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  1. added 2020-05-25
    Logics of Synonymy.Levin Hornischer - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-39.
    We investigate synonymy in the strong sense of content identity. This notion is central in the philosophy of language and in applications of logic. We motivate, uniformly axiomatize, and characterize several “benchmark” notions of synonymy in the messy class of all possible notions of synonymy. This class is divided by two intuitive principles that are governed by a no-go result. We use the notion of a scenario to get a logic of synonymy which is the canonical representative of one division. (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-25
    Integrally Closed Residuated Lattices.José Gil-Férez, Frederik Möllerström Lauridsen & George Metcalfe - forthcoming - Studia Logica:1-24.
    A residuated lattice is said to be integrally closed if it satisfies the quasiequations \ and \, or equivalently, the equations \ and \. Every integral, cancellative, or divisible residuated lattice is integrally closed, and, conversely, every bounded integrally closed residuated lattice is integral. It is proved that the mapping \\backslash {\mathrm {e}}\) on any integrally closed residuated lattice is a homomorphism onto a lattice-ordered group. A Glivenko-style property is then established for varieties of integrally closed residuated lattices with respect (...)
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  3. added 2020-05-11
    Algebraically Closed Structures in Positive Logic.Mohammed Belkasmi - 2020 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 171 (9):102822.
    In this paper we extend of the notion of algebraically closed given in the case of groups and skew fields to an arbitrary h-inductive theory. The main subject of this paper is the study of the notion of positive algebraic closedness and its relationship with the notion of positive closedness and the amalgamation property.
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  4. added 2020-05-08
    Pan demos Alla ricerca di un nuovo pensiero.Donato Santarcangelo - 2020 - Dialoghi Mediterranei.
  5. added 2020-05-08
    The Symbolic Epistemological Implications of the Different Mythological Set Up of the (Egyptian)-Mesopotamian Culture Compared to the Grecian One.Donato Santarcangelo - 2017 - Enkelados 6.
    The Mesopotamian peoples were never really dominated by the reason the way we conceptualize it. It's to the revelation as direct emanation of the divine that they ascribed the appearance of knowledge.
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  6. added 2020-04-23
    Notes and Comments on Leibniz's Contigency.Florian Millo - 2020
    Contigency is a definition for which is noted for not having the principle of contradiction in itself, for which gives a different truths from what we are used to derive from geometry as an essential field for knowledge of creating strong logics. Leibniz clearly states one of his ideas for God, and why there must be contigent truths and necessary truths.
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  7. added 2020-03-21
    Vérité partielle et réalisme scientifique: une approche bungéenne.Jean-Pierre Marquis - forthcoming - Metascience.
    Le réalisme scientifique occupe une place centrale dans le système philosophique de Mario Bunge. Au cœur de cette thèse, on trouve l’affirmation selon laquelle nous pouvons connaître le monde partiellement. Il s’ensuit que les théories scientifiques ne sont pas totalement vraies ou totalement fausses, mais plutôt partiellement vraies et partiellement fausses. Ces énoncés sur la connaissance scientifique, à première vue plausible pour quiconque est familier avec la pratique scientifique, demandent néanmoins à être clarifiés, précisés et, ultimement, à être inclus dans (...)
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  8. added 2020-03-10
    A Comparison of Type Theory with Set Theory.Ansten Klev - 2019 - In Deniz Sarikaya, Deborah Kant & Stefania Centrone (eds.), Reflections on the Foundations of Mathematics. Springer Verlag. pp. 271-292.
    This paper discusses some of the ways in which Martin-Löf type theory differs from set theory. The discussion concentrates on conceptual, rather than technical, differences. It revolves around four topics: sets versus types; syntax; functions; and identity. The difference between sets and types is spelt out as the difference between unified pluralities and kinds, or sorts. A detailed comparison is then offered of the syntax of the two languages. Emphasis is placed on the distinction between proposition and judgement, drawn by (...)
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  9. added 2020-03-10
    A Note on the Logic of Worldly Ground.Stephan Krämer & Stefan Roski - 2015 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 4 (1):59-68.
