Logics

Edited by Shay Logan (Kansas State University)
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  1. Fermat’s Last Theorem Proved in Hilbert Arithmetic. II. Its Proof in Hilbert Arithmetic by the Kochen-Specker Theorem with or Without Induction.Vasil Penchev - 2022 - Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 14 (10):1-52.
    The paper is a continuation of another paper published as Part I. Now, the case of “n=3” is inferred as a corollary from the Kochen and Specker theorem (1967): the eventual solutions of Fermat’s equation for “n=3” would correspond to an admissible disjunctive division of qubit into two absolutely independent parts therefore versus the contextuality of any qubit, implied by the Kochen – Specker theorem. Incommensurability (implied by the absence of hidden variables) is considered as dual to quantum contextuality. The (...)
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  2. TO KNOW THEM, REMOVE THEM: AN OUTER METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO BIOPHYSICS AND HUMANITIES.Arturo Tozzi - manuscript
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  3. KF, PKF and Reinhardt’s Program.Luca Castaldo & Johannes Stern - 2022 - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-26.
    In “Some Remarks on Extending and Interpreting Theories with a Partial Truth Predicate”, Reinhardt [21] famously proposed an instrumentalist interpretation of the truth theory Kripke–Feferman in analogy to Hilbert’s program. Reinhardt suggested to view $\mathrm {KF}$ as a tool for generating “the significant part of $\mathrm {KF}$ ”, that is, as a tool for deriving sentences of the form $\mathrm{Tr}\ulcorner {\varphi }\urcorner $. The constitutive question of Reinhardt’s program was whether it was possible “to justify the use of nonsignificant sentences (...)
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  4. The Modal Logic of Set-Theoretic Potentialism and the Potentialist Maximality Principles.Joel David Hamkins & Øystein Linnebo - 2022 - Review of Symbolic Logic 15 (1):1-35.
    We analyze the precise modal commitments of several natural varieties of set-theoretic potentialism, using tools we develop for a general model-theoretic account of potentialism, building on those of Hamkins, Leibman and Löwe [14], including the use of buttons, switches, dials and ratchets. Among the potentialist conceptions we consider are: rank potentialism, Grothendieck–Zermelo potentialism, transitive-set potentialism, forcing potentialism, countable-transitive-model potentialism, countable-model potentialism, and others. In each case, we identify lower bounds for the modal validities, which are generally either S4.2 or S4.3, (...)
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  5. The Structuralist Approach to Underdetermination.Chanwoo Lee - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-25.
    This paper provides an exposition of the structuralist approach to underdetermination, which aims to resolve the underdetermination of theories by identifying their common theoretical structure. Applications of the structuralist approach can be found in many areas of philosophy. I present a schema of the structuralist approach, which conceptually unifies such applications in different subject matters. It is argued that two classic arguments in the literature, Paul Benacerraf’s argument on natural numbers and W. V. O. Quine’s argument for the indeterminacy of (...)
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  6. Perceptron Connectives in Knowledge Representation.Pietro Galliani, Guendalina Righetti, Daniele Porello, Oliver Kutz & Nicolas Toquard - 2020 - In Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management - 22nd International Conference, {EKAW} 2020, Bolzano, Italy, September 16-20, 2020, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 12387. pp. 183-193.
    We discuss the role of perceptron (or threshold) connectives in the context of Description Logic, and in particular their possible use as a bridge between statistical learning of models from data and logical reasoning over knowledge bases. We prove that such connectives can be added to the language of most forms of Description Logic without increasing the complexity of the corresponding inference problem. We show, with a practical example over the Gene Ontology, how even simple instances of perceptron connectives are (...)
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  7. Towards a Cognitive Semantics of Type.Daniele Porello & Giancarlo Guizzardi - 2017 - In AI*IA 2017 Advances in Artificial Intelligence - XVIth International Conference of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence, Bari, Italy, November 14-17, 2017, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 10640. pp. 428-440.
