This category needs an editor. We encourage you to help if you are qualified.
Volunteer, or read more about what this involves.
Related categories

51 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 51
  1. Focus and Uninformativity in Yucatec Maya Questions.Scott AnderBois - 2012 - Natural Language Semantics 20 (4):349-390.
    Crosslinguistically, questions frequently make crucial use of morphosyntactic elements which also occur outside of questions. Chief among these are focus, disjunctions, and wh-words with indefinite semantics. This paper provides a compositional account of the semantics of wh-, alternative, and polar questions in Yucatec Maya (YM), which are composed primarily of these elements. Key to the account is a theory of disjunctions and indefinites (extending work by others) which recognizes the inherently inquisitive nature of these elements. While disjunctions and indefinites are (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  2. Focus Below the Word Level.Ron Artstein - 2004 - Natural Language Semantics 12 (1):1-22.
    Intonational focus can be observed on parts of words that appear to lack intrinsic meaning, and triggers alternatives that are similar in form. In order to provide a unified treatment of focus above and below the word level (they do, after all, behave the same in most respects), I develop a theory of denotations for arbitrary word parts in which focused word parts denote their own sound and the unfocused parts are functions from sounds to word meanings. This allows focus (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning.David I. Beaver - 2008 - Blackwell.
    Sense and Sensitivity explores the semantics and pragmatics of focus in natural language discourse, advancing a new account of focus sensitivity which posits a three-way distinction between different effects of focus. Makes a valuable contribution to the ongoing research in the field of focus sensitivity Discusses the features of QFC, an original theory of focus implying a new typology of focus-sensitive expressions Presents novel cross-linguistic data on focus and focus sensitivity Concludes with a case study of exclusives (like “only”), arguing (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   15 citations  
  4. Always and Only: Why Not All Focus-Sensitive Operators Are Alike. [REVIEW]David Beaver & Brady Clark - 2003 - Natural Language Semantics 11 (4):323-362.
    We discuss focus sensitivity in English, the phenomenon whereby interpretation of some expressions is affected by placement of intonational focus. We concentrate in particular on the interpretation of always and only, both of which are interpreted as universal quantifiers, and both of which are focus sensitive. Using both naturally occurring and constructed data we explore the interaction of these operators with negative polarity items, with presupposition, with prosodically reduced elements, and with syntactic extraction. On the basis of this data we (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   11 citations  
  5. Intervention Effects Follow From Focus Interpretation.Sigrid Beck - 2006 - Natural Language Semantics 14 (1):1-56.
    The paper provides a semantic analysis of intervention effects in wh-questions. The interpretation component of the grammar derives uninterpretability, hence ungrammaticality, of the intervention data. In the system of compositional interpretation that I suggest, wh-phrases play the same role as focused phrases, introducing alternatives into the computation. Unlike focus, wh-phrases make no ordinary semantic contribution. An intervention effect occurs whenever a focus-sensitive operator other than the question operator tries to evaluate a constituent containing a wh-phrase. It is argued that this (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   12 citations  
  6. Focus on Again.Sigrid Beck - 2005 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (3):277 - 314.
    This paper examines the effect that focus has on repetitive versus restitutive again. It is argued that a pragmatic explanation of the effect is the right strategy. The explanation builds largely on a standard focus semantics. To this we add an anaphoric analysis of again’s presupposition and a detailed analysis of the alternatives triggered when focus falls on again.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  7. Only: Association with Focus in Event Semantics. [REVIEW]Andrea Bonomi & Paolo Casalegno - 1993 - Natural Language Semantics 2 (1):1-45.
    We propose an analysis ofonly in terms of event semantics. This approach allows a unified treatment of a wide range of cases in whichonly is associated with focused expressions of different categories. Section 1 is devoted to a preliminary discussion of some problems that a good analysis ofonly should solve. In section 2 we concentrate on sentences in which the focused expression is a NP. In section 3 we show how our analysis can be extended to other categories. Finally, section (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  8. On D-Trees, Beans, and B-Accents.Daniel Büring - 2003 - Linguistics and Philosophy 26 (5):511 - 545.