    In his 2010 paper ‘Grounding and Truth-Functions’, Fabrice Correia has developed the first and so far only proposal for a logic of ground based on a worldly conception of facts. In this paper, we show that the logic allows the derivation of implausible grounding claims. We then generalize these results and draw some conclusions concerning the structural features of ground and its associated notion of relevance, which has so far not received the attention it deserves.
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  10. added 2020-02-03
    A Critical Assessment of Pollock’s Work on Logic-Based Argumentation with Suppositions.Mathieu Beirlaen, Jesse Heyninck & Christian Straßer - 2018 - In Proceedings of the Nmr. pp. 63--72.
  11. added 2020-02-03
    Prioritized Sequent-Based Argumentation.Ofer Arieli, AnneMarie Borg & Christian Straßer - 2018 - In Elisabeth Andre & Sven Koening (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems. pp. 1105--1113.
  12. added 2020-02-03
    Argument Strength in Formal Argumentation.Mathieu Beirlaen, Jesse Heyninck, Pere Pardo & Christian Straßer - 2018 - Journal of Applied Logics-Ifcolog Journal of Logics and Their Applications 5 (3):629--675.
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  13. added 2020-02-03
    Relations Between Assumption-Based Approaches in Nonmonotonic Logic and Formal Argumentation.Jesse Heyninck & Christian Straßer - 2016 - In Gabriele Kern-Isberner & Renata Wassermann (eds.), Proceedings of Nmr2016. pp. 65--76.
  14. added 2020-02-03
    Argumentative Approaches to Reasoning with Maximal Consistency.Ofer Arieli & Christian Straßer - 2016 - In Chitta Baral, James Delgrande & Frank Wolter (eds.), KR'16: Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. pp. 509--512.
  15. added 2020-01-21
    Aristotelian Relations in PDL: The Hypercube of Dynamic Oppositions.José David García Cruz - 2017 - Special Issue 5th World Congress on the Square of Opposition Easter Island, November 11-15, 2016.
    The aim of this paper is to study aristotelian relation in an extension of Propositional Dynamic Logic, the logic PDLQ+(¬). The main result of our study is the production of a geometrical opposition structure called hypercube of Dynamic Opposition, this structure is very useful to study negation of atomic programs and dynamic modalities.
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  16. added 2020-01-21
    A Modal Logic to Reason About Analogical Proportion.José David García Cruz - 2016 - Studia Metodologiczne 37 (1):73-96.
    A modal logic for representing analogical proportions is presented. This logic is a modal interpretation of H. Prade and G. Richard's homogeneous analogy. A tableaux system is given with some examples an intuitions.
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  17. added 2020-01-06
    Oskari Kuusela, Wittgenstein on Logic as the Method of Philosophy: Re‐Examining the Roots and Development of Analytic Philosophy . Xi + 297, £55.00 Hb. [REVIEW]Alessio Persichetti - 2019 - Philosophical Investigations 42 (4):424-427.
  18. added 2020-01-06
    Commentary on “The Strategic Formulation of Abductive Arguments in Everyday Reasoning”.John R. Welch - 2016 - Argumentation, Objectivity, and Bias: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation (OSSA).
    Henrike Jansen’s “The strategic formulation of abductive arguments in everyday reasoning” insightfully explores the terrain of abductive argumentation. The purpose of this note is to continue the exploration along lines marked out by her paper. This further exploration proceeds in two stages. Section 2 of the paper addresses the nature of abductive inference by distinguishing two types of abduction, identifying some of abduction’s formal and nonformal properties, and relating abduction to enthymematic inference. Section 3 focuses on some of Jansen’s examples, (...)
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  19. added 2019-12-22
    Logical Pluralism.Gillian Russell - 2013 - In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  20. added 2019-12-13
    Logic and Philosophy of Logic in Wittgenstein.Sebastian Sunday Grève - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (1):168-182.
