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  1. Cancer Stem Cells Modulate Patterns and Processes of Evolution in Cancers.Lucie Laplane - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):18.
    The clonal evolution model and the cancer stem cell model are two independent models of cancers, yet recent data shows intersections between the two models. This article explores the impacts of the CSC model on the CE model. I show that CSC restriction, which depends on CSC frequency in cancer cell populations and on the probability of dedifferentiation of cancer non-stem cells into CSCs, can favor or impede some patterns of evolution and some processes of evolution. Taking CSC restriction into (...)
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  2. Selection at Multiple Levels.Simon M. Huttegger - 2007 - Biological Theory 2 (4):429-431.
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  3. In Defence of Generalized Darwinism.Howard E. Aldrich, Geoffrey M. Hodgson, David L. Hull, Thorbjørn Knudsen, Joel Mokyr & Viktor J. Vanberg - 2008 - Journal of Evolutionary Economics 18:577-596.
    Darwin himself suggested the idea of generalizing the core Darwinian principles to cover the evolution of social entities. Also in the nineteenth century, influential social scientists proposed their extension to political society and economic institutions. Nevertheless, misunderstanding and misrepresentation have hindered the realization of the powerful potential in this longstanding idea. Some critics confuse generalization with analogy. Others mistakenly presume that generalizing Darwinism necessarily involves biological reductionism. This essay outlines the types of phenomena to which a generalized Darwinism applies, and (...)
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  4. Levels of Selection in Darwin’s Origin of Species.Gordon Chancellor - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37 (2):131-157.
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  5. Levels of Selection in Darwin’s Origin of Species.Gordon Chancellor - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37 (2):131-157.
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  6. Multi-Level Selection and the Issue of Environmental Homogeneity.Ciprian Jeler - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (5):651-681.
    In this paper, I identify two general positions with respect to the relationship between environment and natural selection. These positions consist in claiming that selective claims need and, respectively, need not be relativized to homogenous environments. I then show that adopting one or the other position makes a difference with respect to the way in which the effects of selection are to be measured in certain cases in which the focal population is distributed over heterogeneous environments. Moreover, I show that (...)
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  7. The Representation of Protein Complexes in the Protein Ontology.Carol Bult, Harold Drabkin, Alexei Evsikov, Darren Natale, Cecilia Arighi, Natalia Roberts, Alan Ruttenberg, Peter D’Eustachio, Barry Smith, Judith Blake & Cathy Wu - 2011 - BMC Bioinformatics 12 (371):1-11.
    Representing species-specific proteins and protein complexes in ontologies that are both human and machine-readable facilitates the retrieval, analysis, and interpretation of genome-scale data sets. Although existing protin-centric informatics resources provide the biomedical research community with well-curated compendia of protein sequence and structure, these resources lack formal ontological representations of the relationships among the proteins themselves. The Protein Ontology (PRO) Consortium is filling this informatics resource gap by developing ontological representations and relationships among proteins and their variants and modified forms. Because (...)
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  8. Is Evolution Fundamental When It Comes to Defining Biological Ontology?Ellen Clarke - forthcoming - In Shamik Dasgupta & Brad Westlake (eds.), Current Controversies in Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
    I argue for the usefulness of the evolutionary kind of biological individual.
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  9. It’s the Song, Not the Singer: An Exploration of Holobiosis and Evolutionary Theory.W. Ford Doolittle & Austin Booth - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (1):5-24.
    That holobionts are units of selection squares poorly with the observation that microbes are often recruited from the environment, not passed down vertically from parent to offspring, as required for collective reproduction. The taxonomic makeup of a holobiont’s microbial community may vary over its lifetime and differ from that of conspecifics. In contrast, biochemical functions of the microbiota and contributions to host biology are more conserved, with taxonomically variable but functionally similar microbes recurring across generations and hosts. To save what (...)
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  10. Samir Okasha:Evolution and the Levels of Selection,:Evolution and the Levels of Selection. [REVIEW]Alirio Rosales - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (2):254-256.
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  11. A Levels-of-Selection Approach to Evolutionary Individuality.Ellen Clarke - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (6):893-911.
