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  1. Diagonal Arguments and Fixed Points.Saeed Salehi - 2017 - Bulletin of the Iranian Mathematical Society 43 (5):1073-1088.
    ‎A universal schema for diagonalization was popularized by N. S‎. ‎Yanofsky (2003)‎, ‎based on a pioneering work of F.W‎. ‎Lawvere (1969)‎, ‎in which the existence of a (diagonolized-out and contradictory) object implies the existence of a fixed-point for a certain function‎. ‎It was shown that many self-referential paradoxes and diagonally proved theorems can fit in that schema‎. ‎Here‎, ‎we fit more theorems in the universal‎ ‎schema of diagonalization‎, ‎such as Euclid's proof for the infinitude of the primes and new proofs (...)
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  2. Axiomatization of Crisp Gödel Modal Logic.Ricardo Oscar Rodriguez & Amanda Vidal - 2020 - Studia Logica 109 (2):367-395.
    In this paper we consider the modal logic with both \ and \ arising from Kripke models with a crisp accessibility and whose propositions are valued over the standard Gödel algebra \. We provide an axiomatic system extending the one from Caicedo and Rodriguez :37–55, 2015) for models with a valued accessibility with Dunn axiom from positive modal logics, and show it is strongly complete with respect to the intended semantics. The axiomatizations of the most usual frame restrictions are given (...)
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  3. Analyticity and Modulation. Broadening the Rescale Perspective on Language Logicality.Salvatore Pistoia-Reda & Uli Sauerland - 2021 - International Review of Pragmatics 1 (13):1-13.
    Acceptable analyticities, i.e. contradictions or tautologies, constitute problematic evidence for the idea that language includes a deductive system. In recent discussion, two accounts have been presented in the literature to explain the available evidence. According to one of the accounts, grammatical analyticities are accessible to the system but a pragmatic strengthening repair mechanism can apply and prevent the structures from being actually interpreted as contradictions or tautologies. The proposed data, however, leaves it open whether other versions of the meaning modulation (...)
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  4. Counterfactual Logic and the Necessity of Mathematics.Samuel Z. Elgin - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 50 (1):97-115.
    This paper is concerned with counterfactual logic and its implications for the modal status of mathematical claims. It is most directly a response to an ambitious program by Yli-Vakkuri and Hawthorne, who seek to establish that mathematics is committed to its own necessity. I demonstrate that their assumptions collapse the counterfactual conditional into the material conditional. This collapse entails the success of counterfactual strengthening, which is controversial within counterfactual logic, and which has counterexamples within pure and applied mathematics. I close (...)
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  5. Opposition Relations Between Prophecies.José David García Cruz & Yessica Espinoza Ramos - 2020 - In Chapman P. Pietarinen Av (ed.), Diagrammatic Representation and Inference. Diagrams 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. pp. 394-401.
    This paper presents two versions of opposition relations for prophetical statements, the first one is an application of “Ockham’s thesis” in Classical propositional Logic. The second one is a reinterpretation of that thesis in the logic MRSP.
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  6. Logical Characterisation of Concept Transformations From Human Into Machine Relying on Predicate Logic.Farshad Badie - 2016 - In ACHI 2016 : The Ninth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions. pp. 376-379.
    Providing more human-like concept learning in machines has always been one of the most significant goals of machine learning paradigms and of human-machine interaction techniques. This article attempts to provide a logical specification of conceptual mappings from humans’ minds into machines’ knowledge bases. We will focus on the representation of the mappings (transformations) relying on First-Order Predicate Logic. Additionally, the structure of concepts in the common ground between humans and machines will be analysed. It seems quite necessary to pay attention (...)
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  7. Inferences and Metainferences in ST.Pablo Cobreros, Paul Egré, David Ripley & Robert van Rooij - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (6):1057-1077.
    In a recent paper, Barrio, Tajer and Rosenblatt establish a correspondence between metainferences holding in the strict-tolerant logic of transparent truth ST+ and inferences holding in the logic of paradox LP+. They argue that LP+ is ST+’s external logic and they question whether ST+’s solution to the semantic paradoxes is fundamentally different from LP+’s. Here we establish that by parity of reasoning, ST+ can be related to LP+’s dual logic K3+. We clarify the distinction between internal and external logic and (...)
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  8. Proof Systems for Various Fde-Based Modal Logics.Sergey Drobyshevich & Heinrich Wansing - 2020 - Review of Symbolic Logic 13 (4):720-747.
