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  1. added 2020-05-26
    Paracomplete Logics Which Are Dual to the Paraconsistent Logics L3A and L3B.Alejandro Hernández-Tello, Verónica Borja-Macías & Marcelo E. Coniglio - 2020 - LANMR 2019: Proceedings of the 12th Latin American Workshop on Logic/Languages, Algorithms and New Methods of Reasoning.
    In 2016 Beziau, introduce a more restricted concept of paraconsistency, namely the genuine paraconsistency. He calls genuine paraconsistent logic those logic rejecting φ, ¬φ |- ψ and |- ¬(φ ∧ ¬φ). In that paper the author analyzes, among the three-valued logics, which of these logics satisfy this property. If we consider multiple-conclusion consequence relations, the dual properties of those above mentioned are: |- φ, ¬φ, and ¬(ψ ∨ ¬ψ) |- . We call genuine paracomplete logics those rejecting the mentioned properties. (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-26
    Paracomplete Logics Which Are Dual to the Paraconsistent Logics L3A and L3B.Alejandro Hernández-Tello, Verónica Borja-Macı́as & Marcelo E. Coniglio - 2020 - LANMR 2019: Proceedings of the 12th Latin American Workshop on Logic/Languages, Algorithms and New Methods of Reasoning.
    In 2016 Beziau, introduce a more restricted concept of paraconsistency, namely the genuine paraconsistency. He calls genuine paraconsistent logic those logic rejecting φ, ¬φ |- ψ and |- ¬(φ ∧ ¬φ). In that paper the author analyzes, among the three-valued logics, which of these logics satisfy this property. If we consider multiple-conclusion consequence relations, the dual properties of those above mentioned are |- φ, ¬φ and ¬(ψ ∨ ¬ψ) |-. We call genuine paracomplete logics those rejecting the mentioned properties. We (...)
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  3. added 2020-05-25
    Deflationism About Logic.Christopher Blake-Turner - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-21.
    Logical consequence is typically construed as a metalinguistic relation between sentences. Deflationism is an account of logic that challenges this orthodoxy. In Williamson’s recent presentation of deflationism, logic’s primary concern is with universal generalizations over absolutely everything. As well as an interesting account of logic in its own right, deflationism has also been recruited to decide between competing logics in resolving semantic paradoxes. This paper defends deflationism from its most important challenge to date, due to Ole Hjortland. It then presents (...)
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  4. added 2020-05-25
    Disjunctive and Conjunctive Multiple-Conclusion Consequence Relations.Marek Nowak - forthcoming - Studia Logica:1-19.
    Two different kinds of multiple-conclusion consequence relations taken from Shoesmith and Smiley and Galatos and Tsinakis or Nowak, called here disjunctive and conjunctive, respectively, defined on a formal language, are considered. They are transferred into a bounded lattice and a complete lattice, respectively. The properties of such abstract consequence relations are presented.
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  5. added 2020-05-25
    Deflationism About Logic.Christopher Blake-Turner - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-21.
    Logical consequence is typically construed as a metalinguistic relation between sentences. Deflationism is an account of logic that challenges this orthodoxy. In Williamson’s recent presentation of deflationism, logic’s primary concern is with universal generalizations over absolutely everything. As well as an interesting account of logic in its own right, deflationism has also been recruited to decide between competing logics in resolving semantic paradoxes. This paper defends deflationism from its most important challenge to date, due to Ole Hjortland. It then presents (...)
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  6. added 2020-05-25
    Disjunctive and Conjunctive Multiple-Conclusion Consequence Relations.Marek Nowak - forthcoming - Studia Logica:1-19.
    Two different kinds of multiple-conclusion consequence relations taken from Shoesmith and Smiley and Galatos and Tsinakis or Nowak, called here disjunctive and conjunctive, respectively, defined on a formal language, are considered. They are transferred into a bounded lattice and a complete lattice, respectively. The properties of such abstract consequence relations are presented.
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  7. added 2020-05-25
    Valuations: Bi, Tri, and Tetra.Rohan French & David Ripley - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (6):1313-1346.
