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About this topic
Summary Any connective defined in any logic which does not correspond to a conjunction, disjunction, conditionals, or negation which is under discussion in the work belongs here.  However, I wish to distinguish between "Logical Connectives, Misc" and "Connectives, Misc" in two ways.  (1) The latter is more appropriate when the connective is not one of the above but nonetheless has a clear linguistic equivalent.  The former is more appropriate in the absence of such an equivalent.  (2) Even in the presence of such an equivalent, if the discussion concerns the purely formal properties of the connective, it fits in both categories.
Key works For logical connectives in group (1) in the summary, there is rarely a key work; for those in group (2) in the summary, there may well be, but this will vary with the connective of which there are far too many to enumerate.
Introductions For logical connectives in group (1) in the summary, there is almost never an introductory work; for those in group (2) in the summary, there may well be, but this will vary with the connective of which there are far too many to enumerate.
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182 found
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1 — 50 / 182
  1. Update Rules and Semantic Universals.Luca Incurvati & Giorgio Sbardolini - manuscript
    We discuss a well-known puzzle about the lexicalization of logical operators in natural language, in particular connectives and quantifiers. Of the many logically possible functions of the relevant type, only few appear in the lexicon of natural languages: the connectives in English, for example, are only 'and', 'or', and perhaps 'nor' (expressing negated disjunction). The logically possible 'nand' (negated conjunction) is not expressed by a lexical entry of English, or of any natural language. The explanation we propose is based on (...)
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  2. Harmony, Normality and Stability.Nils Kurbis - manuscript
    The paper begins with a conceptual discussion of Michael Dummett's proof-theoretic justification of deduction or proof-theoretic semantics, which is based on what we might call Gentzen's thesis: 'the introductions constitute, so to speak, the "definitions" of the symbols concerned, and the eliminations are in the end only consequences thereof, which could be expressed thus: In the elimination of a symbol, the formula in question, whose outer symbol it concerns, may only "be used as that which it means on the basis (...)
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  3. Operators in Nature.M. Burgin & J. E. Brenner - forthcoming - Mind and Society.
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  4. Normality Operators and Classical Recapture in Extensions of Kleene Logics.Ciuni Roberto & Massimiliano Carrara - forthcoming - Logic Journal of the IGPL.
    In this paper, we approach the problem of classical recapture for LP and K3 by using normality operators. These generalize the consistency and determinedness operators from Logics of Formal Inconsistency and Underterminedness, by expressing, in any many-valued logic, that a given formula has a classical truth value (0 or 1). In particular, in the rst part of the paper we introduce the logics LPe and Ke3 , which extends LP and K3 with normality operators, and we establish a classical recapture (...)
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  5. Proof-Theoretic Semantics, Paradoxes and the Distinction Between Sense and Denotation.Luca Tranchini - forthcoming - Journal of Logic and Computation 2014.
    In this paper we show how Dummett-Prawitz-style proof-theoretic semantics has to be modified in order to cope with paradoxical phenomena. It will turn out that one of its basic tenets has to be given up, namely the definition of the correctness of an inference as validity preservation. As a result, the notions of an argument being valid and of an argument being constituted by correct inference rules will no more coincide. The gap between the two notions is accounted for by (...)
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  6. Categoricity and Negation. A Note on Kripke’s Affirmativism.Constantin C. Brîncuș & Iulian D. Toader - 2019 - In The Logica Yearbook 2018. London: College Publications. pp. 57-66.
    We argue that, if taken seriously, Kripke's view that a language for science can dispense with a negation operator is to be rejected. Part of the argument is a proof that positive logic, i.e., classical propositional logic without negation, is not categorical.
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  7. Informal Logic’s Infinite Regress: Inference Through a Looking-Glass.Gilbert Edward Plumer - 2018 - In Steve Oswald & Didier Maillat (eds.), Argumentation and Inference. Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Argumentation, Fribourg 2017, Vol. I. London, UK: College Publications. pp. 365-377.
    I argue against the skeptical epistemological view exemplified by the Groarkes that “all theories of informal argument must face the regress problem.” It is true that in our theoretical representations of reasoning, infinite regresses of self-justification regularly and inadvertently arise with respect to each of the RSA criteria for argument cogency (the premises are to be relevant, sufficient, and acceptable). But they arise needlessly, by confusing an RSA criterion with argument content, usually premise material.