    What changes when an evolutionary transition in individuality takes place? Many different answers have been given, in respect of different cases of actual transition, but some have suggested a general answer: that a major transition is a change in the extent to which selection acts at one hierarchical level rather than another. The current paper evaluates some different ways to develop this general answer as a way to characterise the property ‘evolutionary individuality’; and offers a justification of the option taken (...)
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  12. Principles of Selection in Animal Learning.Harvey Carr - 1914 - Psychological Review 21 (3):157-165.
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  13. Philosophical Dimensions of Individuality.Alan C. Love & Ingo Brigandt - 2017 - In Scott Lidgard & Lynn K. Nyhart (eds.), Biological Individuality: Integrating Scientific, Philosophical, and Historical Perspectives. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 318–348.
    Although natural philosophers have long been interested in individuality, it has been of interest to contemporary philosophers of biology because of its role in different aspects of evolutionary biology. These debates include whether species are individuals or classes, what counts as a unit of selection, and how transitions in individuality occur evolutionarily. Philosophical analyses are often conducted in terms of metaphysics (“what is an individual?”), rather than epistemology (“how can and do researchers conceptualize individuals so as to address some of (...)
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  14. Do We Need a New Account of Group Selection? A Reply to McLoone.Ciprian Jeler - 2016 - Biological Theory 11 (2):57-68.
    In "Some Criticism of the Contextual Approach, and a Few Proposals" in Biological Theory, Brian McLoone discusses some of the points about the contextual approach that I made in a recent paper. Besides offering a reply to McLoone’s comments on my paper, in this article I show why McLoone’s discussion of the two main frameworks for thinking about group selection—the contextual and the Price approach—is partly misguided. In particular, I show that one of McLoone’s main arguments against the contextual approach (...)
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  15. In Defence of Classification.John Dupré - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 32 (2):203-219.
    It has increasingly been recognised that units of biological classification cannot be identified with the units of evolution. After briefly defending the necessity of this distinction I argue, contrary to the prevailing orthodoxy, that species should be treated as the fundamental units of classification and not, therefore, as units of evolution. This perspective fits well with the increasing tendency to reject the search for a monistic basis of classification and embrace a pluralistic and pragmatic account of the species category. It (...)
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  16. The Emergence of Selection Rules and Their Encounter with Group Theory, 1913–1927.Arianna Borrelli - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 40 (4):327-337.
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  17. Organizational Levels and Explanation.Clifford Grobstein - 1969 - Journal of the History of Biology 2 (1):199-206.
  18. Screening-Off and The Levels of Selection.Ron McClamrock - 1995 - Erkenntnis 42 (1):107-112.
    In The Levels of Selection (Brandon, 1984), Robert Brandon provides a suggestive but ultimately unsuccessful attempt to use the probabilistic notion ofscreening off in providing a schema for dealing with an aspect of the units of selection question in the philosophy of biology. I characterize that failure, and suggest a revision and expansion of Brandon's account which addresses its key shortcoming.
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  19. The Evolution of Failure: Explaining Cancer as an Evolutionary Process.Christopher Lean & Anya Plutynski - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (1):39-57.
    One of the major developments in cancer research in recent years has been the construction of models that treat cancer as a cellular population subject to natural selection. We expand on this idea, drawing upon multilevel selection theory. Cancer is best understood in our view from a multilevel perspective, as both a by-product of selection at other levels of organization, and as subject to selection at several levels of organization. Cancer is a by-product in two senses. First, cancer cells co-opt (...)
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  20. Memes and the Ecological Niche.Deby Cassill & Benjamin Hardisty - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (2):109-111.
  21. The Selfish Gene Revisited: Reconciliation of Williams-Dawkins and Conventional Definitions.Donald R. Forsdyke - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):246-255.
    Sightings of the revolutionary comet that appeared in the skies of evolutionary biology in 1976—the selfish gene—date back to the 19th and early 20th centuries. It became generally recognized that genes were located on chromosomes and compete with each other in a manner consistent with the later appellation “selfish.” Chromosomes were seen as disruptable by the apparently random “cut and paste” process known as recombination. However, each gene was only a small part of its chromosome. On a statistical basis a (...)
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  22. Social Groups Go Places.Vidyanand Nanjundiah - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (2):236-238.
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  23. Group Selection and Group Adaptation During a Major Evolutionary Transition: Insights From the Evolution of Multicellularity in the Volvocine Algae.Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):452-469.