    This paper considers some issues to do with valuational presentations of consequence relations, and the Galois connections between spaces of valuations and spaces of consequence relations. Some of what we present is known, and some even well-known; but much is new. The aim is a systematic overview of a range of results applicable to nonreflexive and nontransitive logics, as well as more familiar logics. We conclude by considering some connectives suggested by this approach.
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  8. added 2020-05-25
    Suszko’s Problem: Mixed Consequence and Compositionality.Emmanuel Chemla & Paul Égré - 2019 - Review of Symbolic Logic 12 (4):736-767.
    Suszko’s problem is the problem of finding the minimal number of truth values needed to semantically characterize a syntactic consequence relation. Suszko proved that every Tarskian consequence relation can be characterized using only two truth values. Malinowski showed that this number can equal three if some of Tarski’s structural constraints are relaxed. By so doing, Malinowski introduced a case of so-called mixed consequence, allowing the notion of a designated value to vary between the premises and the conclusions of an argument. (...)
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  9. added 2020-05-25
    The Metaphysics of Logical Consequence.Alexandra Zinke - 2018 - Frankfurt a.M.: Klostermann.
    The book discusses the central notion of logic: the concept of logical consequence. It shows that the classical definition of consequence as truth preservation in all models must be restricted to all admissible models. The challenge for the philosophy of logic is therefore to supplement the definition with a criterion for admissible models. -/- The problem of logical constants, so prominent in the current debate, constitutes but a special case of this much more general demarcation problem. The book explores the (...)
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  10. added 2020-05-25
    Reinflating Logical Consequence.Owen Griffiths - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (1):171-179.
    Shapiro argues that, if we are deflationists about truth, we should be deflationists about logical consequence. Like the truth predicate, he claims, the logical consequence predicate is merely a device of generalisation and more substantial characterisation, e.g. proof- or model-theoretic, is mistaken. I reject his analogy between truth and logical consequence and argue that, by appreciating how the logical consequence predicate is used as well as the goals of proof theory and model theory, we can be deflationists about truth but (...)
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  11. added 2020-05-20
    Transfinite Meta-inferences.Chris Scambler - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-11.
    In Barrio et al. Barrio Pailos and Szmuc prove that there are systems of logic that agree with classical logic up to any finite meta-inferential level, and disagree with it thereafter. This article presents a generalized sense of meta-inference that extends into the transfinite, and proves analogous results to all transfinite orders.
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  12. added 2020-05-20
    Explicating Logical Independence.Lloyd Humberstone - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (1):135-218.
    Accounts of logical independence which coincide when applied in the case of classical logic diverge elsewhere, raising the question of what a satisfactory all-purpose account of logical independence might look like. ‘All-purpose’ here means: working satisfactorily as applied across different logics, taken as consequence relations. Principal candidate characterizations of independence relative to a consequence relation are that there the consequence relation concerned is determined by only by classes of valuations providing for all possible truth-value combinations for the formulas whose independence (...)
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  13. added 2020-05-19
    Countably Many Weakenings of Belnap–Dunn Logic.Minghui Ma & Yuanlei Lin - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (2):163-198.
    Every Berman’s variety \ which is the subvariety of Ockham algebras defined by the equation \ and \) determines a finitary substitution invariant consequence relation \. A sequent system \ is introduced as an axiomatization of the consequence relation \. The system \ is characterized by a single finite frame \ under the frame semantics given for the formal language. By the duality between frames and algebras, \ can be viewed as a \-valued logic as it is characterized by a (...)
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  14. added 2020-05-16
    Essential Structure of Proofs as a Measure of Complexity.Jaime Ramos, João Rasga & Cristina Sernadas - 2020 - Logica Universalis 14 (2):209-242.
    The essential structure of proofs is proposed as the basis for a measure of complexity of formulas in FOL. The motivating idea was the recognition that distinct theorems can have the same derivation modulo some non essential details. Hence the difficulty in proving them is identical and so their complexity should be the same. We propose a notion of complexity of formulas capturing this property. With this purpose, we introduce the notions of schema calculus, schema derivation and description complexity of (...)
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  15. added 2020-05-15
    Exactly True and Non-Falsity Logics Meeting Infectious Ones.Alex Belikov & Yaroslav Petrukhin - forthcoming - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics:1-29.
