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141 found
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  1. added 2018-09-02
    Essence and Logical Properties.Hashem Morvarid - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    Since Kit Fine presented his counter-examples to the standard versions of the modal view, many have been convinced that the standard versions of the modal view are not adequate. However, the scope of Fine's argument has not been fully appreciated. In this paper, I aim to carry Fine’s argument to its logical conclusion and argue that once we embrace the intuition underlying his counter-examples, we have to hold that properties obtained, totally or partially, by application of logical operations are not (...)
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  2. added 2018-08-19
    A Modality Called ‘Negation’.Francesco Berto - 2015 - Mind 124 (495):761-793.
    I propose a comprehensive account of negation as a modal operator, vindicating a moderate logical pluralism. Negation is taken as a quantifier on worlds, restricted by an accessibility relation encoding the basic concept of compatibility. This latter captures the core meaning of the operator. While some candidate negations are then ruled out as violating plausible constraints on compatibility, different specifications of the notion of world support different logical conducts for negations. The approach unifies in a philosophically motivated picture the following (...)
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  3. added 2018-07-30
    Propositional Identity and Logical Necessity.David B. Martens - 2004 - Australasian Journal of Logic 2:1-11.
    In two early papers, Max Cresswell constructed two formal logics of propositional identity, pcr and fcr, which he observed to be respectively deductively equivalent to modal logics s4 and s5. Cresswell argued informally that these equivalences respectively “give . . . evidence” for the correctness of s4 and s5 as logics of broadly logical necessity. In this paper, I describe weaker propositional identity logics than pcr that accommodate core intuitions about identity and I argue that Cresswell’s informal arguments do not (...)
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  4. added 2018-03-27
    A Vindication of Logical Necessity Against Scepticism.Patrice Philie - unknown
    Some philosophers dispute the claim that there is a notion of logical necessity involved in the concept of logical consequence. They are sceptical about logical necessity. They argue that a proper characterisation of logical consequence - of what follows from what - need not and should not appeal to the notion of necessity at all. Quine is the most prominent philosopher holding such a view. In this doctoral dissertation, I argue that scepticism about logical necessity is not successful. Quine's scepticism (...)
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  5. added 2018-03-23
    The Logical Contingency of Identity.Hanoch Ben-Yami - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (2):5-10.
    I show that intuitive and logical considerations do not justify introducing Leibniz’s Law of the Indiscernibility of Identicals in more than a limited form, as applying to atomic formulas. Once this is accepted, it follows that Leibniz’s Law generalises to all formulas of the first-order Predicate Calculus but not to modal formulas. Among other things, identity turns out to be logically contingent.
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  6. added 2017-08-28
    The Broadest Necessity.Andrew Bacon - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 47 (5):733-783.
    In this paper the logic of broad necessity is explored. Definitions of what it means for one modality to be broader than another are formulated, and it is proven, in the context of higher-order logic, that there is a broadest necessity, settling one of the central questions of this investigation. It is shown, moreover, that it is possible to give a reductive analysis of this necessity in extensional language. This relates more generally to a conjecture that it is not possible (...)
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  7. added 2017-07-21
    Epistemic Luck and Logical Necessities: Armchair Luck Revisited.Guido Melchior - 2017 - In Smiljana Gartner Bojan Borstner (ed.), Thought Experiments between Nature and Society. A Festschrift for Nenad Miščević. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 137-150.
    Modal knowledge accounts like sensitivity or safety face a problem when it comes to knowing propositions that are necessarily true because the modal condition is always fulfilled no matter how random the belief forming method is. Pritchard models the anti-luck condition for knowledge in terms of the modal principle safety. Thus, his anti-luck epistemology faces the same problem when it comes to logical necessities. Any belief in a proposition that is necessarily true fulfills the anti-luck condition and, therefore, qualifies as (...)
