Leibniz’s argument against Descartes’s conservation principle in the Brevis demonstratio (1686) has traditionally been read as passing from the premise that motive force must be conserved to the conclusion that motive force is not identical to quantity of motion and, finally, that quantity of motion is not conserved. In a lesser-known draft of the same year, Christiaan Huygens claimed that Descartes had in fact never held the view that Leibniz was attacking. Huygens is right as far as the traditional reading (...)
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  41. added 2019-02-11
    Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence, Brain in a Vat, Five-Minute Hypothesis, McTaggart’s Paradox, Etc. Are Clarified in Quantum Language [Revised Version].Shiro Ishikawa - 2018 - Open Journal of Philosophy 8 (5):466-480.
    Recently we proposed "quantum language" (or, the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics"), which was not only characterized as the metaphysical and linguistic turn of quantum mechanics but also the linguistic turn of Descartes=Kant epistemology. We believe that quantum language is the language to describe science, which is the final goal of dualistic idealism. Hence there is a reason to want to clarify, from the quantum linguistic point of view, the following problems: "brain in a vat argument", "the Cogito proposition", (...)
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  42. added 2019-02-11
    How to Connect Physics with Metaphysics: Leibniz on the Conservation Law, Force, and Substance.Shohei Edamura - 2018 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 74 (2-3):787-810.
    Leibniz once argued that scholastic substantial forms do not exist, but he later emphasized that bodies have substantial forms. This implies that he assumed that bodies have intrinsic powers to act by themselves. In order to understand the change of his metaphysics, we need to identify the resources of his motivation to introduce a new view. On the basis of Leibniz’s early works in the 1670s and 80s, this paper explores how his discovery of the law that the quantity of (...)
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  43. added 2019-02-11
    Fuerza primitiva y fuerza derivativa en G. W. Leibniz. Modificación y limitación.Leonardo Ruiz - 2015 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 48:141-168.
    La fuerza derivativa es descrita por Leibniz como modificación o limitación de la entelequia o fuerza primitiva. Sin embargo, la describe también como perteneciente a los fenómenos y como causante del movimiento físico. Algunos comentadores han encontrado en este punto un conflicto irresoluble dentro del sistema leibniziano, mientras que otros han ensayado algunas soluciones. Este artículo presenta un análisis de la noción de “modo”, tal como es utilizada en la descripción de la relación entre fuerza primitiva y fuerza derivativa. A (...)
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  44. added 2019-02-11
    Zur Infinitisierung der Automaten: Descartes Und Leibniz.Daniel Schulthess - 1997 - In J. Soering & R. Sorgg (eds.), Die Androiden: Zur Poetologie der Automaten. Francfort: P. Lang. pp. p.85-98..
    The article compares Descartes’ and Leibniz’ use of the concept of a machine. For Descartes, the activity of the engineers rises to become the model for the scientific enterprise: one proceeds from the simple and the familiar to explain the complex. In this way one can escape the sheer astonishment about the complexity of the machines and their effects. This mechanical model is extended also to the explanation of the living beings. Also Leibniz regards living beings as machines. The difference (...)
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  45. added 2018-10-29
    IV. Metaphysical Foundations for Natural Science.Catherine Wilson - 1990 - In Leibniz's Metaphysics: A Historical and Comparative Study. Princeton University Press. pp. 121-157.
  46. added 2018-10-19
    Leibniz et l'invention des phénomènes.Daniel Schulthess - 2009 - Paris: PUF.
    LES APPARENCES: ANALYSES PREALABLES L'ontologie des apparences I : questions terminologiques L'ontologie des apparences II : les entia apparentia La sémantique des apparences DES APPARENCES AUX FONDEMENTS Aspects catégoriels : la substance La simplicité comme condition de la substance L'activité comme condition de la substance DES FONDEMENTS AUX APPARENCES La production des apparences I : l'étendue La production des apparences II : la diffusion La production des qualités sensibles I BILAN Dire ce qu'il en est du corps Les propositions réduplicatives.
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  47. added 2018-07-27
    Machines Finies Et Machines Infinies Chez Leibniz.Daniel Schulthess - 1999 - In Dominique Berlioz & Frédéric Nef (eds.), L'actualité de Leibniz: les deux labyrinthes (Studia leibnitiana, Supplementa 34). Stuttgart: F. Steiner. pp. p.633-642..
    The article develops the conception that Leibniz has of organisms as machines of a particular type, differing from artificial machines because 1. all the parts of an organic machine are in turn composed by smaller machines and thus to infinity; and 2. the maintenance of the individual identity in living machines is provided by the fact that they have folds going to infinity which can unfold and fold back, thus allowing infinite transformations of the body. The author then discusses these (...)
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  48. added 2018-07-23
    Leibniz and the Foundations of Physics: The Later Years.Jeffrey K. McDonough - 2016 - Philosophical Review 125 (1):1-34.
    This essay offers an account of the relationship between extended Leibnizian bodies and unextended Leibnizian monads, an account that shows why Leibniz was right to see intimate, explanatory connections between his studies in physics and his mature metaphysics. The first section sets the stage by introducing a case study from Leibniz's technical work on the strength of extended, rigid beams. The second section draws on that case study to introduce a model for understanding Leibniz's views on the relationship between derivative (...)
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  49. added 2018-07-23
    Relacja między nauką o logicznych możliwościach a zasadą zachowania energii. Rola badań Huygensa i Leibniza dla nowożytnej refleksji nad wolnością woli.Anna Szyrwińska - 2015 - IDEA – Studia Nad Strukturą I Rozwojem Pojęć Filozoficznych:191-202.
    The article investigates the relationship between Leibniz’s and Huygens’ theory of possibility and the principle of conservation of energy. It assumes that their criticisms of Cartesian views concerning those questions as well as their own achievements contributed to the formation of a new metaphysical basis for modern discussions on the freedom of the will. There are especially two problems whose role is crucial in this context, namely the question of God’s knowledge of future conditionals (contingentia futura) and the mind-body distinction.
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  50. added 2018-07-23
    Kant’s Early Theory of Motion.Marius Stan - 2009 - The Leibniz Review 19:29-61.
    This paper examines the young Kant’s claim that all motion is relative, and argues that it is the core of a metaphysical dynamics of impact inspired by Leibniz and Wolff. I start with some background to Kant’s early dynamics, and show that he rejects Newton’s absolute space as a foundation for it. Then I reconstruct the exact meaning of Kant’s relativity, and the model of impact he wants it to support. I detail (in Section II and III) his polemic engagement (...)
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