    This essay discusses Wittgenstein's conception of logic, early and late, and some of the types of logical system that he constructed. The essay shows that the common view according to which Wittgenstein had stopped engaging in logic as a philosophical discipline by the time of writing Philosophical Investigations is mistaken. It is argued that, on the contrary, logic continued to figure at the very heart of later Wittgenstein's philosophy; and that Wittgenstein's mature philosophy of logic contains many interesting thoughts that (...)
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  21. added 2019-11-18
    Similarity Notions in Bipolar Abstract Argumentation.Paola Daniela Budán, Melisa Gisselle Escañuela Gonzalez, Maximiliano Celmo David Budán, Maria Vanina Martinez & Guillermo Ricardo Simari - 2020 - Argument and Computation 11 (1-2):103-149.
    Abstract. The notion of similarity has been studied in many areas of Computer Science; in a general sense, this concept is defined to provide a measure of the semantic equivalence between two pieces of knowledge, expressing how “close” their meaning can be regarded. In this work, we study similarity as a tool useful to improve the representation of arguments, the interpretation of the relations between arguments, and the semantic evaluation associated with the arguments in the argumentative process. In this direction, (...)
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  22. added 2019-11-10
    Arrow's Decisive Coalitions.Wesley H. Holliday & Eric Pacuit - forthcoming - Social Choice and Welfare.
    In his classic monograph, Social Choice and Individual Values, Arrow introduced the notion of a decisive coalition of voters as part of his mathematical framework for social choice theory. The subsequent literature on Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem has shown the importance for social choice theory of reasoning about coalitions of voters with different grades of decisiveness. The goal of this paper is a fine-grained analysis of reasoning about decisive coalitions, formalizing how the concept of a decisive coalition gives rise to a (...)
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  23. added 2019-09-19
    Realistics Premises of Epistemic Argumentation for Dynamic Epistemic Logics.Edward Bryniarski, Zbigniew Bonikowski, Jacek Waldmajer & Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2011 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 23 (36).
    In the paper, certain rational postulates for protocols describing real communicating are introduced.These rational postulates, on the one hand, allow assigning a certain typology of real systems of interactions, which is consistent with the reality of epistemic argumentation in systems of communicating, and on the other one – defining rules of using argumentation in real situations. Moreover, the presented postulates for protocols characterize information networks and administering knowledge in real interactivity systems. Due to the epistemic character of the considerations, the (...)
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  24. added 2019-09-13
    Existential Import and Relations of Categorical and Modal Categorical Statements.Jiri Raclavsky - 2018 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 27 (3): 271-300.
    I examine the familiar quadruple of categorical statements “Every F is/is not G.”, “Some F is/is not G.” as well as the quadruple of their modal versions “Necessarily, every F is/is not G.”, “Possibly, some F is/is not G.”. I focus on their existential import and its impact on the resulting Squares of Opposition. Though my construal of existential import follows modern approach, I add some extra details which are enabled by framing my definition of existential import within expressively rich (...)
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  25. added 2019-07-29
    Aristotelian Diagrams for Semantic and Syntactic Consequence.Lorenz Demey - forthcoming - Synthese:1-21.
    Several authors have recently studied Aristotelian diagrams for various metatheoretical notions from logic, such as tautology, satisfiability, and the Aristotelian relations themselves. However, all these metalogical Aristotelian diagrams focus on the semantic perspective on logical consequence, thus ignoring the complementary, and equally important, syntactic perspective. In this paper, I propose an explanation for this discrepancy, by arguing that the metalogical square of opposition for semantic consequence exhibits a natural analogy to the well-known square of opposition for the categorical statements from (...)
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  26. added 2019-06-10
    Three is a Magic Number.Brendan Larvor - 2009 - The Philosophers' Magazine 44:83-88.
    Logical theory – and philosophical theory generally – is just that, theory. Generations of logic students felt a sort of unease about it without knowing what to do about it. Nowadays, students of mathematical logic feel a similar unease when faced with the fact that in standard predicate calculus, “All unicorns are sneaky” is true precisely because there are no unicorns. Blanché’s analysis reminds us that such feelings of unease may indicate a shortcoming in the theory rather than in the (...)