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  8. Change of Logic, Change of Meaning.Jared Warren - 2018 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 96 (2):421-442.
    Some philosophers have argued that putative logical disagreements aren't really disagreements at all since when you change your logic you thereby change the meanings of your logical constants. According to this picture classical logicians and intuitionists don't really disagree, they just mean different things by terms like “not” and “or”. Quine gave an infamous “translation argument” for this view. Here I clarify the change of logic, change of meaning (CLCM) thesis, examine and find fault with Quine's translation argument for the (...)
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  9. The Collapse of Logical Pluralism has Been Greatly Exaggerated.Colin Caret - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (4):739-760.
    According to the logical pluralism of Beall and Restall, there are several distinct relations of logical consequence. Some critics argue that logical pluralism suffers from what I call the collapse problem: that despite its intention to articulate a radically pluralistic doctrine about logic, the view unintentionally collapses into logical monism. In this paper, I propose a contextualist resolution of the collapse problem. This clarifies the mechanism responsible for a plurality of logics and handles the motivating data better than the original (...)
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  10. Some Preliminaries on Assertion and Denial.Massimiliano Carrara, Daniele Chiffi & Ciro De Florio - 2017 - Logique Et Analyse 239:203-207.
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  11. How May the Propositional Calculus Represent?Tristan Haze - 2017 - South American Journal of Logic 3 (1):173-184.
    This paper is a conceptual study in the philosophy of logic. The question considered is 'How may formulae of the propositional calculus be brought into a representational relation to the world?'. Four approaches are distinguished: (1) the denotational approach, (2) the abbreviational approach, (3) the truth-conditional approach, and (4) the modelling approach. (2) and (3) are very familiar, so I do not discuss them. (1), which is now largely obsolete, led to some interesting twists and turns in early analytic philosophy (...)
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  12. Knot and Tonk: Nasty Connectives on Many-Valued Truth-Tables for Classical Sentential Logic.Tim Button - 2016 - Analysis 76 (1):7-19.
    Prior’s Tonk is a famously horrible connective. It is defined by its inference rules. My aim in this article is to compare Tonk with some hitherto unnoticed nasty connectives, which are defined in semantic terms. I first use many-valued truth-tables for classical sentential logic to define a nasty connective, Knot. I then argue that we should refuse to add Knot to our language. And I show that this reverses the standard dialectic surrounding Tonk, and yields a novel solution to the (...)
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  13. Weak Disharmony: Some Lessons for Proof-Theoretic Semantics.Bogdan Dicher - 2016 - Review of Symbolic Logic (3):1-20.
    A logical constant is weakly disharmonious if its elimination rules are weaker than its introduction rules. Substructural weak disharmony is the weak disharmony generated by structural restrictions on the eliminations. I argue that substructural weak disharmony is not a defect of the constants which exhibit it. To the extent that it is problematic, it calls into question the structural properties of the derivability relation. This prompts us to rethink the issue of controlling the structural properties of a logic by means (...)
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  14. Naive Modus Ponens and Failure of Transitivity.Andreas Fjellstad - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (1):65-72.
    In the recent paper “Naive modus ponens”, Zardini presents some brief considerations against an approach to semantic paradoxes that rejects the transitivity of entailment. The problem with the approach is, according to Zardini, that the failure of a meta-inference closely resembling modus ponens clashes both with the logical idea of modus ponens as a valid inference and the semantic idea of the conditional as requiring that a true conditional cannot have true antecedent and false consequent. I respond on behalf of (...)
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  15. Characterizing Invariance.Jack Woods - 2016 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 3:778-807.
    I argue that in order to apply the most common type of criteria for logicality, invariance criteria, to natural language, we need to consider both invariance of content—modeled by functions from contexts into extensions—and invariance of character—modeled, à la Kaplan, by functions from contexts of use into contents. Logical expressionsshould be invariant in both senses. If we do not require this, then old objections due to Timothy McCarthy and William Hanson, suitably modified, demonstrate that content invariant expressions can display intuitive (...)
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  16. Anything Goes.David Ripley - 2015 - Topoi 34 (1):25-36.
    This paper consider Prior's connective Tonk from a particular bilateralist perspective. I show that there is a natural perspective from which we can see Tonk and its ilk as perfectly well-defined pieces of vocabulary; there is no need for restrictions to bar things like Tonk.
