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1064 found
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  1. Paul Grice on Indicative Conditionals.Rani Lill Anjum - manuscript
    Grice argues that indicative conditionals ‘if p then q’ have conventional, truth conditional meaning according to the material conditional ‘p  q’. In order to explain away the known paradoxes with this interpretation, he distinguishes between truth conditions and assertion conditions, attempting to demonstrate that the assumed connection between ‘p’ and ‘q’ (the Indirectness Condition) is a conversational implicature; hence a matter only relevant for the assertion conditions of a conditional. This paper argues that Grice fails to demonstrate i) that (...)
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  2. Conditionals and Truth Functionality.Rani Lill Anjum - manuscript
    The material interpretation of conditionals is commonly recognized as involving some paradoxical results. I here argue that the truth functional approach to natural language is the reason for the inadequacy of this material interpretation, since the truth or falsity of some pair of statements ‘p’ and ‘q’ cannot per se be decisive for the truth or falsity of a conditional relation ‘if p then q’. This inadequacy also affects the ability of the overall formal system to establish whether or not (...)
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  3. All Men Are Animals: Hypothetical, Categorical, or Material?Rani Lill Anjum & Johan Arnt Myrstad - manuscript
    The conditional interpretation of general categorical statements like ‘All men are animals’ as universally quantified material conditionals ‘For all x, if x is F, then x is G’ suggests that the logical structure of law statements is conditional rather than categorical. Disregarding the problem that the universally quantified material conditional is trivially true whenever there are no xs that are F, there are some reasons to be sceptical of Frege’s equivalence between categorical and conditional expressions. -/- Now many philosophers will (...)
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  4. On Representations of Intended Structures in Foundational Theories.Neil Barton, Moritz Müller & Mihai Prunescu - manuscript
    Often philosophers, logicians, and mathematicians employ a notion of intended structure when talking about a branch of mathematics. In addition, we know that there are foundational mathematical theories that can find representatives for the objects of informal mathematics. In this paper, we examine how faithfully foundational theories can represent intended structures, and show that this question is closely linked to the decidability of the theory of the intended structure. We argue that this sheds light on the trade-off between expressive power (...)
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  5. The Metaphysical Significance of the Ugly-Duckling Theorem.Ben Blumson - manuscript
    According to Satosi Watanabe's "theorem of the ugly duckling", the number of predicates satisfied by any two different particulars is a constant, which does not depend on the choice of the two particulars. If the number of predicates satisfied by two particulars is their number of properties in common, and the degree of resemblance between two particulars is a function of their number of properties in common, then it follows that the degree of resemblance between any two different particulars is (...)
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  6. Homo Deceptus: How Language Creates its Own Reality.Bruce Bokor - manuscript
    Homo deceptus is a book that brings together new ideas on language, consciousness and physics into a comprehensive theory that unifies science and philosophy in a different kind of Theory of Everything. The subject of how we are to make sense of the world is addressed in a structured and ordered manner, which starts with a recognition that scientific truths are constructed within a linguistic framework. The author argues that an epistemic foundation of natural language must be understood before laying (...)
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  7. On the Philosophical Motivations for the Logics of Formal Consistency and Inconsistency.Walter Carnielli & Rodrigues Abilio - manuscript
    We present a philosophical motivation for the logics of formal inconsistency, a family of paraconsistent logics whose distinctive feature is that of having resources for expressing the notion of consistency within the object language. We shall defend the view according to which logics of formal inconsistency are theories of logical consequence of normative and epistemic character. This approach not only allows us to make inferences in the presence of contradictions, but offers a philosophically acceptable account of paraconsistency.
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  8. Prior's Puzzle Generalized.Justin D'Ambrosio - manuscript
    Prior’s puzzle is standardly taken to be the puzzle of why, given the assumption that that-clauses denote propositions, substitution of “the proposition that P” for “that P” within the complements of many propositional attitude verbs is invalid. I show that Prior’s puzzle is much more general than is ordinarily supposed. There are two variants on the substitutional form of the puzzle—a quantificational variant and a pronominal variant—and all three forms of the puzzle arise in a wide range of grammatical positions, (...)
