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  1. The Integral Construct of Science.Joseph Krecz - manuscript
    A number of general theories of physics provide a model for the fundamental rules that govern our universe, becoming a structural framework to which the new discoveries must conform. The theory of relativity is such a general theory. The theory of relativity is a complex theoretical framework that facilitates the understanding of the universal laws of physics. It is based on the curved space-time continuum fabric abstract concept, and it is well suited for interpreting cosmic events. More so, a general (...)
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  2. Qualia Logic.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    The logic of qualia is different than classical logic. We take the first steps in defining it and applying it to the Hard Problem.
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  3. M. Abad Varieties of Three-Valued.A. M. Suardiaz A. Quantifier - forthcoming - Studia Logica.
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  4. Logical Pluralism Without the Normativity.Christopher Blake-Turner & Gillian Russell - forthcoming - Synthese:1-19.
    Logical pluralism is the view that there is more than one logic. Logical normativism is the view that logic is normative. These positions have often been assumed to go hand-in-hand, but we show that one can be a logical pluralist without being a logical normativist. We begin by arguing directly against logical normativism. Then we reformulate one popular version of pluralism—due to Beall and Restall—to avoid a normativist commitment. We give three non-normativist pluralist views, the most promising of which depends (...)
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  5. Aristotelian Diagrams for Semantic and Syntactic Consequence.Lorenz Demey - forthcoming - Synthese:1-21.
    Several authors have recently studied Aristotelian diagrams for various metatheoretical notions from logic, such as tautology, satisfiability, and the Aristotelian relations themselves. However, all these metalogical Aristotelian diagrams focus on the semantic perspective on logical consequence, thus ignoring the complementary, and equally important, syntactic perspective. In this paper, I propose an explanation for this discrepancy, by arguing that the metalogical square of opposition for semantic consequence exhibits a natural analogy to the well-known square of opposition for the categorical statements from (...)
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  6. Explaining Experience In Nature: The Foundations Of Logic And Apprehension.Steven Ericsson-Zenith - forthcoming - Institute for Advanced Science & Engineering.
    At its core this book is concerned with logic and computation with respect to the mathematical characterization of sentient biophysical structure and its behavior. -/- Three related theories are presented: The first of these provides an explanation of how sentient individuals come to be in the world. The second describes how these individuals operate. And the third proposes a method for reasoning about the behavior of individuals in groups. -/- These theories are based upon a new explanation of experience in (...)
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  7. Impossible Fictions Part I: Lessons for Fiction.Daniel Nolan - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (2):1-12.
    Impossible fictions are valuable evidence both for a theory of fiction and for theories of meaning, mind and epistemology. This article focuses on what we can learn about fiction from reflecting on impossible fictions. First, different kinds of impossible fiction are considered, and the question of how much fiction is impossible is addressed. What impossible fiction contributes to our understanding of "truth in fiction" and the logic of fiction will be examined. Finally, our understanding of unreliable narrators and unreliable narration (...)
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  8. CRITIQUE OF IMPURE REASON: Horizons of Possibility and Meaning.Steven James Bartlett - 2020 - Salem, USA: Studies in Theory and Behavior.
    The _Critique of Impure Reason: Horizons of Possibility and Meaning_ comprises a major and important contribution to philosophy. Thanks to the generosity of its publisher, this massive 885-page volume has been published as a free open access eBook (3.2MB). It inaugurates a revolutionary paradigm shift in philosophical thought by providing compelling and long-sought-for solutions to a wide range of philosophical problems. In the process, the work fundamentally transforms the way in which the concepts of reference, meaning, and possibility are understood. (...)
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  9. Algebraically Closed Structures in Positive Logic.Mohammed Belkasmi - 2020 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 171 (9):102822.
    In this paper we extend of the notion of algebraically closed given in the case of groups and skew fields to an arbitrary h-inductive theory. The main subject of this paper is the study of the notion of positive algebraic closedness and its relationship with the notion of positive closedness and the amalgamation property.
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  10. Stoic Logic and Multiple Generality.Susanne Bobzien & Simon Shogry - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (31):1-36.