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  24. Group Selection and Methodological Individualism.Gerald Glaser - unknown - Eidos: The Canadian Graduate Journal of Philosophy 3.
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  25. Group Selection and Contextual Analysis.Eugene Earnshaw - 2015 - Synthese 192 (1):305-316.
    Multi-level selection can be understood via the Price equation or contextual analysis, which offer incompatible statistical decompositions of evolutionary change into components of group and individual selection. Okasha argued that each approach suffers from problem cases. I introduce further problem cases for the Price approach, arguing that it is appropriate for MLS 2 group selection but not MLS 1. I also show that the problem cases Okasha raises for contextual analysis can be resolved. For some such cases, however, it emerges (...)
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  26. Heresy-Hammering, Group Selection, And Epistemic Responsibility.Ronnie Hawkins - 2008 - Florida Philosophical Review 8 (1):189-212.
    The way in which the theory of “group selection” was treated as a heresy in evolutionary biology during the latter part of the twentieth century is considered as itself being an emergent group phenomenon, and some possible reasons why this particular theory had to be repudiated by the dominant group are explored. Then the process of “heresy-hammering” in general is examined as a behavior that can block important feedback, allowing the group to engage in a form of collective selfdeception, and (...)
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  27. The Cultural Evolution of Emergent Group-Level Traits.Paul E. Smaldino - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (3):243-254.
  28. The Selfish Goal Meets the Selfish Gene.Steven L. Neuberg & Mark Schaller - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (2):153-154.
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  29. The Validity of Dawkins's Selfish Gene Theory and the Role of the Unconscious in Decision Making.Tobias A. Mattei - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (2):148-149.
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  30. Symbiosis, Selection, and Individuality.Austin Booth - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (5):657-673.
    A recent development in biology has been the growing acceptance that holobionts, entities comprised of symbiotic microbes and their host organisms, are widespread in nature. There is agreement that holobionts are evolved outcomes, but disagreement on how to characterize the operation of natural selection on them. The aim of this paper is to articulate the contours of the disagreement. I explain how two distinct foundational accounts of the process of natural selection give rise to competing views about evolutionary individuality.
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  31. Levels of Selection and the Formal Darwinism Project.Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):217-224.
    Understanding good design requires addressing the question of what units undergo natural selection, thereby becoming adapted. There is, therefore, a natural connection between the formal Darwinism project (which aims to connect population genetics with the evolution of design and fitness maximization) and levels of selection issues. We argue that the formal Darwinism project offers contradictory and confusing lines of thinking concerning level(s) of selection. The project favors multicellular organisms over both the lower (cell) and higher (social group) levels as the (...)
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  32. The Units of Evolution: Essays on the Nature of Species.Marc Ereshefsky & Peter James - 1994 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 16 (2):355.
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  33. Discussion: Screening-Off and Visibility to Selection-Reply.R. N. Brandon - 1997 - Biology and Philosophy 12 (4):531-538.
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  34. Organisms in Evolution.Johannes Martens - 2010 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32 (2/3).
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  35. Okasha's Unintended Argument for Toolbox Theorizing.C. Kenneth Waters - 2011 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 82 (1):232-240.
    Okasha claims at the outset of his book "Evolution and the Levels of Selection" (2006) that the Price equation lays bare the fundamentals underlying all selection phenomena. However, the thoroughness of his subsequent analysis of multi-level selection theories leads him to abandon his fundamentalist commitments. At critical points he invokes cost benefit analyses that sometimes favors the Price approach and sometimes the contextual approach, sometimes favors MLS1 and sometimes MLS2. And although he doesn’t acknowledge it, even the Price approach breaks (...)
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  36. LEVELS OF EXPLANATION AND THE UNIT OF SELECTION: A Review of Genes, Organisms, and Populations, Edited by Robert Brandon and Richard Burian. MIT Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1984.Harold Kincaid - 1986 - Behaviorism 14 (1):69-76.
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  37. Group Selection, Morality, and Environmental Problems.Iver Mysterud - 2000 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.
    As various kinds of resources become scarce within the context of today's population, consumption, and environmental problems, conflicts of interest will become more evident, competition become more intense, and certain kinds of ‘unwanted’ behavioural strategies might have a tendency to emerge and be used by a growing number of individuals. In such situations, humans may activate group adaptations. If we have group adaptations, like a tendency to classify humans into in-groups and out-groups and to develop moralities favouring one's in-group, it (...)