    We present novel proof systems for various FDE-based modal logics. Among the systems considered are a number of Belnapian modal logics introduced in Odintsov & Wansing and Odintsov & Wansing, as well as the modal logic KN4 with strong implication introduced in Goble. In particular, we provide a Hilbert-style axiom system for the logic $BK^{\square - } $ and characterize the logic BK as an axiomatic extension of the system $BK^{FS} $. For KN4 we provide both an FDE-style axiom system (...)
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  9. Sobre la capturabilidad de teorías informales en sistemas axiomáticos formales.Ariel Jonathan Roffé - 2014 - Cuadernos de Filosofía 62:65-75.
    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar qué quiere decir capturar una teoría (se utilizará la aritmética como ejemplo paradigmático) por medio de un sistema axiomático formal. Se considerarán para ello dos enfoques, que pueden denominarse “semántico” y “sintáctico”, tanto en términos de sus ventajas como de sus limitaciones. El enfoque semántico (presupuesto por Barrio y Da Ré en este volumen y expuesto en la primera sección), entiende la expresabilidad como una restricción de la clase de los modelos; se muestra (...)
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  10. Logic of Faith and Dead. The Idea and Outline of the Theoretical Conception.Wybraniec-Skardowska Urszula - 2019 - Philosophia Christine 55 (2):125-149.
    This paper discusses the theoretical assumptions behind the conception of the logic of faith and deed (LF&D) and outlines its formal-axiomatic frame and its method of construction, which enable us to understand it as a kind of deductive science. The paper is divided into several sections, starting with the logical analysis of the ambiguous terms of 'faith’ and 'action', and focusing in particular on the concepts of religious faith and deed as a type of conscious activity relating to a matter (...)
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  11. Structure and Logic of Conceptual Mind.Venkata Rayudu Posina - manuscript
    Mind, according to cognitive neuroscience, is a set of brain functions. But, unlike sets, our minds are cohesive. Moreover, unlike the structureless elements of sets, the contents of our minds are structured. Mutual relations between the mental contents endow the mind its structure. Here we characterize the structural essence and the logical form of the mind by focusing on thinking. Examination of the relations between concepts, propositions, and syllogisms involved in thinking revealed the reflexive graph structure of the conceptual mind. (...)
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  12. Polarity Semantics for Negation as a Modal Operator.Yuanlei Lin & Minghui Ma - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (5):877-902.
    The minimal weakening \ of Belnap-Dunn logic under the polarity semantics for negation as a modal operator is formulated as a sequent system which is characterized by the class of all birelational frames. Some extensions of \ with additional sequents as axioms are introduced. In particular, all three modal negation logics characterized by a frame with a single state are formalized as extensions of \. These logics have the finite model property and they are decidable.
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  13. No New Solutions to the Logical Problem of the Trinity.Beau Branson - 2019 - Journal of Applied Logics 6 (6):1051-1092.
    Analytic theologians have proposed numerous “solutions” to the Logical Problem of the Trinity (LPT), mostly versions of Social Trinitarianism (ST) and Relative Identity Trinitarianism (RI). Both types of solution are controversial, but many hold out hope that further “Trinitarian theorizing” may yield some as yet unimagined, and somehow importantly different, solution to the LPT. I first give a precise definition of the LPT and of what would count as a solution to it. I then show how, though there are infinitely (...)
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  14. A Family of Strict/Tolerant Logics.Melvin Fitting - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-32.
    Strict/tolerant logic, ST, evaluates the premises and the consequences of its consequence relation differently, with the premises held to stricter standards while consequences are treated more tolerantly. More specifically, ST is a three-valued logic with left sides of sequents understood as if in Kleene’s Strong Three Valued Logic, and right sides as if in Priest’s Logic of Paradox. Surprisingly, this hybrid validates the same sequents that classical logic does. A version of this result has been extended to meta, metameta, … (...)
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  15. The Poset of All Logics III: Finitely Presentable Logics.Ramon Jansana & Tommaso Moraschini - forthcoming - Studia Logica:1-42.
    A logic in a finite language is said to be finitely presentable if it is axiomatized by finitely many finite rules. It is proved that binary non-indexed products of logics that are both finitely presentable and finitely equivalential are essentially finitely presentable. This result does not extend to binary non-indexed products of arbitrary finitely presentable logics, as shown by a counterexample. Finitely presentable logics are then exploited to introduce finitely presentable Leibniz classes, and to draw a parallel between the Leibniz (...)
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  16. Measuring Inconsistency in Some Logics with Modal Operators.John Grant - forthcoming - Studia Logica:1-25.
    The first mention of the concept of an inconsistency measure for sets of formulas in first-order logic was given in 1978, but that paper presented only classifications for them. The first actual inconsistency measure with a numerical value was given in 2002 for sets of formulas in propositional logic. Since that time, researchers in logic and AI have developed a substantial theory of inconsistency measures. While this is an interesting topic from the point of view of logic, an important motivation (...)
