||Within the Anglophone philosophical world, Leibniz is recognized chiefly as a metaphysician, logician, and mathematician. However, he made wide-ranging contributions to the natural sciences of his day, participating in a number of discussions and controversies in fields as diverse as physics--in which he developed a science of force or "dynamics"--the sciences of life, medicine, optics, and geology. In scientific investigation, Leibniz relied on theoretical principles such as continuity, non-contradiction, and sufficient reason to constrain proposed hypotheses, and he maintained the compatibility of efficient and final causal explanation. As an inventor and a designer, he developed an early mechanical calculator, and, famously, failed in an attempt to harness wind-power to extract water from flooded mines in the Harz mountains. This theoretical and practical work was coupled by a life-long interest in furthering the growth of natural knowledge, including his project of a general science and encyclopedia aimed at organizing existing knowledge and aiding discovery. Leibniz also promoted the development of scientific societies, and was the founder and first president of what is now the Berlin-Brandenburgische Academy of Sciences and Humanities.