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  8. added 2017-07-03
    Logical and Epistemic Modality.Hasen Khudairi - manuscript
    This paper examines the interaction between the philosophy and psychology of concepts and the modal characterization of the deductive concept of logical validity. The concept of logical consequence on which I focus is model-theoretic, where the concept records the property of necessary truth-preservation from the premise of an argument to its conclusion, as well as the condition that, in the class of all possible worlds in which a premise is true, a consequent formula or succedent class of formulas is true, (...)
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  9. added 2017-07-03
    Max Cresswell, Edwin Mares, and Adriane Rini, Eds., Logical Modalities From Aristotle to Carnap: The Story of Necessity. Reviewed By.Katalin Bimbo - 2017 - Philosophy in Review 37 (3):100-102.
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  10. added 2017-03-10
    Logical Properties: Identity, Existence, Predication, Necessity, Truth.Colin Mcginn - 2003 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 9 (1):39-42.
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  11. added 2017-03-10
    Explaining ‘The Hardness of the Logical Must’: Wittgenstein on Grammar, Arbitrariness and Logical Necessity.Martin O'neill - 2001 - Philosophical Investigations 24 (1):1-29.
    This paper explains Wittegnstein’s understanding of the ‘grammar’ of our language, tracing its origins in the Tractatus’s concept of logical syntax, and then examining the senses in which Wittegnstein, in his later work, viewed grammar as being ‘arbitrary’. Then, armed with this understanding, it moves on to the task of examining how, within the framework of a Wittegnsteinian view of language, we should understand the inescapable ‘compellingness’ of logical necessity – what Wittegnstein calls the “hardness of the logical must”. Whereas (...)
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  12. added 2017-03-10
    Logical Necessity and Other Essays.I. G. Mcfetridge, John Haldane & Roger Scruton - 1992 - Philosophy 67 (260):264-266.
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  13. added 2017-03-10
    Logical Necessity, Physical Necessity, Ethics, and Quantifiers.Richard Montague - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (3):400-401.
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  14. added 2017-03-10
    Logical Necessity.Stuart Hampshire - 1949 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 14 (3):203-204.
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  15. added 2017-02-20
    Logical Properties: Identity, Existence, Predication, Necessity, Truth.Colin Mcginn - 2002 - Mind 111 (442):449-453.
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  16. added 2017-02-20
    Logical Properties: Identity, Existence, Predication, Necessity, Truth. [REVIEW]Scott A. Shalkowski - 2002 - Mind 111 (442):449-453.
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  17. added 2017-02-20
    Logical Properties: Identity, Existence, Predication, Necessity, Truth.Colin Mcginn - 2002 - Philosophical Quarterly 52 (208):404-406.
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  18. added 2017-02-20
    Causal Necessity and Logical Necessity.David H. Sanford - 1978 - Philosophical Studies 33 (2):185-194.
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  19. added 2017-02-20
    Possibility, necessity, and logical truth.Robert F. Hadley - 1978 - Erkenntnis 38 (4):182.
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  20. added 2017-02-14
    Semantics for Logical and Nomic Modalities.Nicholas La Para - 1972 - American Philosophical Quarterly 9 (1):39-48.
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  21. added 2017-01-23
    Proving Necessity.James A. Martin - 1975 - Philosophy Research Archives 1:352-363.
    It is thought that a valid inference to a logically necessary conclusion must proceed from entirely necessary premises. Counter-examples show this is false. Perhaps while the truth of a necessary proposition may follow from non-necessary premises, its necessity cannot so follow. Counter-examples show this to be mistaken. Must anyone who comes to know the non-necessary premises employed in the various counter-examples have prior knowledge of the necessity of the conclusions of the counter-examples? I argue against this. It is true that, (...)
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  22. added 2017-01-11
    In What Way Does Logic Involve Necessity?Sanford Shieh - 2014 - Philosophical Topics 42 (2):289-337.
    In this paper I advance an account of the necessity of logic in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus. I reject both the “metaphysical” reading of Peter Hacker, who takes Tractarian logical necessity to consist in the mode of truth of tautologies, and the “resolute” account of Cora Diamond, who argues that all Tractarian talk of necessity is to be thrown away. I urge an alternative conception based on remarks 3.342 and 6.124. Necessity consists in what is not arbitrary, and contingency in what is (...)