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  27. added 2019-06-06
    Algebraic Logic, Where Does It Stand Today?Tarek Sayed Ahmed - 2005 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 11 (3):465-516.
    This is a survey article on algebraic logic. It gives a historical background leading up to a modern perspective. Central problems in algebraic logic (like the representation problem) are discussed in connection to other branches of logic, like modal logic, proof theory, model-theoretic forcing, finite combinatorics, and Gödel’s incompleteness results. We focus on cylindric algebras. Relation algebras and polyadic algebras are mostly covered only insofar as they relate to cylindric algebras, and even there we have not told the whole story. (...)
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  28. added 2019-06-06
    Hybrid Logics: Characterization, Interpolation and Complexity.Carlos Areces, Patrick Blackburn & Maarten Marx - 2001 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 66 (3):977-1010.
    Hybrid languages are expansions of propositional modal languages which can refer to worlds. The use of strong hybrid languages dates back to at least [Pri67], but recent work has focussed on a more constrained system called $\mathscr{H}$. We show in detail that $\mathscr{H}$ is modally natural. We begin by studying its expressivity, and provide model theoretic characterizations and a syntactic characterization. The key result to emerge is that $\mathscr{H}$ corresponds to the fragment of first-order logic which is invariant for generated (...)
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  29. added 2019-06-06
    The Logic of Impossible Quantities.David Sherry - 1991 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 22 (1):37-62.
    In a ground-breaking essay Nagel contended that the controversy over impossible numbers influenced the development of modern logic. I maintain that Nagel was correct in outline only. He overlooked the fact that the controversy engendered a new account of reasoning, one in which the concept of a well-made language played a decisive role. Focusing on the new account of reasoning changes the story considerably and reveals important but unnoticed similarities between the development of algebraic logic and quantificational logic.
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  30. added 2019-06-06
    A Characterization of Terms of the λI-Calculus Having a Normal Form.Henk Barendregt - 1973 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 38 (3):441-445.
  31. added 2019-06-06
    Formal Logic. Prior - 1955 - Oxford University Press.
    This book was designed primarily as a textbook; though the author hopes that it will prove to be of interests to others beside logic students. Part I of this book covers the fundamentals of the subject the propositional calculus and the theory of quantification. Part II deals with the traditional formal logic and with the developments which have taken that as their starting-point. Part III deals with modal, three-valued, and extensional systems.
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  32. added 2019-06-05
    Logical Pluralism, Indeterminacy and the Normativity of Logic.Filippo Ferrari & Sebastiano Moruzzi - 2017 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-24.
    According to the form of logical pluralism elaborated by Beall and Restall there is more than one relation of logical consequence. Since they take the relation of logical consequence to res...
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  33. added 2019-04-02
    Rejection in Łukasiewicz's and Słupecki' Sense.Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2018 - Lvov-Warsaw School. Past and Present.
    The idea of rejection originated by Aristotle. The notion of rejection was introduced into formal logic by Łukasiewicz [20]. He applied it to complete syntactic characterization of deductive systems using an axiomatic method of rejection of propositions [22, 23]. The paper gives not only genesis, but also development and generalization of the notion of rejection. It also emphasizes the methodological approach to biaspectual axiomatic method of characterization of deductive systems as acceptance (asserted) systems and rejection (refutation) systems, introduced by Łukasiewicz (...)
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  34. added 2019-04-01
    Introduction. The School: Its Genesis, Development and Significance.U. Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2018 - In Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska & Ángel Garrido (eds.), in: The Lvov-Warsaw School. Past and Present. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 3-14.
    The Introduction outlines, in a concise way, the history of the Lvov-Warsaw School – a most unique Polish school of worldwide renown, which pioneered trends combining philosophy, logic, mathematics and language. The author accepts that the beginnings of the School fall on the year 1895, when its founder Kazimierz Twardowski, a disciple of Franz Brentano, came to Lvov on his mission to organize a scientific circle. Soon, among the characteristic features of the School was its serious approach towards philosophical studies (...)