    In this paper, we study logical systems which represent entailment relations of two kinds. We extend the approach of finding ‘exactly true’ and ‘non-falsity’ versions of four-valued logics that emerged in series of recent works [Pietz & Rivieccio (2013). Nothing but the truth. Journal of Philosophical Logic, 42(1), 125–135; Shramko (2019). Dual-Belnap logic and anything but falsehood. Journal of Logics and their Applications, 6, 413–433; Shramko et al. (2017). First-degree entailment and its relatives. Studia Logica, 105(6), 1291–1317] to the case (...)
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  16. added 2020-05-11
    Formal Notes on the Substitutional Analysis of Logical Consequence.Volker Halbach - 2020 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 61 (2):317-339.
    Logical consequence in first-order predicate logic is defined substitutionally in set theory augmented with a primitive satisfaction predicate: an argument is defined to be logically valid if and only if there is no substitution instance with true premises and a false conclusion. Substitution instances are permitted to contain parameters. Variants of this definition of logical consequence are given: logical validity can be defined with or without identity as a logical constant, and quantifiers can be relativized in substitution instances or not. (...)
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  17. added 2020-05-11
    A Note on FDE “All the Way Up”.Jc Beall & Caleb Camrud - 2020 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 61 (2):283-296.
    A very natural and philosophically important subclassical logic is FDE. This account of logical consequence can be seen as going beyond the standard two-valued account to a four-valued account. A natural question arises: What account of logical consequence arises from considering further combinations of such values? A partial answer was given by Priest in 2014; Shramko and Wansing had also given a partial result some years earlier, although in a different context. In this note we generalize Priest’s result to show (...)
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  18. added 2020-05-11
    Formal Theories of Truth.Jc Beall, Michael Glanzberg & David Ripley - 2018 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Three leading philosopher-logicians present a clear and concise overview of formal theories of truth, explaining key logical techniques. Truth is as central topic in philosophy: formal theories study the connections between truth and logic, including the intriguing challenges presented by paradoxes like the Liar.
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  19. added 2020-05-11
    The Simple Argument for Subclassical Logic.Jc Beall - 2018 - Philosophical Issues 28 (1):30-54.
  20. added 2020-05-11
    Spandrels of Truth.Jc Beall - 2010 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 16 (2):284-286.
  21. added 2020-05-11
    Defending Logical Pluralism.J. C. Beall & Greg Restall - 2001 - In Logical Consequence: Rival Approaches. Stanmore: Hermes. pp. 1-22.
    We are pluralists about logical consequence [1]. We hold that there is more than one sense in which arguments may be deductively valid, that these senses are equally good, and equally deserving of the name deductive validity. Our pluralism starts with our analysis of consequence. This analysis of consequence is not idiosyncratic. We agree with Richard Jeffrey, and with many other philosophers of logic about how logical consequence is to be defined. To quote Jeffrey.
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  22. added 2020-05-06
    Completeness and Cut-Elimination for First-Order Ideal Paraconsistent Four-Valued Logic.Norihiro Kamide & Yoni Zohar - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (3):549-571.
    In this study, we prove the completeness and cut-elimination theorems for a first-order extension F4CC of Arieli, Avron, and Zamansky’s ideal paraconsistent four-valued logic known as 4CC. These theorems are proved using Schütte’s method, which can simultaneously prove completeness and cut-elimination.
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  23. added 2020-05-06
    The Explosion Calculus.Michael Arndt - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (3):509-547.
    A calculus for classical propositional sequents is introduced that consists of a restricted version of the cut rule and local variants of the logical rules. Employed in the style of proof search, this calculus explodes a given sequent into its elementary structural sequents—the topmost sequents in a derivation thus constructed—which do not contain any logical constants. Some of the properties exhibited by the collection of elementary structural sequents in relation to the sequent they are derived from, uniqueness and unique representation (...)
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  24. added 2020-05-06
    Interpolation in Extensions of First-Order Logic.Guido Gherardi, Paolo Maffezioli & Eugenio Orlandelli - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (3):619-648.
    We prove a generalization of Maehara’s lemma to show that the extensions of classical and intuitionistic first-order logic with a special type of geometric axioms, called singular geometric axioms, have Craig’s interpolation property. As a corollary, we obtain a direct proof of interpolation for first-order logic with identity, as well as interpolation for several mathematical theories, including the theory of equivalence relations, partial and linear orders, and various intuitionistic order theories such as apartness and positive partial and linear orders.