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  17. The Size of a Formula as a Measure of Complexity.Jouko Väänänen & Lauri Hella - 2015 - In Andrés Villaveces, Roman Kossak, Juha Kontinen & Åsa Hirvonen (eds.), Logic Without Borders: Essays on Set Theory, Model Theory, Philosophical Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics. De Gruyter. pp. 193-214.
  18. Conversely: Extrapropositional and Prosentential.John Corcoran & Sriram Nambiar - 2014 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 20 (3):404-5.
    This self-contained lecture examines uses and misuses of the adverb conversely with special attention to logic and logic-related fields. Sometimes adding conversely after a conjunction such as and signals redundantly that a converse of what preceded will follow. -/- (1) Tarski read Church and, conversely, Church read Tarski. -/- In such cases, conversely serves as an extrapropositional constituent of the sentence in which it occurs: deleting conversely doesn’t change the proposition expressed. Nevertheless it does introduce new implicatures: a speaker would (...)
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  19. Verbal Disputes in Logic: Against Minimalism for Logical Connectives.Ole Hjortland - 2014 - Logique Et Analyse 57 (227):463-486.
    Logic, Logical connectives, Verbal disputes, Proof theory, Non-classical logic.
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  20. What 'If'?William B. Starr - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14.
    No existing conditional semantics captures the dual role of 'if' in embedded interrogatives — 'X wonders if p' — and conditionals. This paper presses the importance and extent of this challenge, linking it to cross-linguistic patterns and other phenomena involving conditionals. Among these other phenomena are conditionals with multiple 'if'-clauses in the antecedent — 'if p and if q, then r' — and relevance conditionals — 'if you are hungry, there is food in the cupboard'. Both phenomena are shown to (...)
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  21. Some Jump-Like Operations in Β-Recursion Theory.Colin G. Bailey - 2013 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 78 (1):57-71.
    In this paper we show that there are various pseudo-jump operators definable over inadmissible $J_{\beta}$ that relate to the failure of admissiblity and to non-regularity. We will use these ideas to construct some intermediate degrees.
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  22. A Carnapian Approach to Counterexamples to Modus Ponens.Constantin C. Brîncuș & Iulian D. Toader - 2013 - Romanian Journal of Analytic Philosophy 7:78-85.
    This paper attempts to motivate the view that instead of rejecting modus ponens as invalid in certain situations, one could preserve its validity by associating such situations with non-normal interpretations of logical connectives.
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  23. On the Mosaic Method for Many-Dimensional Modal Logics: A Case Study Combining Tense and Modal Operators. [REVIEW]Carlos Caleiro, Luca Viganò & Marco Volpe - 2013 - Logica Universalis 7 (1):33-69.
    We present an extension of the mosaic method aimed at capturing many-dimensional modal logics. As a proof-of-concept, we define the method for logics arising from the combination of linear tense operators with an “orthogonal” S5-like modality. We show that the existence of a model for a given set of formulas is equivalent to the existence of a suitable set of partial models, called mosaics, and apply the technique not only in obtaining a proof of decidability and a proof of completeness (...)
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  24. Deontic ‘Cocktail’ According to E. Mally’s Receipt.Lisanyuk Elena - 2013 - Logical Investigations 19:5-27.
    In 1926, Ernst Mally, an Austrian logician, has introduced a system of deontic logic in which he has proposed three fundamental distinctions which proved to be important in the context of the further development of the logic of norms. It is argued that in his philosophical considerations Mally has introduced a number of important distinctions concerning the very concept of norm, but by getting them confused in introducing the subsequent formalisms he failed to formally preserve them. In some of his (...)
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  25. Singular Terms, Predicates and the Spurious ‘Is’ of Identity.Danny Frederick - 2013 - Dialectica 67 (3):325-343.
    Contemporary orthodoxy affirms that singular terms cannot be predicates and that, therefore, ‘is’ is ambiguous as between predication and identity. Recent attempts to treat names as predicates do not challenge this orthodoxy. The orthodoxy was built into the structure of modern formal logic by Frege. It is defended by arguments which I show to be unsound. I provide a semantical account of atomic sentences which draws upon Mill's account of predication, connotation and denotation. I show that singular terms may be (...)