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  35. added 2019-03-14
    A Logic for the Discovery of Deterministic Causal Regularities.Frederik Putte, Bert Leuridan & Mathieu Beirlaen - 2018 - Synthese 195 (1):367-399.
    We present a logic, $$\mathbf {ELI^r}$$ ELI r, for the discovery of deterministic causal regularities starting from empirical data. Our approach is inspired by Mackie’s theory of causes as INUS-conditions, and implements a more recent adjustment to Mackie’s theory according to which the left-hand side of causal regularities is required to be a minimal disjunction of minimal conjunctions. To derive such regularities from a given set of data, we make use of the adaptive logics framework. Our knowledge of deterministic causal (...)
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  36. added 2019-03-11
    A Fortiori Logic: Innovations, History and Assessments.Avi Sion - 2013 - Geneva, Switzerland: CreateSpace & Kindle; Lulu..
    A Fortiori Logic: Innovations, History and Assessments is a wide-ranging and in-depth study of a fortiori reasoning, comprising a great many new theoretical insights into such argument, a history of its use and discussion from antiquity to the present day, and critical analyses of the main attempts at its elucidation. Its purpose is nothing less than to lay the foundations for a new branch of logic and greatly develop it; and thus to once and for all dispel the many fallacious (...)
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  37. added 2019-03-07
    Logical Pluralism Without the Normativity.Christopher Blake-Turner & Gillian Russell - forthcoming - Synthese:1-19.
    Logical pluralism is the view that there is more than one logic. Logical normativism is the view that logic is normative. These positions have often been assumed to go hand-in-hand, but we show that one can be a logical pluralist without being a logical normativist. We begin by arguing directly against logical normativism. Then we reformulate one popular version of pluralism—due to Beall and Restall—to avoid a normativist commitment. We give three non-normativist pluralist views, the most promising of which depends (...)
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  38. added 2019-03-07
    Levels of Belief in Nonmonotonic Reasoning.David C. Makinson - 2009 - In Franz Huber & Christoph Schmidt-Petri (eds.), Degrees of Belief. Springer. pp. 341--354.
    Reviews the connections between different kinds of nonmonotonic logic and the general idea of varying degrees of belief.
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  39. added 2019-03-07
    Propositional Relevance Through Letter-Sharing: Review and Contribution.David C. Makinson - unknown
    The concept of relevance between classical propositional formulae, defined in terms of letter-sharing, has been around for a very long time. But it began to take on a fresh life in 1999 when it was reconsidered in the context of the logic of belief change. Two new ideas appeared in independent work of Odinaldo Rodrigues and Rohit Parikh. First, the relation of relevance was considered modulo the belief set under consideration, Second, the belief set was put in a canonical form, (...)
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  40. added 2019-03-07
    Completeness Theorems, Representation Theorems: What's the Difference?David C. Makinson - unknown - Hommage À Wlodek: Philosophical Papers Dedicated to Wlodek Rabinowicz, Ed. Rønnow-Rasmussen Et Al. 2007.
    A discussion of the connections and differences between completeness and representation theorems in logic, with examples drawn from classical and modal logic, the logic of friendliness, and nonmonotonic reasoning.
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  41. added 2019-02-21
    On Two Notions of Computation in Transparent Intensional Logic.Ivo Pezlar - 2018 - Axiomathes 29 (2):189-205.
    In Transparent Intensional Logic we can recognize two distinct notions of computation that loosely correspond to term rewriting and term interpretation as known from lambda calculus. Our goal will be to further explore these two notions and examine some of their properties.
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  42. added 2019-01-14
    Is Objectual Identity Really Dispensable?Eric Updike - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (4):761-782.
    Kai Wehmeier’s Wittgensteinian Predicate Logic is a formulation of first-order logic under the exclusive interpretation of the quantifiers. W-logic has a distinguished relation constant for co-reference but no sign for objectual identity. Wehmeier denies that objectual identity exists on the grounds that it cannot be a genuine binary relation. Fortunately W-logic is equi-expressive with standard first-order logic with identity and it appears that objectual identity is dispensable across the broader logical enterprise. This paper challenges the latter claim as objectual identity (...)