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  25. added 2020-04-28
    The Significance of Evidence-Based Reasoning for Mathematics, Mathematics Education, Philosophy and the Natural Sciences.Bhupinder Singh Anand - manuscript
    In this multi-disciplinary investigation we show how an evidence-based perspective of quantification---in terms of algorithmic verifiability and algorithmic computability---admits evidence-based definitions of well-definedness and effective computability, which yield two unarguably constructive interpretations of the first-order Peano Arithmetic PA---over the structure N of the natural numbers---that are complementary, not contradictory. The first yields the weak, standard, interpretation of PA over N, which is well-defined with respect to assignments of algorithmically verifiable Tarskian truth values to the formulas of PA under the interpretation. (...)
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  26. added 2020-04-16
    A Partial Consequence Account of Truthlikeness.Roberto Festa & Gustavo Cevolani - 2020 - Synthese 197 (4):1627-1646.
    Popper’s original definition of truthlikeness relied on a central insight: that truthlikeness combines truth and information, in the sense that a proposition is closer to the truth the more true consequences and the less false consequences it entails. As intuitively compelling as this definition may be, it is untenable, as proved long ago; still, one can arguably rely on Popper’s intuition to provide an adequate account of truthlikeness. To this aim, we mobilize some classical work on partial entailment in defining (...)
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  27. added 2020-04-13
    A Uniform Logic of Information Dynamics.Wesley H. Holliday, Tomohiro Hoshi & Thomas F. Icard - 2012 - In Thomas Bolander, Torben Braüner, Silvio Ghilardi & Lawrence Moss (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic 9. College Publications. pp. 348-367.
    Unlike standard modal logics, many dynamic epistemic logics are not closed under uniform substitution. A distinction therefore arises between the logic and its substitution core, the set of formulas all of whose substitution instances are valid. The classic example of a non-uniform dynamic epistemic logic is Public Announcement Logic (PAL), and a well-known open problem is to axiomatize the substitution core of PAL. In this paper we solve this problem for PAL over the class of all relational models with infinitely (...)
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  28. added 2020-04-11
    A Classification System for Argumentation Schemes.Douglas Walton & Fabrizio Macagno - 2016 - Argument and Computation 6 (3):219-245.
    This paper explains the importance of classifying argumentation schemes, and outlines how schemes are being used in current research in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics on argument mining. It provides a survey of the literature on scheme classification. What are so far generally taken to represent a set of the most widely useful defeasible argumentation schemes are surveyed and explained systematically, including some that are difficult to classify. A new classification system covering these centrally important schemes is built.
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  29. added 2020-03-28
    Refuting Tarski and Gödel with a Sound Deductive Formalism.P. Olcott - manuscript
    The conventional notion of a formal system is adapted to conform to the sound deductive inference model operating on finite strings. Finite strings stipulated to have the semantic value of Boolean true provide the sound deductive premises. Truth preserving finite string transformation rules provide the valid deductive inference. Sound deductive conclusions are the result of these finite string transformation rules.
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  30. added 2020-03-24
    Rivalry, Normativity, and the Collapse of Logical Pluralism.Erik Stei - 2020 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 63 (3-4):411-432.
    Logical pluralism is the view that there is more than one correct logic. This very general characterization gives rise to a whole family of positions. I argue that not all of them are stable. The main argument in the paper is inspired by considerations known as the “collapse problem”, and it aims at the most popular form of logical pluralism advocated by JC Beall and Greg Restall. I argue that there is a more general argument available that challenges all variants (...)
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  31. added 2020-03-13
    In Pursuit of the Non-Trivial.Colin R. Caret - forthcoming - Episteme:1-16.
    This paper is about the underlying logical principles of scientific theories. In particular, it concerns ex contradictione quodlibet the principle that anything follows from a contradiction. ECQ is valid according to classical logic, but invalid according to paraconsistent logics. Some advocates of paraconsistency claim that there are ‘real’ inconsistent theories that do not erupt with completely indiscriminate, absurd commitments. They take this as evidence in favor of paraconsistency. Michael calls this the non-triviality strategy. He argues that this strategy fails in (...)