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  9. On Logical and Scientific Strength.Luca Incurvati & Carlo Nicolai - manuscript
    The notion of strength has featured prominently in recent debates about abductivism in the epistemology of logic. Following Williamson and Russell, we distinguish between logical and scientific strength and discuss the limits of the characterizations they employ. We then suggest understanding logical strength in terms of interpretability strength and scientific strength as a special case of logical strength. We present applications of the resulting notions to comparisons between logics in the traditional sense and mathematical theories.
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  10. Defining a Decidability Decider.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    By extending the notion of a Well Formed Formula to include syntactically formalized rules for rejecting semantically incorrect expressions we recognize and reject expressions that have the semantic error of Pathological self-reference(Olcott 2004). The foundation of this system requires the notion of a BaseFact that anchors the semantic notions of True and False. When-so-ever a formal proof from BaseFacts of language L to a closed WFF X or ~X of language L does not exist X is decided to be semantically (...)
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  11. How Gödelian Ontological Arguments Fail.Matthew Parker - manuscript
    Ontological arguments like those of Gödel (1995) and Pruss (2009; 2012) rely on premises that initially seem plausible, but on closer scrutiny are not. The premises have modal import that is required for the arguments but is not immediately grasped on inspection, and which ultimately undermines the simpler logical intuitions that make the premises seem plausible. Furthermore, the notion of necessity that they involve goes unspecified, and yet must go beyond standard varieties of logical necessity. This leaves us little reason (...)
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  12. Active Logic Semantics for a Single Agent in a Static World.Michael Anderson, Walid Gomaa, John Grant & Don Perlis - manuscript
    Artificial Intelligence, in press. Abstract: For some time we have been developing, and have had significant practical success with, a time-sensitive, contradiction-tolerant logical reasoning engine called the active logic machine (ALMA). The current paper details a semantics for a general version of the underlying logical formalism, active logic. Central to active logic are special rules controlling the inheritance of beliefs in general (and of beliefs about the current time in particular), very tight controls on what can be derived from direct (...)
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  13. 18th Amsterdam Colloquium.M. Aloni (ed.) - forthcoming - Springer.
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  14. Structural Relativity and Informal Rigour.Neil Barton - forthcoming - In Objects, Structures, and Logics, FilMat Studies in the Philosophy of Mathematics.
    Informal rigour is the process by which we come to understand particular mathematical structures and then manifest this rigour through axiomatisations. Structural relativity is the idea that the kinds of structures we isolate are dependent upon the logic we employ. We bring together these ideas by considering the level of informal rigour exhibited by our set-theoretic discourse, and argue that different foundational programmes should countenance different underlying logics (intermediate between first- and second-order) for formulating set theory. By bringing considerations of (...)
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  15. Annual General Meeting Members Lunch.Elspeth Bodley, Louise Donohoe, Councillor Bill Coombes, Vice-President Rod Barnett, Michael Phelps, Walter Hawkins, Tal Williams, Gavin Lee & Jo Clay - forthcoming - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology.
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  16. Content Recarving as Subject Matter Restriction.Vincenzo Ciccarelli - forthcoming - Manuscrito: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 42 (1).
    In this article I offer an explicating interpretation of the procedure of content recarving as described by Frege in §64 of the Foundations of Arithmetic. I argue that the procedure of content recarving may be interpreted as an operation that while restricting the subject matter of a sentence, performs a generalization on what the sentence says about its subject matter. The characterization of the recarving operation is given in the setting of Yablo’s theory of subject matter and it is based (...)
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  17. Is Aristotle's Syllogistic a Logic?Phil Corkum - forthcoming - History and Philosophy of Logic.