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  43. added 2019-01-09
    Pluralizm logiczny a relatywizm w logice.Bożena Czernecka-Rej - 2018 - Diametros 56:51-68.
    The aim of the article is to analyze the situation of contemporary logic with reference to the issue concerning connections between the pluralism of logical systems and relativism in logic. Accordingly, I seek answers to the following questions: Can the plurality of logic, more specifically, a large number and variety of systems constructed by logicians, be justified in a rational way? Does pluralism in logic imply the thesis of relativism? Is logical relativism in the contemporary philosophy of logic just a (...)
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  44. added 2018-12-21
    Grounding and Logical Basing Permissions.Diego Tajer - 2016 - Diametros 50:81-96.
    The relation between logic and rationality has recently re-emerged as an important topic of discussion. Following the ideas of Broome [1999] and MacFarlane [2004], the debate focused on providing rational requirements, which work as bridges between logic and epistemic norms. However, as Broome [2014] and Way [2011] observed, the usual requirements cannot capture some important aspects of rationality, such as how one can rationally believe something on the basis of believing something else. Broome [2014] proposed a few additional principles for (...)
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  45. added 2018-12-19
    Recenti studi intorno alla razionalità.Pietro Salis - 2018 - Paradigmi. Rivista di Critica Filosofica 36 (3):547-560.
    The recent publication of the books La razionalità, by Paolo Labinaz, and I modi della razionalità, edited by Massimo Dell’Utri and Antonio Rainone, offers the opportunity to provide an overview of some important discussions on rationality. In particular, I highlight how the modern and Cartesian ideal of this notion is undergoing a transformation that is enhanced by results coming from empirical studies in the field of cognitive science. These transformations are visible in many ambits concerning rationality: this discussion privileges the (...)
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  46. added 2018-11-15
    An Omitting Types Theorem for First Order Logic with Infinitary Relation Symbols.Tarek Sayed Ahmed & Basim Samir - 2007 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 53 (6):564-570.
    In this paper, an extension of first order logic is introduced. In such logics atomic formulas may have infinite lengths. An Omitting Types Theorem is proved.
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  47. added 2018-11-15
    Okres warunkowy a implikacja materialna / Conditional Sentence and Material Implication.Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz - 1956 - Studia Logica 4:117-153.
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  48. added 2018-10-31
    One's Modus Ponens: Modality, Coherence and Logic.Una Stojnić - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 95 (1):167-214.
    Recently, there has been a shift away from traditional truth-conditional accounts of meaning towards non-truth-conditional ones, e.g., expressivism, relativism and certain forms of dynamic semantics. Fueling this trend is some puzzling behavior of modal discourse. One particularly surprising manifestation of such behavior is the alleged failure of some of the most entrenched classical rules of inference; viz., modus ponens and modus tollens. These revisionary, non-truth-conditional accounts tout these failures, and the alleged tension between the behavior of modal vocabulary and classical (...)
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  49. added 2018-10-26
    Logic as the Science of the Pure Concept.G. Watts Cunningham - 1920 - Philosophical Review 29 (3):283-288.
  50. added 2018-10-01
    Translating Non-Classical Logics Into Classical Logic by Using Hidden Variables.Juan C. Agudelo-Agudelo - 2017 - Logica Universalis 11 (2):205-224.
    Dyadic semantics is a sort of non-truth-functional bivalued semantics introduced in Caleiro et al. Logica Universalis, Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 169–189, 2005). Here we introduce an algorithmic procedure for constructing conservative translations of logics characterised by dyadic semantics into classical propositional logic. The procedure uses fresh propositional variables, which we call hidden variables, to represent the indeterminism of dyadic semantics. An alternative algorithmic procedure for constructing conservative translations of any finite-valued logic into classical logic is also introduced. In this alternative procedure (...)
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