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  26. Epistemic Operators in Dependence Logic.Pietro Galliani - 2013 - Studia Logica 101 (2):367-397.
    The properties of the ${\forall^{1}}$ quantifier defined by Kontinen and Väänänen in [13] are studied, and its definition is generalized to that of a family of quantifiers ${\forall^{n}}$ . Furthermore, some epistemic operators δ n for Dependence Logic are also introduced, and the relationship between these ${\forall^{n}}$ quantifiers and the δ n operators are investigated.The Game Theoretic Semantics for Dependence Logic and the corresponding Ehrenfeucht- Fraissé game are then adapted to these new connectives.Finally, it is proved that the ${\forall^{1}}$ quantifier (...)
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  27. On material and logical implication: clarifying some common little mistakes.Renato Mendes Rocha - 2013 - Intuitio 6 (2):239-252.
    The aim of this paper is to clarify the truth-functional interpretation of the logical connective of the material implication. The importance of such clarification lies in the fact that it allows avoiding the supposed paradoxes introduced by C. I. Lewis (1918). I argue that an adequate understanding of the history and purposes of logic is enough to dissolve them away. The defense is based on an exposition of propositional compositionalism. To compare, I also present Stalnaker’s (1968) alternative that seeks to (...)
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  28. Counterpart Theory and the Actuality Operator.Ulrich Meyer - 2013 - Mind 122 (485):27-42.
    Fara and Williamson (Mind, 2005) argue that counterpart theory is unable to account for modal claims that use an actuality operator. This paper argues otherwise. Rather than provide a different counterpart translation of the actuality operator itself, the solution presented here starts out with a quantified modal logic in which the actuality operator is redundant, and then translates the sentences of this logic into claims of counterpart theory.
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  29. Frontal Operators in Weak Heyting Algebras.Sergio A. Celani & Hernán J. San Martín - 2012 - Studia Logica 100 (1-2):91-114.
    In this paper we shall introduce the variety FWHA of frontal weak Heyting algebras as a generalization of the frontal Heyting algebras introduced by Leo Esakia in [ 10 ]. A frontal operator in a weak Heyting algebra A is an expansive operator τ preserving finite meets which also satisfies the equation $${\tau(a) \leq b \vee (b \rightarrow a)}$$, for all $${a, b \in A}$$. These operators were studied from an algebraic, logical and topological point of view by Leo Esakia (...)
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  30. Definable Operators on Hilbert Spaces.Isaac Goldbring - 2012 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 53 (2):193-201.
    Let H be an infinite-dimensional (real or complex) Hilbert space, viewed as a metric structure in its natural signature. We characterize the definable linear operators on H as exactly the "scalar plus compact" operators.
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  31. The Russell Operator.L. H. Kauffman - 2012 - Constructivist Foundations 7 (2):112-115.
    Context: The question of how to understand the epistemology of set theory has been a longstanding problem in the foundations of mathematics since Cantor formulated the theory in the 19th century, and particularly since Bertrand Russell articulated his paradox in the early twentieth century. The theory of types pioneered by Russell and Whitehead was simplified by mathematicians to a single distinction between sets and classes. The question of the meaning of this distinction and its necessity still remains open. Problem: I (...)
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  32. Failures of Categoricity and Compositionality for Intuitionistic Disjunction.Jack Woods - 2012 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 1 (4):281-291.
    I show that the model-theoretic meaning that can be read off the natural deduction rules for disjunction fails to have certain desirable properties. I use this result to argue against a modest form of inferentialism which uses natural deduction rules to fix model-theoretic truth-conditions for logical connectives.
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  33. P. F. Strawson on Predication.Danny Frederick - 2011 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):39-57.
    Strawson offers three accounts of singular predication: a grammatical, a category and a mediating account. I argue that the grammatical and mediating accounts are refuted by a host of counter-examples and that the latter is worse than useless. In later works Strawson defends only the category account. This account entails that singular terms cannot be predicates; it excludes non-denoting singular terms from being logical subjects, except by means of an ad hoc analogy; it depends upon a notion of identification that (...)
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  34. The Connectives.Lloyd Humberstone - 2011 - MIT Press.
    It will be an essential resource for philosophers, mathematicians, computer scientists, linguists, or any scholar who finds connectives, and the conceptual issues surrounding them, to be a source of interest.This landmark work offers both ...