    This paper presents a comprehensive pragmatic theory of contrastive topic and its relation to focus in English. In discussing various constructions involving contrastive topics, it argues that they make reference to complex, hierarchical aspects of discourse structure. In this, it follows and spells out a proposal sketched in Roberts (1996, p. 121ff),using the formal tools found in Büring (1994,1997b). It improves on existing accounts in the accuracy with which it predicts the non-occurrence of the accent patterns associated with focus and (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  9. Topic, Focus, and the Interpretation of Bare Plurals.Ariel Cohen & Nomi Erteschik-Shir - 2002 - Natural Language Semantics 10 (2):125-165.
    In this paper we show that focus structure determines the interpretation of bare plurals in English: topic bare plurals are interpreted generically, focused bare plurals are interpreted existentially. When bare plurals are topics they must be specific, i.e. they refer to kinds. After type-shifting they introduce variables which can be bound by the generic quantifier, yielding characterizing generics. Existentially interpreted bare plurals are not variables, but denote properties that are incorporated into the predicate.The type of predicate determines the interpretation of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  10. English Rise-Fall-Rise: A Study in the Semantics and Pragmatics of Intonation. [REVIEW]Noah Constant - 2012 - Linguistics and Philosophy 35 (5):407-442.
    This paper provides a semantic analysis of English rise-fall-rise (RFR) intonation as a focus quantifier over assertable alternative propositions. I locate RFR meaning in the conventional implicature dimension, and propose that its effect is calculated late within a dynamic model. With a minimum of machinery, this account captures disambiguation and scalar effects, as well as interactions with other focus operators like ‘only’ and clefts. Double focus data further support the analysis, and lead to a rejection of Ward and Hirschberg’s (Language (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11. The Role of Focus, Semantic Overlap and Discourse Function in Noun-Phrase Anaphor Resolution.H. W. Cowles & A. Garnham - 2011 - In Edward Gibson & Neal J. Pearlmutter (eds.), The Processing and Acquisition of Reference. MIT Press.
  12. Linguistic and Cognitive Prominence in Anaphor Resolution: Topic, Contrastive Focus and Pronouns.H. Wind Cowles, Matthew Walenski & Robert Kluender - 2007 - Topoi 26 (1):3-18.
    This paper examines the role that linguistic and cognitive prominence play in the resolution of anaphor–antecedent relationships. In two experiments, we found that pronouns are immediately sensitive to the cognitive prominence of potential antecedents when other antecedent selection cues are uninformative. In experiment 1, results suggest that despite their theoretical dissimilarities, topic and contrastive focus both serve to enhance cognitive prominence. Results from experiment 2 suggest that the contrastive prosody appropriate for focus constructions may also play an important role in (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  13. Language and Illumination.S. Morris Engel - 1969 - The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14. Focus, Parallelism and Accommodation.Danny Fox - unknown
    It is well-known that constructions involving ellipsis share many properties with constructions that involve phonological reduction. The similarity between ECs and PRCs is semantic: the interpretation of both is constrained by the interpretation of an antecedent. Rooth and Tancredi have pointed out that this similarity follows from an independently needed theory of focus.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  15. On the Characterization of Alternatives.Danny Fox & Roni Katzir - 2011 - Natural Language Semantics 19 (1):87-107.
    We present an argument for revising the theory of alternatives for Scalar Implicatures and for Association with Focus. We argue that in both cases the alternatives are determined in the same way, as a contextual restriction of the focus value of the sentence, which, in turn, is defined in structure-sensitive terms. We provide evidence that contextual restriction is subject to a constraint that prevents it from discriminating between alternatives when they stand in a particular logical relationship with the assertion or (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   13 citations  
  16. Focus: A Case Study on the Semantics–Pragmatics Boundary.Michael Glanzberg - 2005 - In Zoltan Szabo (ed.), Semantics Versus Pragmatics. Oxford University Press. pp. 72--110.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  17. Focus and Weak Noun Phrases.Elena Herburger - 1997 - Natural Language Semantics 5 (1):53-78.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  18. On the Meaning of Some Focus-Sensitive Particles.Michela Ippolito - 2007 - Natural Language Semantics 15 (1):1-34.