    Types are a crucial concept in conceptual modelling, logic, and knowledge representation as they are an ubiquitous device to un- derstand and formalise the classification of objects. We propose a logical treatment of types based on a cognitively inspired modelling that ac- counts for the amount of information that is actually available to a cer- tain agent in the task of classification. We develop a predicative modal logic whose semantics is based on conceptual spaces that model the ac- tual information (...)
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  8. The Logica Yearbook 2012.Vit Puncochar & Petr Svarny (eds.) - 2013 - College Publications.
    This volume of the Logica Yearbook series brings together articles presented at the annual international symposium Logica 2012, Hejnice, the Czech Republic. The articles range over mathematical and philosophical logic, history and philosophy of logic, and the analysis of natural language.
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  9. Hannah Arendt on Racist Logomania.Joshua M. Hall - forthcoming - Journal of Mind and Behavior.
    In the present article, I offer a new reading of Hannah Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism, specifically her argument that ideologies such as racism engender totalitarianism when the lonely and disenfranchised laborers of modern society develop a pathological fixation on formal logic, which I term “logomania.” That is, such logical deductions, from horrifically false premises, are the closest thing to thinking that individuals can engage in after their psyches, relationships, and communities have broken down. And it is only thus that (...)
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  10. La logica della spiegazione come argomento per l'esistenza di Dio.Daniele Bertini - 2021 - Nuovo Giornale di Filosofia Della Religione 1 (1):77-106.
    Discuto la tesi di Micheletti secondo la quale ogni spiegazione fattuale presuppone premesse di ordine superiore rispetto alla spiegazione (M.Micheletti, “Radical Divine Alterity and the God-World Relationship”). Nella prima sezione del testo introdurrò la tesi, muovendo dalla analisi di alcuni esempi di spiegazione, ed elencherò le ragioni che (apparentemente) richiedono la postulazione di higher-degree propositions per rendere conto di factual propositions. Nella seconda sezione regimenterò logicamente la tesi di Micheletti. Nella terza sezione discuterò la validità della logica della spiegazione così (...)
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  11. Logica, Seconda edizione.Achille C. Varzi, John Nolt & Dennis A. Rohatyn - 2007 - Milan: McGraw-Hill Italia.
    Extended revised edition of "Logica" (2003).
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  12. Logica.John Nolt, Dennis A. Rohatyn & Achille C. Varzi - 2003 - Milan: McGraw-Hill Italia.
    Italian translation of "Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Logic" (1988).
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  13. A Note on Paradoxical Propositions From an Inferential Point of View.Ivo Pezlar - 2021 - In Martin Blicha & Igor Sedlár (eds.), The Logica Yearbook 2020. College Publications. pp. 183-199.
    In a recent paper by Tranchini (Topoi, 2019), an introduction rule for the paradoxical proposition ρ∗ that can be simultaneously proven and disproven is discussed. This rule is formalized in Martin-Löf’s constructive type theory (CTT) and supplemented with an inferential explanation in the style of Brouwer-Heyting-Kolmogorov semantics. I will, however, argue that the provided formalization is problematic because what is paradoxical about ρ∗ from the viewpoint of CTT is not its provability, but whether it is a proposition at all.
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  14. Problemas semánticos en filosofía de la lógica.Sergio Aramburu - 2021 - Actas y Comunicaciones UNGS 6:193-211.
    Este texto presenta, y en cierta medida analiza, ambigüedades existentes en textos de lógica y filosofía de la lógica (como la interpretación de los llamados principios, postulados, leyes o verdades lógicas, la coexistencia de la tesis de que toda relación presupone la existencia de al menos dos relata y la de que una cosa puede relacionarse consigo misma, o la llamada "paradoja del mentiroso") bajo el supuesto de que, dado que la lógica no es anterior a la semántica, un análisis (...)