    Much of the last fifty years of scholarship on Aristotle’s syllogistic suggests a conceptual framework under which the syllogistic is a logic, a system of inferential reasoning, only if it is not a theory or formal ontology, a system concerned with general features of the world. In this paper, I will argue that this a misleading interpretative framework. The syllogistic is something sui generis: by our lights, it is neither clearly a logic, nor clearly a theory, but rather exhibits certain (...)
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  18. The Centre for Logic in Campinas and the Development of Logic in Brazil.Iml D'Ottaviano, Wa Carnielli & Eh Alves - forthcoming - Logique Et Analyse.
  19. Twelfth Asian Logic Conference.Rod Downey - forthcoming - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic.
  20. 2012 North American Annual Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic.Bradd Hart - forthcoming - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic.
  21. Husserl on Kant and the Critical View of Logic.Mirja Hartimo - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-18.
    ABSTRACTThis paper seeks to clarify Husserl’s critical remarks about Kant’s view of logic by comparing their respective views of logic. In his Formal and Transcendental Logic Husserl c...
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  22. Institute of Social Research National University of Mexico.Regina Jimenez-Ottalengo - forthcoming - Semiotics.
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  23. 'Proceedings of the 2016 Annual Meeting of the International Association for Computing and Philosophy'.Khudairi Hasen - forthcoming
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  24. There May Be Many Arithmetical Gödel Sentences.Kaave Lajevardi & Saeed Salehi - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica:nkaa041.
    We argue that, under the usual assumptions for sufficiently strong arithmetical theories that are subject to Gödel’s First Incompleteness Theorem, one cannot, without impropriety, talk about *the* Gödel sentence of the theory. The reason is that, without violating the requirements of Gödel’s theorem, there could be a true sentence and a false one each of which is provably equivalent to its own unprovability in the theory if the theory is unsound.
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  25. Logical Theory Revision Through Data Underdetermination: An Anti-Exceptionalist Exercise.Sanderson Molick - forthcoming - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology.
    The anti-exceptionalist debate brought into play the problem of what are the relevant data for logical theories and how such data affects the validities accepted by a logical theory. In the present paper, I depart from Laudan’s reticulated model of science to analyze one aspect of this problem, namely of the role of logical data within the process of revision of logical theories. For this, I argue that the ubiquitous nature of logical data is responsible for the proliferation of several (...)
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  26. Dialogue, Rationality, Formalism. Interdisciplinary Works in Logic, Epistemology, Psychology and Linguistics.Manuel Rebuschi, Martine Batt, Gerhard Heinzmann, Franck Lihoreau, Michel Musiol & Alain Trognon (eds.) - forthcoming - Springer.
  27. How Logic Speals.Charles Travis - forthcoming - In Alan Berger (ed.), a Festschrift for Hilary Putnam.
    This is to appear in a Festschrift for Hilary Putnam on his 85th birthday. This is a pre-publication, not final, version.
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  28. Where Words Fail.Charles Travis - forthcoming - In Sofia Miguens (ed.), The Logical Alien at 20. HUP.
  29. The 1994 Annual Meeting of the Japan Society for Buddhist-Christian Studies.Jan Van Bragt - forthcoming - Buddhist-Christian Studies.
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  30. Inferential Role and the Ideal of Deductive Logic.Thomas Hofweber - unknown - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 5.
    Although there is a prima facie strong case for a close connection between the meaning and inferential role of certain expressions, this connection seems seriously threatened by the semantic and logical paradoxes which rely on these inferential roles. Some philosophers have drawn radical conclusions from the paradoxes for the theory of meaning in general, and for which sentences in our language are true. I criticize these overreactions, and instead propose to distinguish two conceptions of inferential role. This distinction is closely (...)
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  31. Descent and Logic in Biosystematics.Thomas McCabe (ed.) - 2021 - Juneau: Perseverant Publishing.