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  32. added 2020-03-13
    Why Logical Pluralism?Colin R. Caret - forthcoming - Synthese:1-22.
    This paper scrutinizes the debate over logical pluralism. I hope to make this debate more tractable by addressing the question of motivating data: what would count as strong evidence in favor of logical pluralism? Any research program should be able to answer this question, but when faced with this task, many logical pluralists fall back on brute intuitions. This sets logical pluralism on a weak foundation and makes it seem as if nothing pressing is at stake in the debate. The (...)
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  33. added 2020-03-10
    A Uniform Logic of Information Dynamics.Wesley H. Holliday, Tomohiro Hoshi & Thomas F. Icard Iii - 2012 - In Thomas Bolander, Torben Braüner, Silvio Ghilardi & Lawrence Moss (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic, Volume 9. CSLI Publications. pp. 348-367.
    Unlike standard modal logics, many dynamic epistemic logics are not closed under uniform substitution. A distinction therefore arises between the logic and its substitu- tion core, the set of formulas all of whose substitution instances are valid. The classic example of a non-uniform dynamic epistemic logic is Public Announcement Logic (PAL), and a well-known open problem is to axiomatize the substitution core of PAL. In this paper we solve this problem for PAL over the class of all relational models with (...)
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  34. added 2020-03-10
    Supervaluationism and Fara's Paradox of Higher-Order Vagueness.Pablo Cobreros - 2010 - In Paul Egre & Nathan Klinedinst (eds.), Vagueness and Language Use. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This paper discusses Fara's so-called 'Paradox of Higher-Order Vagueness' concerning supervaluationism. In the paper I argue that supervaluationism is not committed to global validity, as it is largely assumed in the literature, but to a weaker notion of logical consequence I call 'regional validity'. Then I show that the supervaluationist might solve Fara's paradox making use of this weaker notion of logical consequence. The paper is discussed by Delia Fara in the same volume.
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  35. added 2020-02-17
    Evidence, Defeasibility, and Metaphors in Diagnosis and Diagnosis Communication.Pietro Salis & Francesca Ervas - 2020 - Topoi:1-17.
    The paper investigates the epistemological and communicative competences the experts need to use and communicate evidence in the reasoning process leading to diagnosis. The diagnosis and diagnosis communication are presented as intertwined processes that should be jointly addressed in medical consultations, to empower patients’ compliance in illness management. The paper presents defeasible reasoning as specific to the diagnostic praxis, showing how this type of reasoning threatens effective diagnosis communication and entails that we should understand diagnostic evidence as defeasible as well. (...)
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  36. added 2020-02-17
    Making Sense of Sense Containment.Antonio Negro - 2017 - History and Philosophy of Logic 38 (4):364-385.
    Proposition 5.122 of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus has been the source of much puzzlement among interpreters, so much so that no fully satisfactory account is yet available. This is unfortunate, if only because the containment account of logical consequence has a venerable tradition behind it. Pasquale Frascolla’s interpretation of proposition 5.122 is based on a valid argument and one true premise. However, the argument explains sense containment only in an indirect way, leaving some crucial questions unanswered. Besides, Frascolla does not address the (...)
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  37. added 2020-02-03
    Logical Argumentation by Dynamic Proof Systems.Ofer Arieli & Christian Straßer - forthcoming - Theoretical Computer Science.
    In this paper we provide a proof theoretical investigation of logical argumentation, where arguments are represented by sequents, conflicts between arguments are represented by sequent elimination rules, and deductions are made by dynamic proof systems extending standard sequent calculi. The idea is to imitate argumentative movements in which certain claims are introduced or withdrawn in the presence of counter-claims. This is done by a dynamic evaluation of sequences of sequents, in which the latter are considered ‘derived’ or ‘not derived’ according (...)
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  38. added 2020-02-03
    Prioritized Sequent-Based Argumentation.Ofer Arieli, AnneMarie Borg & Christian Straßer - 2018 - In Elisabeth Andre & Sven Koening (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems. pp. 1105--1113.