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  15. Diagonal Arguments and Fixed Points.Saeed Salehi - 2017 - Bulletin of the Iranian Mathematical Society 43 (5):1073-1088.
    ‎A universal schema for diagonalization was popularized by N. S‎. ‎Yanofsky (2003)‎, ‎based on a pioneering work of F.W‎. ‎Lawvere (1969)‎, ‎in which the existence of a (diagonolized-out and contradictory) object implies the existence of a fixed-point for a certain function‎. ‎It was shown that many self-referential paradoxes and diagonally proved theorems can fit in that schema‎. ‎Here‎, ‎we fit more theorems in the universal‎ ‎schema of diagonalization‎, ‎such as Euclid's proof for the infinitude of the primes and new proofs (...)
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  16. Axiomatization of Crisp Gödel Modal Logic.Ricardo Oscar Rodriguez & Amanda Vidal - 2020 - Studia Logica 109 (2):367-395.
    In this paper we consider the modal logic with both \ and \ arising from Kripke models with a crisp accessibility and whose propositions are valued over the standard Gödel algebra \. We provide an axiomatic system extending the one from Caicedo and Rodriguez :37–55, 2015) for models with a valued accessibility with Dunn axiom from positive modal logics, and show it is strongly complete with respect to the intended semantics. The axiomatizations of the most usual frame restrictions are given (...)
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  17. Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Edition 2021.Vilnis Detlovs & Karlis Podnieks - manuscript
    Textbook for students in mathematical logic. Part 1. Total formalization is possible! Formal theories. First order languages. Axioms of constructive and classical logic. Proving formulas in propositional and predicate logic. Glivenko's theorem and constructive embedding. Axiom independence. Interpretations, models and completeness theorems. Normal forms. Tableaux method. Resolution method. Herbrand's theorem.
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  18. Analyticity and Modulation. Broadening the Rescale Perspective on Language Logicality.Salvatore Pistoia-Reda & Uli Sauerland - 2021 - International Review of Pragmatics 1 (13):1-13.
    Acceptable analyticities, i.e. contradictions or tautologies, constitute problematic evidence for the idea that language includes a deductive system. In recent discussion, two accounts have been presented in the literature to explain the available evidence. According to one of the accounts, grammatical analyticities are accessible to the system but a pragmatic strengthening repair mechanism can apply and prevent the structures from being actually interpreted as contradictions or tautologies. The proposed data, however, leaves it open whether other versions of the meaning modulation (...)
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  19. Counterfactual Logic and the Necessity of Mathematics.Samuel Z. Elgin - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 50 (1):97-115.
    This paper is concerned with counterfactual logic and its implications for the modal status of mathematical claims. It is most directly a response to an ambitious program by Yli-Vakkuri and Hawthorne, who seek to establish that mathematics is committed to its own necessity. I demonstrate that their assumptions collapse the counterfactual conditional into the material conditional. This collapse entails the success of counterfactual strengthening, which is controversial within counterfactual logic, and which has counterexamples within pure and applied mathematics. I close (...)
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  20. Opposition Relations Between Prophecies.Yessica Espinoza Ramos & José David García Cruz - 2020 - In Chapman P. Pietarinen Av (ed.), Diagrammatic Representation and Inference. Diagrams 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. pp. 394-401.
    This paper presents two versions of opposition relations for prophetical statements, the first one is an application of “Ockham’s thesis” in Classical propositional Logic. The second one is a reinterpretation of that thesis in the logic MRSP.
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  21. Logical Characterisation of Concept Transformations From Human Into Machine Relying on Predicate Logic.Farshad Badie - 2016 - In ACHI 2016 : The Ninth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions. pp. 376-379.
    Providing more human-like concept learning in machines has always been one of the most significant goals of machine learning paradigms and of human-machine interaction techniques. This article attempts to provide a logical specification of conceptual mappings from humans’ minds into machines’ knowledge bases. We will focus on the representation of the mappings (transformations) relying on First-Order Predicate Logic. Additionally, the structure of concepts in the common ground between humans and machines will be analysed. It seems quite necessary to pay attention (...)