    Descent and Logic in Biosystematics is a short multidisciplinary book about biological systematics and taxonomy. Some of the subjects covered in it are philosophical---taxonomic theory, species concepts, speciation models, and evolutionary theories. Yet the book also covers matters not philosophical, such as taxonomic operations, experimental taxonomy, and two new suggested taxonomic methods, with worked examples. The author finds relationships among these topics. The book is addressed to both working taxonomists, and to philosophers with an interest in biology. It will also (...)
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  32. Descriptive Complexity, Computational Tractability, and the Logical and Cognitive Foundations of Mathematics.Markus Pantsar - 2021 - Minds and Machines 31 (1):75-98.
    In computational complexity theory, decision problems are divided into complexity classes based on the amount of computational resources it takes for algorithms to solve them. In theoretical computer science, it is commonly accepted that only functions for solving problems in the complexity class P, solvable by a deterministic Turing machine in polynomial time, are considered to be tractable. In cognitive science and philosophy, this tractability result has been used to argue that only functions in P can feasibly work as computational (...)
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  33. Veritism and the Normativity of Logic.Nader Shoaibi - 2021 - Ratio 34 (1):7-19.
    The idea that logic is in some sense normative for thought and reasoning is a familiar one. Some of the most prominent figures in the history of philosophy including Kant and Frege have been among its defenders. The most natural way of spelling out this idea is to formulate wide-scope deductive requirements on belief which rule out certain states as irrational. But what can account for the truth of such deductive requirements of rationality? By far, the most prominent responses draw (...)
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  34. Some Logical Notations for Pragmatic Assertions.Massimiliano Carrara, Daniele Chiffi & Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen - 2020 - Logique Et Analyse 251:297 - 315.
    The pragmatic notion of assertion has an important inferential role in logic. There are also many notational forms to express assertions in logical systems. This paper reviews, compares and analyses languages with signs for assertions, including explicit signs such as Frege’s and Dalla Pozza’s logical systems and implicit signs with no specific sign for assertion, such as Peirce’s algebraic and graphical logics and the recent modification of the latter termed Assertive Graphs. We identify and discuss the main ‘points’ of these (...)
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  35. The Productive Ambiguity of Venn’s Three Circles.Jens Lemanski & Amirouche Moktefi - 2020 - In Kristof Nyiri, András Benedek & Petra Aczel (eds.), How Images Behave: 9th Budapest Visual Learning Conference, Budapest, 26 November 2020. Hungarian Academy of Sciences. pp. 245-248.
    It is not rare to meet in scientific literature with a figure made of three circles, intersecting in such a way as to delineate all the combinations of the components that they stand for. This figure is commonly known as a ‘Venn diagram’ or ‘Venn’s three circles’. In this paper, we argue that many so-called Venn diagrams found in modern scientific literature do not truly depict intersections, and hence, are not true Venn diagrams.
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  36. Composition of Deductions Within the Propositions-As-Types Paradigm.Ivo Pezlar - 2020 - Logica Universalis (4):1-13.
    Kosta Došen argued in his papers Inferential Semantics (in Wansing, H. (ed.) Dag Prawitz on Proofs and Meaning, pp. 147–162. Springer, Berlin 2015) and On the Paths of Categories (in Piecha, T., Schroeder-Heister, P. (eds.) Advances in Proof-Theoretic Semantics, pp. 65–77. Springer, Cham 2016) that the propositions-as-types paradigm is less suited for general proof theory because—unlike proof theory based on category theory—it emphasizes categorical proofs over hypothetical inferences. One specific instance of this, Došen points out, is that the Curry–Howard isomorphism (...)
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  37. The Placeholder View of Assumptions and the Curry–Howard Correspondence.Ivo Pezlar - 2020 - Synthese:1-17.