    In this paper, I argue that the aspectual, marginality, and concessive uses of the grading particles still and already can be reduced to the fol lowing three classes of focus sensitive-grading particles: additive particles like too, scalar particles like even, and exclusive particles like only. The meaning differences among the occurrences of still (and already) are mostly reduced to the differences among these three classes of grading particles. In turn, these differences are shown to correlate with what type of object (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  19. Without 'Focus'.Nirit Kadmon & Aldo Sevi - 2010 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 6 (1):18.
    It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff , must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20. Without 'Focus'.Nirit Kadmon & Aldo Sevi - 2010 - Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 6 (1).
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21. A Note on Contrast.Roni Katzir - 2013 - Natural Language Semantics 21 (4):333-343.
    The semantics of association with focus and the pragmatic conditions governing the appropriateness of focus in discourse are usually taken to depend on focus alternatives. According to a common view, these alternatives are generated by a permissive process. This permissive view has been challenged by Michael Wagner, who has noted that certain alternatives are systematically excluded from consideration. Wagner describes a more restrictive view, on which only contrastive alternatives are relevant for association with focus and for the appropriateness of focus (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  22. Interpreting Focus: Presupposed or Expressive Meanings? A Comment on Geurts and Van der Sandt.Angelika Kratzer - 2004 - Theoretical Linguistics 30:123--136.
    The BPR assumes that we already know how sentences are partitioned into focused and backgrounded material, and this is quite legitimate, given the literature on the topic , von Stechow ). If the BPR was true, no more would have to be said about the meaning of focus. The behavior of whatever inferences are generated by backgrounding could be taken care of by theories dealing with the projection of presuppositions of the familiar kind, the presuppositions of definite descriptions, clefts, or (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  23. A Second Look at Second Occurrence Expressions.Manfred Krifka - unknown
    Recent discussion of the meaning contribution of focus centered around the question of how focus information is integrated into semantic and pragmatic interpretation. One type of theory assumes that certain operators can make direct use of focus information. These theories stipulate that focus-sensitive operators like only or even, quantificational adverbials, and reason clauses have to be associated with a focus in their scope. Such “association with focus” theories have been proposed, for example, by Jackendoff (1972), Jacobs (1983), Rooth (1985), von (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  24. Focus and Negative Polarity in Hindi.Utpal Lahiri - 1998 - Natural Language Semantics 6 (1):57-123.
    This paper presents an analysis of negative polarity items (NPIs) in Hindi. It is noted that NPIs in this language are composed of a (weak) indefinite plus a particle bhii meaning ‘even’. It is argued that the compositional semantics of this combination explains their behavior as NPIs as well as their behavior as free choice (FC) items. I assume that weak Hindi indefinites like ek and koi are to be viewed as a predicate that I call one, a predicate that (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   19 citations  
  25. Talking About Numbers: Easy Arguments for Mathematical Realism. [REVIEW]Richard Lawrence - 2017 - History and Philosophy of Logic 38 (4):1-4.
  26. Alternatives in Different Dimensions: A Case Study of Focus Intervention.Haoze Li & Jess H.-K. Law - 2016 - Linguistics and Philosophy 39 (3):201-245.