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  22. Inferences and Metainferences in ST.Pablo Cobreros, Paul Egré, David Ripley & Robert van Rooij - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (6):1057-1077.
    In a recent paper, Barrio, Tajer and Rosenblatt establish a correspondence between metainferences holding in the strict-tolerant logic of transparent truth ST+ and inferences holding in the logic of paradox LP+. They argue that LP+ is ST+’s external logic and they question whether ST+’s solution to the semantic paradoxes is fundamentally different from LP+’s. Here we establish that by parity of reasoning, ST+ can be related to LP+’s dual logic K3+. We clarify the distinction between internal and external logic and (...)
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  23. Proof Systems for Various Fde-Based Modal Logics.Sergey Drobyshevich & Heinrich Wansing - 2020 - Review of Symbolic Logic 13 (4):720-747.
    We present novel proof systems for various FDE-based modal logics. Among the systems considered are a number of Belnapian modal logics introduced in Odintsov & Wansing and Odintsov & Wansing, as well as the modal logic KN4 with strong implication introduced in Goble. In particular, we provide a Hilbert-style axiom system for the logic $BK^{\square - } $ and characterize the logic BK as an axiomatic extension of the system $BK^{FS} $. For KN4 we provide both an FDE-style axiom system (...)
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  24. Sobre la capturabilidad de teorías informales en sistemas axiomáticos formales.Ariel Jonathan Roffé - 2014 - Cuadernos de Filosofía 62:65-75.
    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar qué quiere decir capturar una teoría (se utilizará la aritmética como ejemplo paradigmático) por medio de un sistema axiomático formal. Se considerarán para ello dos enfoques, que pueden denominarse “semántico” y “sintáctico”, tanto en términos de sus ventajas como de sus limitaciones. El enfoque semántico (presupuesto por Barrio y Da Ré en este volumen y expuesto en la primera sección), entiende la expresabilidad como una restricción de la clase de los modelos; se muestra (...)
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  25. Logic of Faith and Dead. The Idea and Outline of the Theoretical Conception.Wybraniec-Skardowska Urszula - 2019 - Philosophia Christine 55 (2):125-149.
    This paper discusses the theoretical assumptions behind the conception of the logic of faith and deed (LF&D) and outlines its formal-axiomatic frame and its method of construction, which enable us to understand it as a kind of deductive science. The paper is divided into several sections, starting with the logical analysis of the ambiguous terms of 'faith’ and 'action', and focusing in particular on the concepts of religious faith and deed as a type of conscious activity relating to a matter (...)
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  26. Structure and Logic of Conceptual Mind.Venkata Rayudu Posina - manuscript
    Mind, according to cognitive neuroscience, is a set of brain functions. But, unlike sets, our minds are cohesive. Moreover, unlike the structureless elements of sets, the contents of our minds are structured. Mutual relations between the mental contents endow the mind its structure. Here we characterize the structural essence and the logical form of the mind by focusing on thinking. Examination of the relations between concepts, propositions, and syllogisms involved in thinking revealed the reflexive graph structure of the conceptual mind. (...)
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  27. Polarity Semantics for Negation as a Modal Operator.Yuanlei Lin & Minghui Ma - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (5):877-902.
    The minimal weakening \ of Belnap-Dunn logic under the polarity semantics for negation as a modal operator is formulated as a sequent system which is characterized by the class of all birelational frames. Some extensions of \ with additional sequents as axioms are introduced. In particular, all three modal negation logics characterized by a frame with a single state are formalized as extensions of \. These logics have the finite model property and they are decidable.
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  28. No New Solutions to the Logical Problem of the Trinity.Beau Branson - 2019 - Journal of Applied Logics 6 (6):1051-1092.