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  23. added 2017-01-11
    Are the Laws of Logic Necessary or Contingent?Anna Sherratt - 2001 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 101 (3):379–384.
    To answer the question, we need first to consider the notion of necessity and the related notion of contingency. These are so-called "modal" notions. Other modal notions include those of possibility, impossibility, non-necessity, and noncontingency. All play a crucial role in philosophical thinking about matters to do with logic, metaphysics, morality, law, etc. This is because none of these modal notions is univocal in meaning. There are, so to speak, different "species" of the generic notions of necessity, contingency, possibility, and (...)
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  24. added 2016-12-08
    Modal Rationalism and Modal Monism.Anand Vaidya - 2008 - Erkenntnis 68 (2):191-212.
    Modal rationalism includes the thesis that ideal primary positive conceivability entails primary possibility. Modal monism is the thesis that the space of logically possible worlds is coextensive with the space of metaphysically possible worlds. In this paper I explore the relation between the two theses. My aim is to show that the former thesis implies the latter thesis, and that problems with the latter make the former implausible as a complete picture of the epistemology of modality. My argument explores the (...)
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  25. added 2016-12-08
    A Defense of the Kripkean Account of Logical Truth in First-Order Modal Logic.M. McKeon - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 34 (3):305-326.
    This paper responds to criticism of the Kripkean account of logical truth in first-order modal logic. The criticism, largely ignored in the literature, claims that when the box and diamond are interpreted as the logical modality operators, the Kripkean account is extensionally incorrect because it fails to reflect the fact that all sentences stating truths about what is logically possible are themselves logically necessary. I defend the Kripkean account by arguing that some true sentences about logical possibility are not logically (...)
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  26. added 2016-12-08
    A Counterfactual Analysis of the Concepts of Logical Truth and Necessity.Marc Lange - 2005 - Philosophical Studies 125 (3):277-303.
    This paper analyzes the logical truths as (very roughly) those truths that would still have been true under a certain range of counterfactual perturbations.What’s nice is that the relevant range is characterized without relying (overtly, at least) upon the notion of logical truth. This approach suggests a conception of necessity that explains what the different varieties of necessity (logical, physical, etc.) have in common, in virtue of which they are all varieties of necessity. However, this approach places the counterfactual conditionals (...)
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  27. added 2016-12-08
    Modal Platonism: An Easy Way to Avoid Ontological Commitment to Abstract Entities.Joel I. Friedman - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 34 (3):227-273.
    Modal Platonism utilizes "weak" logical possibility, such that it is logically possible there are abstract entities, and logically possible there are none. Modal Platonism also utilizes a non-indexical actuality operator. Modal Platonism is the EASY WAY, neither reductionist nor eliminativist, but embracing the Platonistic language of abstract entities while eliminating ontological commitment to them. Statement of Modal Platonism. Any consistent statement B ontologically committed to abstract entities may be replaced by an empirically equivalent modalization, MOD(B), not so ontologically committed. This (...)
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  28. added 2016-12-08
    Logical Properties: Identity, Existence, Predication, Necessity, Truth.J. MacFarlane - 2002 - Philosophical Review 111 (3):462-465.
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  29. added 2016-12-08
    Plenitude of Possible Structures.Phillip Bricker - 1991 - Journal of Philosophy 88 (11):607-619.
    Which mathematical structures are possible, that is, instantiated by the concrete inhabitants of some possible world? Are there worlds with four-dimensional space? With infinite-dimensional space? Whence comes our knowledge of the possibility of structures? In this paper, I develop and defend a principle of plenitude according to which any mathematically natural generalization of possible structure is itself possible. I motivate the principle pragmatically by way of the role that logical possibility plays in our inquiry into the world.
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  30. added 2016-12-08
    Mundos Imposibles.Pescador José Hierro - 1985 - Theoria 1 (1):143-157.