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  35. Intuitionistic Logic and Elementary Rules.Lloyd Humberstone & David Makinson - 2011 - Mind 120 (480):1035-1051.
    The interplay of introduction and elimination rules for propositional connectives is often seen as suggesting a distinguished role for intuitionistic logic. We prove three formal results concerning intuitionistic propositional logic that bear on that perspective, and discuss their significance. First, for a range of connectives including both negation and the falsum, there are no classically or intuitionistically correct introduction rules. Second, irrespective of the choice of negation or the falsum as a primitive connective, classical and intuitionistic consequence satisfy exactly the (...)
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  36. A Neighbourhood Semantics for the Logic TK.Cezar A. Mortari & Hércules de Araújo Feitosa - 2011 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 15 (2):287.
    The logic TK was introduced as a propositional logic extending the classical propositional calculus with a new unary operator which interprets some conceptions of Tarski’s consequence operator. TK-algebras were introduced as models to TK . Thus, by using algebraic tools, the adequacy (soundness and completeness) of TK relatively to the TK-algebras was proved. This work presents a neighbourhood semantics for TK , which turns out to be deductively equivalent to the non-normal modal logic EMT4 . DOI:10.5007/1808-1711.2011v15n2p287.
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  37. Reapproaching Ramsey: Conditionals and Iterated Belief Change in the Spirit of AGM.Hans Rott - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (2):155-191.
    According to the Ramsey Test, conditionals reflect changes of beliefs: α > β is accepted in a belief state iff β is accepted in the minimal revision of it that is necessary to accommodate α. Since Gärdenfors’s seminal paper of 1986, a series of impossibility theorems (“triviality theorems”) has seemed to show that the Ramsey test is not a viable analysis of conditionals if it is combined with AGM-type belief revision models. I argue that it is possible to endorse that (...)
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  38. Dynamic Models in Imperative Logic (Imperatives in Action: Changing Minds and Norms).Berislav Žarnić - 2011 - In Anna Brozek, Jacek Jadacki & Berislav Žarnić (eds.), Theory of Imperatives from Different Points of View (2). Wydawnictwo Naukowe Semper.
    The theory of imperatives is philosophically relevant since in building it — some of the long standing problems need to be addressed, and presumably some new ones are waiting to be discovered. The relevance of the theory of imperatives for philosophical research is remarkable, but usually recognized only within the field of practical philosophy. Nevertheless, the emphasis can be put on problems of theoretical philosophy. Proper understanding of imperatives is likely to raise doubts about some of our deeply entrenched and (...)
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  39. Epistemologic Controversy on Quantum Operators.Rafael-Andrés Alemañ-Berenguer - 2010 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 14 (2):241-253.
    Since the very begining of quantum theory there started a debate on the proper role of space and time in it. Some authors assumed that space and time have their own algebraic operators. On that basis they supposed that quantum particles had “coordinates of position”, even though those coordinates were not possible to determine with infinite precision. Furthermore, time in quantum physics was taken to be on an equal foot, by means of a so-called “Heisenberg’s fourth relation of indeterminacy” concerning (...)
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  40. Schönfinkel-Type Operators for Classical Logic.Katalin Bimbó - 2010 - Studia Logica 95 (3):355-378.
    We briefly overview some of the historical landmarks on the path leading to the reduction of the number of logical connectives in classical logic. Relying on the duality inherent in Boolean algebras, we introduce a new operator ( Nallor ) that is the dual of Schönfinkel’s operator. We outline the proof that this operator by itself is sufficient to define all the connectives and operators of classical first-order logic ( Fol ). Having scrutinized the proof, we pinpoint the theorems of (...)
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  41. Diagonalization and Truth Functional Operators.Harry Deutsch - 2010 - Analysis 70 (2):215-217.
    (No abstract is available for this citation).
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  42. Logic TK: Algebraic Notions From Tarski’s Consequence Operator.Hércules A. Feitosa, Mauri C. Do Nascimento & Maria Claudia C. Grácio - 2010 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 14 (1):47-70.