    Analytic theologians have proposed numerous “solutions” to the Logical Problem of the Trinity (LPT), mostly versions of Social Trinitarianism (ST) and Relative Identity Trinitarianism (RI). Both types of solution are controversial, but many hold out hope that further “Trinitarian theorizing” may yield some as yet unimagined, and somehow importantly different, solution to the LPT. I first give a precise definition of the LPT and of what would count as a solution to it. I then show how, though there are infinitely (...)
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  29. The Poset of All Logics III: Finitely Presentable Logics.Ramon Jansana & Tommaso Moraschini - 2021 - Studia Logica 109 (3):539-580.
    A logic in a finite language is said to be finitely presentable if it is axiomatized by finitely many finite rules. It is proved that binary non-indexed products of logics that are both finitely presentable and finitely equivalential are essentially finitely presentable. This result does not extend to binary non-indexed products of arbitrary finitely presentable logics, as shown by a counterexample. Finitely presentable logics are then exploited to introduce finitely presentable Leibniz classes, and to draw a parallel between the Leibniz (...)
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  30. Measuring Inconsistency in Some Logics with Modal Operators.John Grant - 2021 - Studia Logica 109 (3):581-605.
    The first mention of the concept of an inconsistency measure for sets of formulas in first-order logic was given in 1978, but that paper presented only classifications for them. The first actual inconsistency measure with a numerical value was given in 2002 for sets of formulas in propositional logic. Since that time, researchers in logic and AI have developed a substantial theory of inconsistency measures. While this is an interesting topic from the point of view of logic, an important motivation (...)
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  31. The Logic of Information in State Spaces.Levin Hornischer - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-32.
    State spaces are, in the most general sense, sets of entities that contain information. Examples include states of dynamical systems, processes of observations, or possible worlds. We use domain theory to describe the structure of positive and negative information in state spaces. We present examples ranging from the space of trajectories of a dynamical system, over Dunn’s aboutness interpretation of fde, to the space of open sets of a spectral space. We show that these information structures induce so-called hype models (...)
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  32. A Note on Choice Principles in Second-Order Logic.Benjamin Siskind, Paolo Mancosu & Stewart Shapiro - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-12.
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  33. Schopenhauer Diagrams for Conceptual Analysis.Michał Dobrzański & Jens Lemanski - 2020 - In Diagrammatic Representation and Inference 11th International Conference, Diagrams 2020, Tallinn, Estonia, August 24–28, 2020, Proceedings. Basel: Springer. pp. 281-288.
    In his Berlin Lectures of the 1820s, the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860) used spatial logic diagrams for philosophy of language. These logic diagrams were applied to many areas of semantics and pragmatics, such as theories of concept formation, concept development, translation theory, clarification of conceptual disputes, etc. In this paper we first introduce the basic principles of Schopenhauer’s philosophy of language and his diagrammatic method. Since Schopenhauer often gives little information about how the individual diagrams are to be understood, (...)
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  34. Function Logic and the Theory of Computability.Jaakko Hintikka - 2013 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers 13 (1):10-19.
    An important link between model theory and proof theory is to construe a deductive disproof of S as an attempted construction of a countermodel to it. In the function logic outlined here, this idea is implemented in such a way that different kinds of individuals can be introduced into the countermodel in any order whatsoever. This imposes connections between the length of the branches of the tree that a disproof is and their number. If there are already n individuals in (...)
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  35. Three Characterizations of Strict Coherence on Infinite-Valued Events.Tommaso Flaminio - 2020 - Review of Symbolic Logic 13 (3):593-610.
    This article builds on a recent paper coauthored by the present author, H. Hosni and F. Montagna. It is meant to contribute to the logical foundations of probability theory on many-valued events and, specifically, to a deeper understanding of the notion of strict coherence. In particular, we will make use of geometrical, measure-theoretical and logical methods to provide three characterizations of strict coherence on formulas of infinite-valued Łukasiewicz logic.