    We argue that the extant evidence for Stoic logic provides all the elements required for a variable-free theory of multiple generality, including a number of remarkably modern features that straddle logic and semantics, such as the understanding of one- and two-place predicates as functions, the canonical formulation of universals as quantified conditionals, a straightforward relation between elements of propositional and first-order logic, and the roles of anaphora and rigid order in the regimented sentences that express multiply general propositions. We consider (...)
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  11. Logics of Left Variable Inclusion and Płonka Sums of Matrices.S. Bonzio, T. Moraschini & M. Pra Baldi - 2020 - Archive for Mathematical Logic (1-2):49-76.
    The paper aims at studying, in full generality, logics defined by imposing a variable inclusion condition on a given logic \. We prove that the description of the algebraic counterpart of the left variable inclusion companion of a given logic \ is related to the construction of Płonka sums of the matrix models of \. This observation allows to obtain a Hilbert-style axiomatization of the logics of left variable inclusion, to describe the structure of their reduced models, and to locate (...)
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  12. Similarity Notions in Bipolar Abstract Argumentation.Paola Daniela Budán, Melisa Gisselle Escañuela Gonzalez, Maximiliano Celmo David Budán, Maria Vanina Martinez & Guillermo Ricardo Simari - 2020 - Argument and Computation 11 (1-2):103-149.
    Abstract. The notion of similarity has been studied in many areas of Computer Science; in a general sense, this concept is defined to provide a measure of the semantic equivalence between two pieces of knowledge, expressing how “close” their meaning can be regarded. In this work, we study similarity as a tool useful to improve the representation of arguments, the interpretation of the relations between arguments, and the semantic evaluation associated with the arguments in the argumentative process. In this direction, (...)
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  13. Integrally Closed Residuated Lattices.José Gil-Férez, Frederik Möllerström Lauridsen & George Metcalfe - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (5):1063-1086.
    A residuated lattice is said to be integrally closed if it satisfies the quasiequations \ and \, or equivalently, the equations \ and \. Every integral, cancellative, or divisible residuated lattice is integrally closed, and, conversely, every bounded integrally closed residuated lattice is integral. It is proved that the mapping \\backslash {\mathrm {e}}\) on any integrally closed residuated lattice is a homomorphism onto a lattice-ordered group. A Glivenko-style property is then established for varieties of integrally closed residuated lattices with respect (...)
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  14. Arrow's Decisive Coalitions.Wesley H. Holliday & Eric Pacuit - 2020 - Social Choice and Welfare 54:463–505.
    In his classic monograph, Social Choice and Individual Values, Arrow introduced the notion of a decisive coalition of voters as part of his mathematical framework for social choice theory. The subsequent literature on Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem has shown the importance for social choice theory of reasoning about coalitions of voters with different grades of decisiveness. The goal of this paper is a fine-grained analysis of reasoning about decisive coalitions, formalizing how the concept of a decisive coalition gives rise to a (...)
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  15. Logics of Synonymy.Levin Hornischer - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (4):767-805.
    We investigate synonymy in the strong sense of content identity. This notion is central in the philosophy of language and in applications of logic. We motivate, uniformly axiomatize, and characterize several “benchmark” notions of synonymy in the messy class of all possible notions of synonymy. This class is divided by two intuitive principles that are governed by a no-go result. We use the notion of a scenario to get a logic of synonymy which is the canonical representative of one division. (...)
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  16. Vérité partielle et réalisme scientifique: une approche bungéenne.Jean-Pierre Marquis - 2020 - Mεtascience 1:293-314.
    Le réalisme scientifique occupe une place centrale dans le système philosophique de Mario Bunge. Au cœur de cette thèse, on trouve l’affirmation selon laquelle nous pouvons connaître le monde partiellement. Il s’ensuit que les théories scientifiques ne sont pas totalement vraies ou totalement fausses, mais plutôt partiellement vraies et partiellement fausses. Ces énoncés sur la connaissance scientifique, à première vue plausible pour quiconque est familier avec la pratique scientifique, demandent néanmoins à être clarifiés, précisés et, ultimement, à être inclus dans (...)
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  17. Notes and Comments on Leibniz's Contigency.Florian Millo - 2020
    Contigency is a definition for which is noted for not having the principle of contradiction in itself, for which gives a different truths from what we are used to derive from geometry as an essential field for knowledge of creating strong logics. Leibniz clearly states one of his ideas for God, and why there must be contigent truths and necessary truths.