    Tarski apresentou sua definição de operador de consequência com a intenção de expor as concepções fundamentais da consequência lógica. Um espaço de Tarski é um par ordenado determinado por um conjunto não vazio e um operador de consequência sobre este conjunto. Esta estrutura matemática caracteriza um espaço quase topológico. Este artigo mostra uma visão algébrica dos espaços de Tarski e introduz uma lógica proposicional modal que interpreta o seu operador modal nos conjuntos fechados de algum espaço de Tarski. DOI:10.5007/1808-1711.2010v14n1p47.
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  43. Truth and The Ambiguity of Negation.Teresa Marques - 2010 - In Erich Rast & Luiz Carlos Baptista (eds.), Meaning and Context. Peter Lang. pp. 2--235.
    This article has one aim, to reject the claim that negation is semantically ambiguous. The first section presents the putative incompatibility between truth-value gaps and the truth-schema; the second section presents the motivation for the ambiguity thesis; the third section summarizes arguments against the claim that natural language negation is semantically ambiguous; and the fourth section indicates the problems of an introduction of two distinct negation operators in natural language.
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  44. The Display Problem Revisited.Tyke Nunez - 2010 - In Michal Peliš Vit Punčochàr (ed.), Logica Handbook 2010. College Publications. pp. 143-156.
    In this essay I give a complete join semi-lattice of possible display-equivalence schemes for Display Logic, using the standard connectives, and leaving fixed only the schemes governing the star. In addition to proving the completeness of this list, I offer a discussion of the basic properties of these schemes.
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  45. A New Theory of Quantifiers and Term Connectives.Ken Akiba - 2009 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 18 (3):403-431.
    This paper sets forth a new theory of quantifiers and term connectives, called shadow theory , which should help simplify various semantic theories of natural language by greatly reducing the need of Montagovian proper names, type-shifting, and λ-conversion. According to shadow theory, conjunctive, disjunctive, and negative noun phrases such as John and Mary , John or Mary , and not both John and Mary , as well as determiner phrases such as every man , some woman , and the boys (...)
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  46. Neighborhood Semantics for Intentional Operators.Graham Priest - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (2):360-373.
    Towards NonBeing (Priest, 2005) gives a noneist account of the semantics of intentional operators and predicates. The semantics for intentional operators are modelled on those for the , is given and assessed.
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  47. Associative Grammar Combination Operators for Tree-Based Grammars.Yael Sygal & Shuly Wintner - 2009 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 18 (3):293-316.
    Polarized unification grammar (PUG) is a linguistic formalism which uses polarities to better control the way grammar fragments interact. The grammar combination operation of PUG was conjectured to be associative. We show that PUG grammar combination is not associative, and even attaching polarities to objects does not make it order-independent. Moreover, we prove that no non-trivial polarity system exists for which grammar combination is associative. We then redefine the grammar combination operator, moving to the powerset domain, in a way that (...)
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  48. Specified Meet Contraction.Sven Ove Hansson - 2008 - Erkenntnis 69 (1):31-54.
    Specified meet contraction is the operation defined by the identity where ∼ is full meet contraction and f is a sentential selector, a function from sentences to sentences. With suitable conditions on the sentential selector, specified meet contraction coincides with the partial meet contractions that yield a finite-based contraction outcome if the original belief set is finite-based. In terms of cognitive realism, specified meet contraction has an advantage over partial meet contraction in that the selection mechanism operates on sentences rather (...)
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  49. Patrones inferenciales.[author unknown] - 2008 - Critica 40 (120):3-35.
    El objetivo de este artículo es proponer un método de traducción de tablas de verdad a reglas de inferencia, para la lógica proposicional, que sea tan directo como el tradicional método inverso. Este método, además, permitirá resolver de manera elegante el viejo problema, formulado originalmente por Prior en 1960, de determinar qué reglas de inferencia definen un conectivo. /// This article aims at setting forth a method to translate truth tables into inference rules, in propositional logic, which is as straightforward (...)
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  50. Span Operators.B. Brogaard - 2007 - Analysis 67 (1):72-79.
    I. Tensed Plural Quantifiers Presentists typically assent to a range of tensed statements, for instance, that there were dinosaurs, that there was a president named Lincoln, and that my future grandchildren will be on their way to school.1 Past- and future-tensed claims are dealt with by introducing primitive, intensional tense operators, for instance, it has been 12 years ago that, it was the case when I was born that, and it will be the case that (Prior 1968). For example, ‘there (...)
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