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  36. Restricted Interpolation and Lack Thereof in Stit Logic.Grigory K. Olkhovikov - 2020 - Review of Symbolic Logic 13 (3):459-482.
    We consider the propositional logic equipped with Chellas stit operators for a finite set of individual agents plus the historical necessity modality. We settle the question of whether such a logic enjoys restricted interpolation property, which requires the existence of an interpolant only in cases where the consequence contains no Chellas stit operators occurring in the premise. We show that if action operators count as logical symbols, then such a logic has restricted interpolation property iff the number of agents does (...)
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  37. Beyond Subgoaling: A Dynamic Knowledge Generation Framework for Creative Problem Solving in Cognitive Architectures.Antonio Lieto - 2019 - Cognitive Systems Research 58:305-316.
    In this paper we propose a computational framework aimed at extending the problem solving capabilities of cognitive artificial agents through the introduction of a novel, goal-directed, dynamic knowledge generation mechanism obtained via a non monotonic reasoning procedure. In particular, the proposed framework relies on the assumption that certain classes of problems cannot be solved by simply learning or injecting new external knowledge in the declarative memory of a cognitive artificial agent but, on the other hand, require a mechanism for the (...)
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  38. Logical Laws for Short Existential Monadic Second-Order Sentences About Graphs.M. E. Zhukovskii - 2019 - Journal of Mathematical Logic 20 (2):2050007.
    In 2001, Le Bars proved that there exists an existential monadic second-order sentence such that the probability that it is true on [Formula: see text] does not converge and conjectured that, for EMSO sentences with two first-order variables, the zero–one law holds. In this paper, we prove that the conjecture fails for [Formula: see text], and give new examples of sentences with fewer variables without convergence.
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  39. Logic, Language, Information, and Computation: 22nd International Workshop, WoLLIC 2015, Bloomington, IN, USA, July 20-23, 2015, Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science Book 9160).Valeria Correa Vaz De Paiva, Ruy de Queiroz, Lawrence S. Moss, Daniel M. Leivant & Anjolina G. De Oliveira - 2015 - Springer.
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  40. Philosophical Investigation Series: Selected Texts on Logic / Série Investigação Filosófica: Textos Selecionados de Lógica.Danilo Fraga Dantas & Rodrigo Cid - 2020 - Pelotas - Princesa, Pelotas - RS, Brasil: UFPEL's Publisher / Editora da UFPEL.
    Este livro marca o início da Série Investigação Filosófica. Uma série de livros de traduções de textos de plataformas internacionalmente reconhecidas, que possa servir tanto como material didático para os professores das diferentes subáreas e níveis da Filosofia quanto como material de estudo para o desenvolvimento pesquisas relevantes na área. Nós, professores, sabemos o quão difícil é encontrar bons materiais em português para indicarmos. E há uma certa deficiência na graduação brasileira de filosofia, principalmente em localizações menos favorecidas, com relação (...)
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  41. Satisfiability is False Intuitionistically: A Question from Dana Scott.Charles McCarty - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (4):803-813.
    Satisfiability or Sat\ is the metatheoretic statementEvery formally intuitionistically consistent set of first-order sentences has a model.The models in question are the Tarskian relational structures familiar from standard first-order model theory, but here treated within intuitionistic metamathematics. We prove that both IZF, intuitionistic Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, and HAS, second-order Heyting arithmetic, prove Sat\ to be false outright. Following the lead of Carter :75–95, 2008), we then generalize this result to some provably intermediate first-order logics, including the Rose logic. These metatheorems (...)
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  42. L -effect Algebras.Wolfgang Rump & Xia Zhang - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (4):725-750.
    L-effect algebras are introduced as a class of L-algebras which specialize to all known generalizations of effect algebras with a \-semilattice structure. Moreover, L-effect algebras X arise in connection with quantum sets and Frobenius algebras. The translates of X in the self-similar closure S form a covering, and the structure of X is shown to be equivalent to the compatibility of overlapping translates. A second characterization represents an L-effect algebra in the spirit of closed categories. As an application, it is (...)