  39. added 2020-02-03
    A Critical Assessment of Pollock’s Work on Logic-Based Argumentation with Suppositions.Mathieu Beirlaen, Jesse Heyninck & Christian Straßer - 2018 - In Proceedings of the Nmr. pp. 63--72.
  40. added 2020-02-03
    Argument Strength in Formal Argumentation.Mathieu Beirlaen, Jesse Heyninck, Pere Pardo & Christian Straßer - 2018 - Journal of Applied Logics-Ifcolog Journal of Logics and Their Applications 5 (3):629--675.
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  41. added 2020-02-03
    Relevance in Structured Argumentation.AnneMarie Borg & Christian Straßer - 2018 - In Jérôme Lang (ed.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-18).
  42. added 2020-02-03
    Argumentative Approaches to Reasoning with Maximal Consistency.Ofer Arieli & Christian Straßer - 2016 - In Chitta Baral, James Delgrande & Frank Wolter (eds.), KR'16: Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. pp. 509--512.
  43. added 2020-02-03
    Relations Between Assumption-Based Approaches in Nonmonotonic Logic and Formal Argumentation.Jesse Heyninck & Christian Straßer - 2016 - In Gabriele Kern-Isberner & Renata Wassermann (eds.), Proceedings of Nmr2016. pp. 65--76.
  44. added 2020-02-03
    Dynamic Derivations for Sequent-Based Logical Argumentation.Ofer Arieli & Christian Straßer - 2014 - In Simon Parsons, Nir Oren, Chris Reed & Federico Cerutti (eds.), Proceedings COMMA 2014. IOS Press. pp. 89--100.
  45. added 2020-01-26
    A Counterexample to Modus Ponenses.Matthew Mandelkern - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy.
    McGee (1985) argued that modus ponens was invalid for the natural language conditional ‘If. . . then. . . ’. Many subsequent responses have argued that, while McGee’s examples show that modus ponens fails to preserve truth, they do not show that modus ponens fails to preserve rational full acceptance, and thus modus ponens may still be valid in the latter informational sense. I show that when we turn our attention from indicative conditionals (the focus of most of the literature (...)
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  46. added 2020-01-21
    From the Square to Octahedra.José David García Cruz - 2017 - In Jean-Yves Beziau & Gianfranco Basti (eds.), The Square of Opposition: A Cornerstone of Thought. Switzerland: pp. 253-272.
    Colwyn Williamson (Notre Dame J. Formal Log. 13:497–500, 1972) develops a comparison between propositional and syllogistic logic. He outlines an interpretation of the traditional square of opposition in terms of propositional logic, that is, the statements corresponding to the corners of the traditional square can be represented with propositional logic operators. His goal is to present a twofold square that preserves the truth conditions of the relationships between the formulas, and define other set of formulas that complete the traditional square (...)
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  47. added 2020-01-20
    A Metaphorical Analysis on Structures.Shahnaz Abdul Hameed - manuscript
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  48. added 2020-01-20
    Logical Expressivism and Carroll’s Regress.Corine Besson - 2019 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 86:35-62.
    In this paper, I address a key argument in favour of logical expressivism, the view that knowing a logical principle such as Modus Ponens is not a cognitive state but a pro-attitude towards drawing certain types of conclusions from certain types of premises. The argument is that logical expressivism is the only view that can take us out of Lewis Carroll's Regress – which suggests that elementary deductive reasoning is impossible. I show that the argument does not hold scrutiny and (...)
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  49. added 2020-01-20
    Knowledge of Logical Generality and the Possibility of Deductive Reasoning.Corine Besson - 2019 - In Timothy Chan & Anders Nes (eds.), Inference and consciousness. Routledge Studies in Contemporary Philosophy. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 172-196.
    I address a type of circularity threat that arises for the view that we employ general basic logical principles in deductive reasoning. This type of threat has been used to argue that whatever knowing such principles is, it cannot be a fully cognitive or propositional state, otherwise deductive reasoning would not be possible. I look at two versions of the circularity threat and answer them in a way that both challenges the view that we need to apply general logical principles (...)
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  50. added 2020-01-20
    Idéographie (French Translation of Gottlob Frege's Begriffsschrift (Conceptual Notation)).Corine Besson - 1999 - Paris: Librairie J. Vrin.
    Complete French translation of Gottlob Frege's Begriffsschrift.
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