    Proofs from assumptions are amongst the most fundamental reasoning techniques. Yet the precise nature of assumptions is still an open topic. One of the most prominent conceptions is the placeholder view of assumptions generally associated with natural deduction for intuitionistic propositional logic. It views assumptions essentially as holes in proofs, either to be filled with closed proofs of the corresponding propositions via substitution or withdrawn as a side effect of some rule, thus in effect making them an auxiliary notion subservient (...)
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  38. Remarks on the Gödelian Anti-Mechanist Arguments.Panu Raatikainen - 2020 - Studia Semiotyczne 34 (1):267–278.
    Certain selected issues around the Gödelian anti-mechanist arguments which have received less attention are discussed.
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  39. The Principle of Equivalence as a Criterion of Identity.Ryan Samaroo - 2020 - Synthese 197 (8):3481-3505.
    In 1907 Einstein had the insight that bodies in free fall do not “feel” their own weight. This has been formalized in what is called “the principle of equivalence.” The principle motivated a critical analysis of the Newtonian and special-relativistic concepts of inertia, and it was indispensable to Einstein’s development of his theory of gravitation. A great deal has been written about the principle. Nearly all of this work has focused on the content of the principle and whether it has (...)
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  40. A General Framework for Probabilistic Measures of Coherence.Michael Schippers & Jakob Koscholke - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (3):395-424.
    Coherence is a property of propositions hanging together or dovetailing with each other. About two decades ago, formal epistemologists started to engage in the project of explicating the seemingly elusive concept of coherence by means of probability theory. Since then, a plethora of coherence measures have been discussed in the literature. In this paper, we propose a general framework for coherence measures that encompasses the different frameworks of deviation measures, overlap measures and mutual support measures of coherence. Above that we (...)
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  41. Non-Normative Logical Pluralism and the Revenge of the Normativity Objection.Erik Stei - 2020 - Philosophical Quarterly 70 (278):162–177.
    Logical pluralism is the view that there is more than one correct logic. Most logical pluralists think that logic is normative in the sense that you make a mistake if you accept the premisses of a valid argument but reject its conclusion. Some authors have argued that this combination is self-undermining: Suppose that L1 and L2 are correct logics that coincide except for the argument from Γ to φ, which is valid in L1 but invalid in L2. If you accept (...)
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  42. Advances in Experimental Philosophy of Logic and Mathematics.Andrew Aberdein & Matthew Inglis (eds.) - 2019 - London: Bloomsbury Academic.
    This book explores the results of applying empirical methods to the philosophy of logic and mathematics. Much of the work that has earned experimental philosophy a prominent place in twenty-first century philosophy is concerned with ethics or epistemology. But, as this book shows, empirical methods are just as much at home in logic and the philosophy of mathematics. -/- Chapters demonstrate and discuss the applicability of a wide range of empirical methods including experiments, surveys, interviews, and data-mining. Distinct themes emerge (...)
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  43. Logical Expressivism, Logical Theory and the Critique of Inferences.Georg Brun - 2019 - Synthese 196 (11):4493-4509.
    The basic idea of logical expressivism in the Brandomian tradition is that logic makes inferential relations explicit and thereby accessible to critical discussion. But expressivists have not given a convincing explanation of what the point of logical theories is. Peregrin provides a starting point by observing a distinction between making explicit and explication in Carnap’s sense of replacing something unclear and vague by something clear and exact. Whereas logical locutions make inferential relations explicit within a language, logical theories use formal (...)
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  44. DLEAC: A Dialetheic Logic with Exclusive Assumptions and Conclusions.Massimiliano Carrara & Enrico Martino - 2019 - Topoi 38 (2):379-388.
    This paper proposes a new dialetheic logic, a Dialetheic Logic with Exclusive Assumptions and Conclusions ), including classical logic as a particular case. In \, exclusivity is expressed via the speech acts of assuming and concluding. In the paper we adopt the semantics of the logic of paradox extended with a generalized notion of model and we modify its proof theory by refining the notions of assumption and conclusion. The paper starts with an explanation of the adopted philosophical perspective, then (...)