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  43. A Note on Strong Axiomatization of Gödel Justification Logic.Nicholas Pischke - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (4):687-724.
    Justification logics are special kinds of modal logics which provide a framework for reasoning about epistemic justifications. For this, they extend classical boolean propositional logic by a family of necessity-style modal operators “t : ”, indexed over t by a corresponding set of justification terms, which thus explicitly encode the justification for the necessity assertion in the syntax. With these operators, one can therefore not only reason about modal effects on propositions but also about dynamics inside the justifications themselves. We (...)
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  44. A Classical Logic of Existence and Essence.Sergio Galvan & Alessandro Giordani - 2020 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 29 (4):541-570.
    The purpose of this paper is to provide a new system of logic for existence and essence, in which the traditional distinctions between essential and accidental properties, abstract and concrete objects, and actually existent and possibly existent objects are described and related in a suitable way. In order to accomplish this task, a primitive relation of essential identity between different objects is introduced and connected to a first order existence property and a first order abstractness property. The basic idea is (...)
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  45. Leibnizian Identity and Paraconsistent Logic.Ali Abasnezhad - 2020 - History and Philosophy of Logic 41 (3):236-243.
    The standard Leibnizian view of identity allows for substitutivity of identicals and validates transitivity of identity within classical semantics. However, in a series of works, Graham Priest argues that Leibnizian identity invalidates both principles when formalized in paraconsistent semantics. This paper aims to show the Leibnizian view of identity validates substitutivity of identicals and transitivity of identity whether the logic is classical or paraconsistent. After presenting Priest's semantics of identity, I show what a semantic expression of Leibnizian identity does amount (...)
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  46. More Observations.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    Anthropic principle, Perspectival ontology, Hard problem, Why something rather than nothing, Life after death, Buddhism, God.
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  47. Angels in the Areopagetic Tradition.Christos Terezis & Lydia Petridou - 2019 - Augustinianum 59 (2):505-522.
    In this article, we deal with the intelligible world of the angels in the Areopagetic tradition and we compose references found in the De divinis nominibus to form, as far as possible, a complete definition of them. This systematic approach to the Areopagetic corpus takes into consideration Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite’s text and George Pachymeres’ Paraphrasis of this treatise. We also offer a methodological proposal on how we can structure theoretically general concepts that refer to objective realities, which however cannot be (...)
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  48. A Description Logic Based Knowledge Representation Model for Concept Understanding.Farshad Badie - 2017 - In Jasper van den Herik, A. Rocha & J. Filipe (eds.), Agents and Artificial Intelligence. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
    This research employs Description Logics in order to focus on logical description and analysis of the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’. The article will deal with a formal-semantic model for figuring out the underlying logical assumptions of ‘concept understanding’ in knowledge representation systems. In other words, it attempts to describe a theoretical model for concept understanding and to reflect the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’ in terminological knowledge representation systems. Finally, it will design an ontology that schemes the structure of concept understanding (...)
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  49. Modelling Last-Act Attempted Crime in Criminal Law.Jiraporn Pooksook, Phan Minh Dung, Ken Satoh & Giovanni Sartor - 2019 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 29 (4):327-357.
    In the court of law, a person can be punished for attempting to commit a crime. An open issue in the study of Artificial Intelligence and Law is whether the law of attempts could be formally modelled. There are distinct legal rules for determining attempted crime whereas the last-act rule (also called proximity rule) represents the strictest approach. In this paper, we provide a formal model of the last-act rule using structured argumentation.
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  50. Varieties of BL-Algebras III: Splitting Algebras.Paolo Aglianó - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (6):1235-1259.
    In this paper we investigate splitting algebras in varieties of logics, with special consideration for varieties of BL-algebras and similar structures. In the case of the variety of all BL-algebras a complete characterization of the splitting algebras is obtained.
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