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  38. Genes, Organisms, Populations: Controversies Over the Units of Selection.Robert N. Brandon & Richard Burian (eds.) - 1986 - Bradford.
    This anthology collects some of the most important papers on what is believed to be the major force in evolution, natural selection. An issue of great consequence in the philosophy of biology concerns the levels at which, and the units upon which selection acts. In recent years, biologists and philosophers have published a large number of papers bearing on this subject. The papers selected for inclusion in this book are divided into three main sections covering the history of the subject, (...)
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  39. Units of Evolution: A Metaphysical Essay.David L. Hull - 1981 - In Uffe Juul Jensen & Rom Harré (eds.), The Philosophy of Evolution. St. Martin's Press. pp. 23--44.
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  40. From Group Selection to Ecological Niches.Jack Birner - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 185--202.
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  41. Dogma, Heresy, and Conversion: Vero Copner Wynne-Edwards's Crusade and the Levels-of-Selection Debate.Mark Borrello - 2008 - In Oren Harman & Michael Dietrich (eds.), Rebels, Mavericks, and Heretics in Biology. Yale University Press. pp. 213.
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  42. Selection Criteria for Group Therapy.G. R. Bond & M. A. Lieberman - 1978 - In John Paul Brady & H. Keith H. Brodie (eds.), Controversy in Psychiatry. Saunders. pp. 679--702.
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  43. Evolution in Spatial Predator–Prey Models and the “Prudent Predator”: The Inadequacy of Steady‐State Organism Fitness and the Concept of Individual and Group Selection.Charles Goodnight, E. Rauch, Hiroki Sayama, Marcus A. M. De Aguiar, M. Baranger & Yaneer Bar‐yam - 2008 - Complexity 13 (5):23-44.
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  44. The Neutral Theory is Dead. The Current Significance and Standing of Neutral and Nearly Neutral Theories.Tomoko Ohta - 1996 - Bioessays 18 (8):673-677.
  45. More on the Neutralist-Selectionist Debate.Tomoko Ohta - 1997 - Bioessays 19 (4):359-359.
  46. Do Alternative Hypotheses Evoke 'Red Alert' Among Co‐Evolutionists?H. Martin Schaefer & Gregor Rolshausen - 2006 - Bioessays 28 (9):960-961.
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  47. Causes, Ends, and the Units of Selection.R. Holcomb Harmon Iii - 1986 - Philosophy Research Archives 12:519-539.
    This paper inquires into the very possibility of the units of selection debate’s origin in the problem of altruism, function in articulating the evolutionary synthesis, and philosophical status as a problem in clarifying what makes something a level or unit of selection. What makes the debate possible? In terms of origins, there are a number of logically possible ways to deviate from the model of Darwinian individual selection to explain evolved traits. In terms of function, adherence to the evolutionary synthesis (...)
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  48. Altruistic Punishment and Between-Group Competition.Susanne Rebers & Ruud Koopmans - 2012 - Human Nature 23 (2):173-190.
    Collective action, or the large-scale cooperation in the pursuit of public goods, has been suggested to have evolved through cultural group selection. Previous research suggests that the costly punishment of group members who do not contribute to public goods plays an important role in the resolution of collective action dilemmas. If large-scale cooperation sustained by the punishment of defectors has evolved through the mechanism of cultural group selection, two implications regarding costly punishment follow: (1) that people are more willing to (...)
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  49. Towards an Evolutionary Biosemiotics: Semiotic Selection and Semiotic Co-Option. [REVIEW]Timo Maran & Karel Kleisner - 2010 - Biosemiotics 3 (2):189-200.
    In biosemiotics, living beings are not conceived of as the passive result of anonymous selection pressures acted upon through the course of evolution. Rather, organisms are considered active participants that influence, shape and re-shape other organisms, the surrounding environment, and eventually also their own constitutional and functional integrity. The traditional Darwinian division between natural and sexual selection seems insufficient to encompass the richness of these processes, particularly in light of recent knowledge on communicational processes in the realm of life. Here, (...)
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  50. The Genome‐Centric Concept: Resynthesis of Evolutionary Theory.Henry H. Q. Heng - 2009 - Bioessays 31 (5):512-525.
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