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  45. On Quine's Ontology: Quantification, Extensionality and Naturalism (or From Commitment to Indifference).Daniel Durante Pereira Alves - 2019 - Proceedings of Ther 3rd Filomena Workshop.
    Much of the ontology made in the analytic tradition of philosophy nowadays is founded on some of Quine’s proposals. His naturalism and the binding between existence and quantification are respectively two of his very influential metaphilosophical and methodological theses. Nevertheless, many of his specific claims are quite controversial and contemporaneously have few followers. Some of them are: (a) his rejection of higher-order logic; (b) his resistance in accepting the intensionality of ontological commitments; (c) his rejection of first-order modal logic; and (...)
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  46. Relevant Logics, Counterfactual Worlds, and the Understanding of Narrative.Luis Galván - 2019 - In Matei Chihaia & Katharina Rennhak (eds.), Relevance and Narrative Research. Lanham, USA / London: Lexington Books. pp. 37-60.
    The aim of this paper is to explore what insights relevant logics may provide for the understanding of literary fictional narrative. To date, hardly anyone has reflected on the intersection of relevant logics and narratology, and some could think that there is good reason for it. On the one hand, relevance has been a prominent issue in pragmatics, in the tradition of Grice, and Sperber and Wilson; thus framed, relevance is highly context-sensitive, so it seems unsuitable for formal analysis. On (...)
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  47. Sofia A. Yanovskaya: The Marxist Pioneer of Mathematical Logic in the Soviet Union.Dimitris Kilakos - 2019 - Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science 6:49-64.
    K. Marx’s 200th jubilee coincides with the celebration of the 85 years from the first publication of his “Mathematical Manuscripts” in 1933. Its editor, Sofia Alexandrovna Yanovskaya (1896–1966), was a renowned Soviet mathematician, whose significant studies on the foundations of mathematics and mathematical logic, as well as on the history and philosophy of mathematics are unduly neglected nowadays. Yanovskaya, as a militant Marxist, was actively engaged in the ideological confrontation with idealism and its influence on modern mathematics and their interpretation. (...)
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  48. Mechanizing Principia Logico-Metaphysica in Functional Type Theory.Daniel Kirchner, Christoph Benzmüller & Edward N. Zalta - 2019 - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-13.
    Principia Logico-Metaphysica contains a foundational logical theory for metaphysics, mathematics, and the sciences. It includes a canonical development of Abstract Object Theory [AOT], a metaphysical theory that distinguishes between ordinary and abstract objects. This article reports on recent work in which AOT has been successfully represented and partly automated in the proof assistant system Isabelle/HOL. Initial experiments within this framework reveal a crucial but overlooked fact: a deeply-rooted and known paradox is reintroduced in AOT when the logic of complex terms (...)
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  49. The Justification of Identity Elimination in Martin-Löf’s Type Theory.Ansten Klev - 2019 - Topoi 38 (3):577-590.
    On the basis of Martin-Löf’s meaning explanations for his type theory a detailed justification is offered of the rule of identity elimination. Brief discussions are thereafter offered of how the univalence axiom fares with respect to these meaning explanations and of some recent work on identity in type theory by Ladyman and Presnell.
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  50. What Isn’T Obvious About ‘Obvious’: A Data-Driven Approach to Philosophy of Logic.Moti Mizrahi - 2019 - In Andrew Aberdein & Matthew Inglis (eds.), Advances in Experimental Philosophy of Logic and Mathematics. London: Bloomsbury Press. pp. 201-224.
    It is often said that ‘every logical truth is obvious’ (Quine 1970: 82), that the ‘axioms and rules of logic are true in an obvious way’ (Murawski 2014: 87), or that ‘logic is a theory of the obvious’ (Sher 1999: 207). In this chapter, I set out to test empirically how the idea that logic is obvious is reflected in the scholarly work of logicians and philosophers of logic. My approach is data-driven. That is to say, I propose that systematically (...)
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