    An impossible world is a world which necessarily does not exist. Besides the paradigm of necessity, wich is logical necesslty, we must consider physical necessity and ethical necessity, both of wich can beexpressed in terms of logical necessity, in the way suggested by Montague. Accordingly, an impossible world can be logically impossible, physically impossible or ethically impossible, but in every case the impossibility can be reduced to logical impossibility, and in consequence an impossible world is irrational and cannot be understood (...)
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  31. added 2016-09-21
    Meaning and Modality.Casimir Lewy - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    A study of various central and connected topics in philosophical logic and the theory of meaning. There are important sections on the relation between linguistic and abstract entities, on necessity and convention, on meaning, sense and reference, and on entailment. Dr Lewy proposes a number of original solutions to problems which have been widely discussed in literature, and there is in particular a sharp and sustained criticism of conventionalism and reductionism. These are among the most difficult and intricate issues in (...)
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  32. added 2016-08-31
    Logical Modalities From Aristotle to Carnap: The Story of Necessity.Max Cresswell, Edwin Mares & Adriane Rini (eds.) - 2016 - Cambridge University Press.
    Interest in the metaphysics and logic of possible worlds goes back at least as far as Aristotle, but few books address the history of these important concepts. This volume offers new essays on the theories about the logical modalities held by leading philosophers from Aristotle in ancient Greece to Rudolf Carnap in the twentieth century. The story begins with an illuminating discussion of Aristotle's views on the connection between logic and metaphysics, continues through the Stoic and mediaeval traditions, and then (...)
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  33. added 2016-07-11
    What is the Nature of Mathematical–Logical Objects?Stathis Livadas - 2017 - Axiomathes 27 (1):79-112.
    This article deals with a question of a most general, comprehensive and profound content as it is the nature of mathematical–logical objects insofar as these are considered objects of knowledge and more specifically objects of formal mathematical theories. As objects of formal theories they are dealt with in the sense they have acquired primarily from the beginnings of the systematic study of mathematical foundations in connection with logic dating from the works of G. Cantor and G. Frege in the last (...)
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  34. added 2016-07-11
    IV—Explaining Logical Necessity.Aaron Sloman - 1969 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 69 (1):33-50.
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  35. added 2016-07-11
    XII.—On Entailment and Logical Necessity.Alice Ambrose - 1956 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 56 (1):241-258.
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  36. added 2016-05-13
    Escaping Regress: Conventionalism and Hale.Sean McIntosh - unknown
    Conventionalism about logical necessity has, since Quine, been criticised for falling into a vicious regress. The conventionalist model involves a base class of directly stipulated necessary truths, and all other logical necessities are taken to follow from this base. The essentialist model described by Hale is constructed in a broadly similar fashion: there is a class of those necessities which hold directly in virtue of the natures of things, and other necessities are from this class derivative. Hale expresses a concern (...)
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  37. added 2016-05-13
    The Metaphysical Interpretation of Logical Truth.Tuomas Tahko - 2014 - In Penelope Rush (ed.), The Metaphysics of Logic: Logical Realism, Logical Anti-Realism and All Things In Between. Cambridge University Press. pp. 233-248.
    The starting point of this paper concerns the apparent difference between what we might call absolute truth and truth in a model, following Donald Davidson. The notion of absolute truth is the one familiar from Tarski’s T-schema: ‘Snow is white’ is true if and only if snow is white. Instead of being a property of sentences as absolute truth appears to be, truth in a model, that is relative truth, is evaluated in terms of the relation between sentences and models. (...)
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  38. added 2016-05-13
    Wittgenstein on Truth and Necessity in Mathematics.Marc Alter Joseph - 1994 - Dissertation, Columbia University
    This essay investigates the nature of necessary truth in logic and mathematics through a discussion of Wittgenstein's writings on logic and mathematics. My principal scholarly interest in the dissertation is Wittgenstein' s later philosophy, but I also examine his philosophy in the Tractatus and the transitional texts of the 1930s. ;In chapter one I present the Tractatus' general theory of representation through an examination of Wittgenstein's work on the ancient problem of the unity of a proposition. I argue that Wittgenstein's (...)