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  18. Pan demos Alla ricerca di un nuovo pensiero.Donato Santarcangelo - 2020 - Dialoghi Mediterranei.
  19. A Comparison of Type Theory with Set Theory.Ansten Klev - 2019 - In Deniz Sarikaya, Deborah Kant & Stefania Centrone (eds.), Reflections on the Foundations of Mathematics. Springer Verlag. pp. 271-292.
    This paper discusses some of the ways in which Martin-Löf type theory differs from set theory. The discussion concentrates on conceptual, rather than technical, differences. It revolves around four topics: sets versus types; syntax; functions; and identity. The difference between sets and types is spelt out as the difference between unified pluralities and kinds, or sorts. A detailed comparison is then offered of the syntax of the two languages. Emphasis is placed on the distinction between proposition and judgement, drawn by (...)
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  20. Might-Beliefs and Asymmetric Disagreement.Benjamin Lennertz - 2019 - Synthese 196 (11):4775-4805.
    What we can call asymmetric disagreement occurs when one agent is in disagreement with another, but not vice-versa. In this paper, I give an example of and develop a framework for understanding this phenomenon. One pivotal feature of my example is that one of the agents in the scenario has a belief about what might be the case—a might-belief. I show that a traditional account of might-beliefs and disagreement cannot explain the initially surprising phenomenon of asymmetric disagreement. In order to (...)
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  21. Oskari Kuusela, Wittgenstein on Logic as the Method of Philosophy: Re‐Examining the Roots and Development of Analytic Philosophy . Xi + 297, £55.00 Hb. [REVIEW]Alessio Persichetti - 2019 - Philosophical Investigations 42 (4):424-427.
  22. Is Objectual Identity Really Dispensable?Eric Updike - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (4):761-782.
    Kai Wehmeier’s Wittgensteinian Predicate Logic is a formulation of first-order logic under the exclusive interpretation of the quantifiers. W-logic has a distinguished relation constant for co-reference but no sign for objectual identity. Wehmeier denies that objectual identity exists on the grounds that it cannot be a genuine binary relation. Fortunately W-logic is equi-expressive with standard first-order logic with identity and it appears that objectual identity is dispensable across the broader logical enterprise. This paper challenges the latter claim as objectual identity (...)
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  23. Logical Partisanhood.Jack Woods - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (5):1203-1224.
    A natural suggestion and increasingly popular account of how to revise our logical beliefs treats revision of logic analogously to the revision of scientific theories. I investigate this approach and argue that simple applications of abductive methodology to logic result in revision-cycles, developing a detailed case study of an actual dispute with this property. This is problematic if we take abductive methodology to provide justification for revising our logical framework. I then generalize the case study, pointing to similarities with more (...)
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  24. Prioritized Sequent-Based Argumentation.Ofer Arieli, AnneMarie Borg & Christian Straßer - 2018 - In Elisabeth Andre & Sven Koening (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems. pp. 1105--1113.
  25. Argument Strength in Formal Argumentation.Mathieu Beirlaen, Jesse Heyninck, Pere Pardo & Christian Straßer - 2018 - Journal of Applied Logics-Ifcolog Journal of Logics and Their Applications 5 (3):629--675.
  26. A Critical Assessment of Pollock’s Work on Logic-Based Argumentation with Suppositions.Mathieu Beirlaen, Jesse Heyninck & Christian Straßer - 2018 - In Proceedings of the Nmr. pp. 63--72.
  27. Pluralizm logiczny a relatywizm w logice.Bożena Czernecka-Rej - 2018 - Diametros 56:51-68.
    The aim of the article is to analyze the situation of contemporary logic with reference to the issue concerning connections between the pluralism of logical systems and relativism in logic. Accordingly, I seek answers to the following questions: Can the plurality of logic, more specifically, a large number and variety of systems constructed by logicians, be justified in a rational way? Does pluralism in logic imply the thesis of relativism? Is logical relativism in the contemporary philosophy of logic just a (...)