    In Beck, focus intervention is used as an argument for reducing Hamblin’s semantics for questions to Rooth’s focus semantics. Drawing on novel empirical evidence from Mandarin and English, we argue that this reduction is unwarranted. Maintaining both Hamblin’s original semantics and Rooth’s focus semantics not only allows for a more adequate account for focus intervention in questions, but also correctly predicts that focus intervention is a very general phenomenon caused by interaction of alternatives in different dimensions.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  27. Davldson Ln Focus.de Caro Mar1o - 1999 - In Mario De Caro (ed.), Interpretations and Causes: New Perspectives on Donald Davidson's Philosophy. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 1.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28. Redundant Answers and Topic-Focus Articulation.Pavel Materna, Eva Hajičová & Petr Sgall - 1987 - Linguistics and Philosophy 10 (1):101 - 113.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29. Topic, Focus and the Logic of Language.Jaroslav Peregrin - unknown
    The terms topic and focus are used by many theoreticians, but they often mean different things. In the most usual informal sense, topic is what an utterance is about (as contrasted to comment), and focus is what is emphasized in the utterance (as contrasted to background). Let us consider how this intuition can be sharpened.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  30. Topic-Focus Articulation as Generalized Quantification.Jaroslav Peregrin - 1995 - In Peter Bosch & Rob van der Sandt (eds.), Focus and Natural Language Processing. Ibm Deutschland. pp. 49--57.
    Recent results of Partee, Rooth, Krifka and other formal semanticians confirm that topic-focus articulation (TFA) of sentence is relevant for its semantics. The essential import of TFA, which is more apparent in case of a language with relatively free word order such as Czech than in case of English, has been traditionally intensively studied by Czech linguists. In this paper we would like to indicate the possibility of the account for TFA in terms of the theory of generalized quantifiers, drawing (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  31. Focus and Higher Order Unification.Stephen Pulman - 1997 - Linguistics and Philosophy 20.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32. Higher Order Unification and the Interpretation of Focus.Stephen G. Pulman - 1997 - Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (1):73-115.
    Higher order unification is a way of combining information (or equivalently, solving equations) expressed as terms of a typed higher order logic. A suitably restricted form of the notion has been used as a simple and perspicuous basis for the resolution of the meaning of elliptical expressions and for the interpretation of some non-compositional types of comparative construction also involving ellipsis. This paper explores another area of application for this concept in the interpretation of sentences containing intonationally marked focus, or (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  33. Descriptions and Pressupositions: Strawson Vs. Russell.Murali Ramachandran - 2008 - South African Journal of Philosophy 27 (3):242-257.
    A Russellian theory of (definite) descriptions takes an utterance of the form ‘The F is G' to express a purely general proposition that affirms the existence of a (contextually) unique F: there is exactly one F [which is C] and it is G. Strawson, by contrast, takes the utterer to presuppose in some sense that there is exactly one salient F, but this is not part of what is asserted; rather, when the presupposition is not met the utterance simply fails (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  34. Clefts and Their Relatives.Matthew Reeve - 2012 - John Benjamins.
    Introduction -- The syntax of English clefts -- Clefts and the licensing of relative clauses -- Clefts in Slavonic languages -- The syntax of specificational sentences -- Conclusion.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  35. Context and Focus Projection. A Compositional, Intonation-Based Account of Focus Interpretation.Arndt Riester - 2005 - In Emar Maier, Corien Bary & Janneke Huitink (eds.), Proceedings of Sub9. pp. 299--313.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  36. Dretske on Self-Knowledge and Contrastive Focus: How to Understand Dretske's Theory, and Why It Matters.Michael Roche & William Roche - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-18.
    Dretske’s theory of self-knowledge is interesting but peculiar and can seem implausible. He denies that we can know by introspection that we have thoughts, feelings, and experiences. But he allows that we can know by introspection what we think, feel, and experience. We consider two puzzles. The first puzzle, PUZZLE 1, is interpretive. Is there a way of understanding Dretske’s theory on which the (potential) knowledge affirmed by its positive side is different than the (potential) knowledge denied by its negative (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  37. Focus: 271-297.M. Rooth - 1996 - In Shalom Lappin (ed.), The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory. Blackwell Reference. pp. 271-297.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   21 citations  
  38. Notions of Focus Anaphoricity.Mats Rooth - 2008 - Acta Linguistica Hungarica 55 (3-4):277--285.
    This article reviews some of the theoretical notions and empirical phenomena which figure in current formal-semantic theories of focus. It also develops the connection between “alternative semantics” and “givenness” accounts of focus interpretation.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39. A Theory of Focus Interpretation.Mats Rooth - 1992 - Natural Language Semantics 1 (1):75-116.