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  39. added 2016-05-13
    Fictionalism in Logic: Modality, Truth, and Conservativeness.Kensuke Akiba - 1994 - Dissertation, University of Southern California
    It is usually held that what distinguishes a good inference from a bad one is that the former is but the latter is not truth-preserving. What is behind this view is the basic assumption that whether a certain inference is truth-preserving or not is a genuine issue, an issue the answer to which is determined objectively. This view is called the realist view of logic. ;In this dissertation the realist view of logic is criticized and an alternative view is presented. (...)
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  40. added 2016-05-03
    Logical Necessity, Conceptual Necessity, and the Ontological Argument.C. Anthony Anderson - 2015 - In Miroslaw Szatkowski (ed.), God, Truth, and Other Enigmas. De Gruyter. pp. 3-14.
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  41. added 2016-05-03
    In Defence of Logical Nominalism: Reply to Leftow1: Richard Swinburne.Richard Swinburne - 2010 - Religious Studies 46 (3):311-330.
    This paper defends logical nominalism, the thesis that logically necessary truth belongs primarily to sentences and depends solely on the conventions of human language. A sentence is logically necessary iff its negation entails a contradiction. A sentence is a posteriori metaphysically necessary iff it reduces to a logical necessity when we substitute for rigid designators of objects or properties canonical descriptions of the essential properties of those objects or properties. The truth-conditions of necessary sentences are not to be found in (...)
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  42. added 2016-05-03
    Transparent Approach to Logical Necessity and Possibility.P. Materna - 1991 - Filosoficky Casopis 39 (1):76-90.
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  43. added 2016-05-03
    Wittgenstein and Logical Necessity.Laverne Joseph Denning - 1986 - Dissertation, University of Kansas
    This dissertation is divided into three parts. The first part consists of a detailed descriptive summary of the interpretive commentaries following the publication of Wittgenstein's Remarks on the Foundation of Mathematics. The material, thus assembled and presented as a whole for the first time, reveals unities directly traceable to assumptions and issues introduced by one man, Michael Dummett, who gave the interpretive literature its impetus, form and substance. ;The second part of the dissertation is of a critical nature. In this (...)
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  44. added 2016-05-03
    Logical Possibility: An Aristotelian Essentialist Critique.Douglas B. Rasmussen - 1983 - The Thomist 47 (4):515.
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  45. added 2016-05-03
    On logical necessity.Ph P. Hanson - 1983 - Logique Et Analyse 26 (3):265.
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  46. added 2016-05-03
    Logical Necessity: A Critical Examination of Conventionalist and Related Theories of Necessary Truth.Richard Ellison Olsen - 1971 - Dissertation, Brown University
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  47. added 2016-05-03
    Another Look at "Logical Possibility".Tibor Machan - 1970 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 51 (2):246.
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  48. added 2016-05-03
    A Myth About Logical Necessity.J. Bennett - 1961 - Analysis 21 (3):59-63.
    In these few pages I shall try to demonstrate the emptiness of the most cumbersome piece of unexamined intellectual baggage at present being hauled about by English philosophers. I here cite one example to be going on with, at the end of the paper I shall give a handful more, and it would be easy to multiply the number by ten from the writings of reputable philosophers. The outstanding philosophical achievement of the ha1f-century which has just drawn to a close (...)
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  49. added 2016-04-19
    Hale on the Absoluteness of Logical Necessity.Hashem Morvarid - 2017 - Acta Analytica 32 (1):1-11.
    Hale has argued that logical necessities are absolute in the sense that there is no competing kind of modality under which they may be false. In this paper, I argue that there are competing kinds of modality, which I call “essentialist modalities,” under which logical necessities may be false. Since it is counter-intuitive to say that logical necessities are not absolute, my argument, if correct, shows that Hale’s characterization of absolute necessity does not adequately capture the intuitive notion of absolute (...)
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  50. added 2016-01-11
    Understanding, Modality, Logical Operators Reply.Timothy Williamson - 2011 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 82 (2):481-487.
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