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  28. Khunaji's al-Jumal in the Context of Logic Studies in the Seventh and Eighth Century (AH) and the Commentaries Written on His Work.Ramy ElBanna - 2018 - Tasavvur - Tekirdag Theology Journal 4 (1):73 - 93.
    The science of logic has occupied an important role in Islamic history. Especially when al-Gazali 505-1111 has come and claimed that who learned Islamic sciences, without learning the Logic we cannot trust in his knowledge. From this time The science of logic has been flourished and quietly began to include in many sciences even Tefsir and Fiqh. After that, Al-razzi 606/1210 has established a big school in Islamic philosophy in general and in logic in particular. al-Khonaji 646/1248 one of his (...)
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  29. On Two Notions of Computation in Transparent Intensional Logic.Ivo Pezlar - 2018 - Axiomathes 29 (2):189-205.
    In Transparent Intensional Logic we can recognize two distinct notions of computation that loosely correspond to term rewriting and term interpretation as known from lambda calculus. Our goal will be to further explore these two notions and examine some of their properties.
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  30. A Logic for the Discovery of Deterministic Causal Regularities.Frederik Putte, Bert Leuridan & Mathieu Beirlaen - 2018 - Synthese 195 (1):367-399.
    We present a logic, $$\mathbf {ELI^r}$$ ELI r, for the discovery of deterministic causal regularities starting from empirical data. Our approach is inspired by Mackie’s theory of causes as INUS-conditions, and implements a more recent adjustment to Mackie’s theory according to which the left-hand side of causal regularities is required to be a minimal disjunction of minimal conjunctions. To derive such regularities from a given set of data, we make use of the adaptive logics framework. Our knowledge of deterministic causal (...)
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  31. Existential Import and Relations of Categorical and Modal Categorical Statements.Jiri Raclavsky - 2018 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 27 (3): 271-300.
    I examine the familiar quadruple of categorical statements “Every F is/is not G.”, “Some F is/is not G.” as well as the quadruple of their modal versions “Necessarily, every F is/is not G.”, “Possibly, some F is/is not G.”. I focus on their existential import and its impact on the resulting Squares of Opposition. Though my construal of existential import follows modern approach, I add some extra details which are enabled by framing my definition of existential import within expressively rich (...)
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  32. Kripke Semantics for Fuzzy Logics.Saeed Salehi - 2018 - Soft Computing 22 (3):839–844.
    Kripke frames (and models) provide a suitable semantics for sub-classical logics; for example, intuitionistic logic (of Brouwer and Heyting) axiomatizes the reflexive and transitive Kripke frames (with persistent satisfaction relations), and the basic logic (of Visser) axiomatizes transitive Kripke frames (with persistent satisfaction relations). Here, we investigate whether Kripke frames/models could provide a semantics for fuzzy logics. For each axiom of the basic fuzzy logic, necessary and sufficient conditions are sought for Kripke frames/models which satisfy them. It turns out that (...)
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  33. Recenti studi intorno alla razionalità.Pietro Salis - 2018 - Paradigmi. Rivista di Critica Filosofica 36 (3):547-560.
    The recent publication of the books La razionalità, by Paolo Labinaz, and I modi della razionalità, edited by Massimo Dell’Utri and Antonio Rainone, offers the opportunity to provide an overview of some important discussions on rationality. In particular, I highlight how the modern and Cartesian ideal of this notion is undergoing a transformation that is enhanced by results coming from empirical studies in the field of cognitive science. These transformations are visible in many ambits concerning rationality: this discussion privileges the (...)
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  34. Logic and Philosophy of Logic in Wittgenstein.Sebastian Sunday Grève - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (1):168-182.
    This essay discusses Wittgenstein's conception of logic, early and late, and some of the types of logical system that he constructed. The essay shows that the common view according to which Wittgenstein had stopped engaging in logic as a philosophical discipline by the time of writing Philosophical Investigations is mistaken. It is argued that, on the contrary, logic continued to figure at the very heart of later Wittgenstein's philosophy; and that Wittgenstein's mature philosophy of logic contains many interesting thoughts that (...)
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  35. Introduction. The School: Its Genesis, Development and Significance.U. Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2018 - In Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska & Ángel Garrido (eds.), in: The Lvov-Warsaw School. Past and Present. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 3-14.