    According to the alternative semantics for focus, the semantic reflec of intonational focus is a second semantic value, which in the case of a sentence is a set of propositions. We examine a range of semantic and pragmatic applications of the theory, and extract a unitary principle specifying how the focus semantic value interacts with semantic and pragmatic processes. A strong version of the theory has the effect of making lexical or construction-specific stipulation of a focus-related effect in association-with-focus constructions (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   80 citations  
  40. Why Some Foci Must Associate.Roger Schwarzschild - unknown
    The association of only with focus is explained in terms of (a) a semantics for only which makes no mention of focus and (b) discourse appropriateness conditions on the use of focus and principles of quantifier domain selection. This account differs from previous ones in giving sufficient conditions for association with focus but without stipulating it in the meaning of lexical items. Detractors have contended that foci have different pragmatic import depending on whether or not they are associated with a (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41. GIVENness, AVOIDF, and Constraints on the Placement of Focus.Roger Schwarzschild - forthcoming - Natural Language Semantics.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42. The Semantics of Topic-Focus Articuation.Anna Sczabolsci - 1981 - In Jeroen Groenendijk (ed.), Formal Methods in the Study of Language. U of Amsterdam. pp. 513--541.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  43. Superlative Expressions, Context, and Focus.Yael Sharvit & Penka Stateva - 2002 - Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (4):453-504.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  44. Ncsbn Focus.Nancy Spector - 2009 - Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 11 (4):116-119.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  45. Ncsbn Focus.Nancy Spector & Marcy Echternacht - 2010 - Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 12 (1):12-14.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  46. Semantic Emphasis in Causal Sentences.Cindy D. Stern - 1993 - Synthese 95 (3):379 - 418.
    A shift in emphasis can change the truth-value of a singular causal sentence. This poses a challenge to the view that singular sentences predicate a relation. I argue that emphasized causal sentences conjoin predication of a causal relation between events with predication of a relation of causal relevance between states of affairs (or perhaps facts). This is superior to the treatments of such sentences offered by Achinstein, Dretske, Kim, Sanford, Bennett, and Levin. My proposal affords clarity regarding logical structure, at (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  47. Structurally Defined Alternatives and Lexicalizations of XOR.Eric Swanson - 2010 - Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (1):31-36.
    In his recent paper on the symmetry problem Roni Katzir argues that the only relevant factor for the calculation of any Quantity implicature is syntactic structure. I first refute Katzir’s thesis with three examples that show that structural complexity is irrelevant to the calculation of some Quantity implicatures. I then argue that it is inadvisable to assume—as Katzir and others do—that exactly one factor is relevant to the calculation of any Quantity implicature.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  48. The Semantics of Topic-Focus Articulation.Anna Szabolcsi - 1981 - In Jeroen Groenendijk (ed.), Formal methods in the study of language. U of Amsterdam. pp. 2--503.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49. Focus Interpretation in Thetic Statements: Alternative Semantics and Optimality Theory Pragmatics. [REVIEW]Kjell Johan Sæbø - 2006 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16 (1):15-33.
    Broad focus (or informational integration or nonautonomy) is lexically and contextually constrained, but these constraints are not well understood. On a standard theory of focus interpretation, the presupposition of a broad focus is verified whenever those of two narrow foci are. I argue that to account for cases where two narrow foci are preferred, it is necessary to assume that broad focus competes with two narrow foci and implicates the opposite of what they presuppose. Central constraints on thetic statements are (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50. Hungarian 'Focus Position'and English It-Clefts: The Semantic Underspecification of 'Focus' Readings.Daniel Wedgwood, Gergely Petho & Ronnie Cann - forthcoming - Journal of Semantics.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 51