    The Introduction outlines, in a concise way, the history of the Lvov-Warsaw School – a most unique Polish school of worldwide renown, which pioneered trends combining philosophy, logic, mathematics and language. The author accepts that the beginnings of the School fall on the year 1895, when its founder Kazimierz Twardowski, a disciple of Franz Brentano, came to Lvov on his mission to organize a scientific circle. Soon, among the characteristic features of the School was its serious approach towards philosophical studies (...)
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  36. Rejection in Łukasiewicz's and Słupecki' Sense.Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2018 - Lvov-Warsaw School. Past and Present.
    The idea of rejection originated by Aristotle. The notion of rejection was introduced into formal logic by Łukasiewicz [20]. He applied it to complete syntactic characterization of deductive systems using an axiomatic method of rejection of propositions [22, 23]. The paper gives not only genesis, but also development and generalization of the notion of rejection. It also emphasizes the methodological approach to biaspectual axiomatic method of characterization of deductive systems as acceptance (asserted) systems and rejection (refutation) systems, introduced by Łukasiewicz (...)
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  37. Translating Non-Classical Logics Into Classical Logic by Using Hidden Variables.Juan C. Agudelo-Agudelo - 2017 - Logica Universalis 11 (2):205-224.
    Dyadic semantics is a sort of non-truth-functional bivalued semantics introduced in Caleiro et al. Logica Universalis, Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 169–189, 2005). Here we introduce an algorithmic procedure for constructing conservative translations of logics characterised by dyadic semantics into classical propositional logic. The procedure uses fresh propositional variables, which we call hidden variables, to represent the indeterminism of dyadic semantics. An alternative algorithmic procedure for constructing conservative translations of any finite-valued logic into classical logic is also introduced. In this alternative procedure (...)
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  38. New Dimensions of the Square of Opposition.Jean-Yves Beziau & Stamatios Gerogiorgakis (eds.) - 2017 - Munich: Philosophia.
    The square of opposition is a diagram related to a theory of oppositions that goes back to Aristotle. Both the diagram and the theory have been discussed throughout the history of logic. Initially, the diagram was employed to present the Aristotelian theory of quantification, but extensions and criticisms of this theory have resulted in various other diagrams. The strength of the theory is that it is at the same time fairly simple and quite rich. The theory of oppositions has recently (...)
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  39. A New Semantics for Vagueness.Joshua D. K. Brown & James W. Garson - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (1):65-85.
    Intuitively, vagueness involves some sort of indeterminacy: if Plato is a borderline case of baldness, then there is no fact of the matter about whether or not he’s bald—he’s neither bald nor not bald. The leading formal treatments of such indeterminacy—three valued logic, supervaluationism, etc.—either fail to validate the classical theorems, or require that various classically valid inference rules be restricted. Here we show how a fully classical, yet indeterminist account of vagueness can be given within natural semantics, an alternative (...)
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  40. Aristotelian Relations in PDL: The Hypercube of Dynamic Oppositions.José David García Cruz - 2017 - Special Issue 5th World Congress on the Square of Opposition Easter Island, November 11-15, 2016.
    The aim of this paper is to study aristotelian relation in an extension of Propositional Dynamic Logic, the logic PDLQ+(¬). The main result of our study is the production of a geometrical opposition structure called hypercube of Dynamic Opposition, this structure is very useful to study negation of atomic programs and dynamic modalities.
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  41. Logical Pluralism, Indeterminacy and the Normativity of Logic.Filippo Ferrari & Sebastiano Moruzzi - 2017 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-24.
    According to the form of logical pluralism elaborated by Beall and Restall there is more than one relation of logical consequence. Since they take the relation of logical consequence to res...
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  42. The Logical and Pragmatic Structure of Arguments From Analogy.Fabrizio Macagno - 2017 - Logique Et Analyse 240:465-490.
    The reasoning process of analogy is characterized by a strict interdependence between a process of abstraction of a common feature and the transfer of an attribute of the Analogue to the Primary Subject. The first reasoning step is regarded as an abstraction of a generic characteristic that is relevant for the attribution of the predicate. The abstracted feature can be considered from a logic-semantic perspective as a functional genus, in the sense that it is contextually essential for the attribution of (...)
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  43. Bridging Ranking Theory and the Stability Theory of Belief.Eric Raidl & Niels Skovgaard-Olsen - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 46 (6):577-609.
    In this paper we compare Leitgeb’s stability theory of belief and Spohn’s ranking-theoretic account of belief. We discuss the two theories as solutions to the lottery paradox. To compare the two theories, we introduce a novel translation between ranking functions and probability functions. We draw some crucial consequences from this translation, in particular a new probabilistic belief notion. Based on this, we explore the logical relation between the two belief theories, showing that models of Leitgeb’s theory correspond to certain models (...)
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  44. Moral Philosophy: The Right and the Good.Shyam Ranganathan - 2017 - In The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Indian Ethics. London: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 5-34.
    I contrast the methodology that prioritizes truth—interpretation—with the prioritization of objectivity or explanation by validity—explication. Explication, the cornerstone of philosophy, allows us to identify the basic concept ETHICS and DHARMA as what theories of ethics and dharma disagree about: THE RIGHT OR THE GOOD. This is objective: what we converge on while we disagree. Four basic moral theories that differ on this concept are: Virtue Ethics, Consequentialism (both teleological), Deontology and Bhakti/Yoga (both procedural). They are mirror images of each other. (...)
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  45. The Symbolic Epistemological Implications of the Different Mythological Set Up of the (Egyptian)-Mesopotamian Culture Compared to the Grecian One.Donato Santarcangelo - 2017 - Enkelados 6.
    The Mesopotamian peoples were never really dominated by the reason the way we conceptualize it. It's to the revelation as direct emanation of the divine that they ascribed the appearance of knowledge.
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  46. One's Modus Ponens: Modality, Coherence and Logic.Una Stojnić - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 95 (1):167-214.
    Recently, there has been a shift away from traditional truth-conditional accounts of meaning towards non-truth-conditional ones, e.g., expressivism, relativism and certain forms of dynamic semantics. Fueling this trend is some puzzling behavior of modal discourse. One particularly surprising manifestation of such behavior is the alleged failure of some of the most entrenched classical rules of inference; viz., modus ponens and modus tollens. These revisionary, non-truth-conditional accounts tout these failures, and the alleged tension between the behavior of modal vocabulary and classical (...)
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  47. A Bimodal Perspective on Possibility Semantics.Johan van Benthem, Nick Bezhanishvili & Wesley H. Holliday - 2017 - Journal of Logic and Computation 27 (5):1353–1389.
    In this article, we develop a bimodal perspective on possibility semantics, a framework allowing partiality of states that provides an alternative modelling for classical propositional and modal logics. In particular, we define a full and faithful translation of the basic modal logic K over possibility models into a bimodal logic of partial functions over partial orders, and we show how to modulate this analysis by varying across logics and model classes that have independent topological motivations. This relates the two realms (...)
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  48. Argumentative Approaches to Reasoning with Maximal Consistency.Ofer Arieli & Christian Straßer - 2016 - In Chitta Baral, James Delgrande & Frank Wolter (eds.), KR'16: Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. pp. 509--512.
  49. Locales, Nuclei, and Dragalin Frames.Guram Bezhanishvili & Wesley Holliday - 2016 - In Lev Beklemishev, Stéphane Demri & András Máté (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic, Volume 11. London: College Publications. pp. 177-196.
    It is a classic result in lattice theory that a poset is a complete lattice iff it can be realized as fixpoints of a closure operator on a powerset. Dragalin [9,10] observed that a poset is a locale (complete Heyting algebra) iff it can be realized as fixpoints of a nucleus on the locale of upsets of a poset. He also showed how to generate a nucleus on upsets by adding a structure of “paths” to a poset, forming what we (...)
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  50. Brandom, Peirce, and the Overlooked Friction of Contrapiction.Marc Champagne - 2016 - Synthese 193 (8):2561–2576.
    Robert Brandom holds that what we mean is best understood in terms of what inferences we are prepared to defend, and that such a defence is best understood in terms of rule-governed social interactions. This manages to explain quite a lot. However, for those who think that there is more to making correct/incorrect inferences than obeying/breaking accepted rules, Brandom’s account fails to adequately capture what it means to reason properly. Thus, in an effort to sketch an alternative that does not (...)
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