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  17. The Logic of Information in State Spaces.Levin Hornischer - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-33.
  18. A Note on Choice Principles in Second-Order Logic.Benjamin Siskind, Paolo Mancosu & Stewart Shapiro - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-12.
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  19. Function Logic and the Theory of Computability.Jaakko Hintikka - 2013 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers 13 (1):10-19.
    An important link between model theory and proof theory is to construe a deductive disproof of S as an attempted construction of a countermodel to it. In the function logic outlined here, this idea is implemented in such a way that different kinds of individuals can be introduced into the countermodel in any order whatsoever. This imposes connections between the length of the branches of the tree that a disproof is and their number. If there are already n individuals in (...)
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  20. Three Characterizations of Strict Coherence on Infinite-Valued Events.Tommaso Flaminio - 2020 - Review of Symbolic Logic 13 (3):593-610.
    This article builds on a recent paper coauthored by the present author, H. Hosni and F. Montagna. It is meant to contribute to the logical foundations of probability theory on many-valued events and, specifically, to a deeper understanding of the notion of strict coherence. In particular, we will make use of geometrical, measure-theoretical and logical methods to provide three characterizations of strict coherence on formulas of infinite-valued Łukasiewicz logic.
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  21. Restricted Interpolation and Lack Thereof in Stit Logic.Grigory K. Olkhovikov - 2020 - Review of Symbolic Logic 13 (3):459-482.
    We consider the propositional logic equipped with Chellas stit operators for a finite set of individual agents plus the historical necessity modality. We settle the question of whether such a logic enjoys restricted interpolation property, which requires the existence of an interpolant only in cases where the consequence contains no Chellas stit operators occurring in the premise. We show that if action operators count as logical symbols, then such a logic has restricted interpolation property iff the number of agents does (...)
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  22. Beyond Subgoaling: A Dynamic Knowledge Generation Framework for Creative Problem Solving in Cognitive Architectures.Antonio Lieto - 2019 - Cognitive Systems Research 58:305-316.
    In this paper we propose a computational framework aimed at extending the problem solving capabilities of cognitive artificial agents through the introduction of a novel, goal-directed, dynamic knowledge generation mechanism obtained via a non monotonic reasoning procedure. In particular, the proposed framework relies on the assumption that certain classes of problems cannot be solved by simply learning or injecting new external knowledge in the declarative memory of a cognitive artificial agent but, on the other hand, require a mechanism for the (...)
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  23. Logical Laws for Short Existential Monadic Second-Order Sentences About Graphs.M. E. Zhukovskii - 2019 - Journal of Mathematical Logic 20 (2):2050007.
    In 2001, Le Bars proved that there exists an existential monadic second-order sentence such that the probability that it is true on [Formula: see text] does not converge and conjectured that, for EMSO sentences with two first-order variables, the zero–one law holds. In this paper, we prove that the conjecture fails for [Formula: see text], and give new examples of sentences with fewer variables without convergence.
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  24. Logic, Language, Information, and Computation: 22nd International Workshop, WoLLIC 2015, Bloomington, IN, USA, July 20-23, 2015, Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science Book 9160).Valeria Correa Vaz De Paiva, Ruy de Queiroz, Lawrence S. Moss, Daniel M. Leivant & Anjolina G. De Oliveira - 2015 - Springer.
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  25. Philosophical Investigation Series: Selected Texts on Logic / Série Investigação Filosófica: Textos Selecionados de Lógica.Danilo Fraga Dantas & Rodrigo Cid - 2020 - Pelotas - Princesa, Pelotas - RS, Brasil: UFPEL's Publisher / Editora da UFPEL.
    Este livro marca o início da Série Investigação Filosófica. Uma série de livros de traduções de textos de plataformas internacionalmente reconhecidas, que possa servir tanto como material didático para os professores das diferentes subáreas e níveis da Filosofia quanto como material de estudo para o desenvolvimento pesquisas relevantes na área. Nós, professores, sabemos o quão difícil é encontrar bons materiais em português para indicarmos. E há uma certa deficiência na graduação brasileira de filosofia, principalmente em localizações menos favorecidas, com relação (...)
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  26. Satisfiability is False Intuitionistically: A Question from Dana Scott.Charles McCarty - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (4):803-813.
    Satisfiability or Sat\ is the metatheoretic statementEvery formally intuitionistically consistent set of first-order sentences has a model.The models in question are the Tarskian relational structures familiar from standard first-order model theory, but here treated within intuitionistic metamathematics. We prove that both IZF, intuitionistic Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, and HAS, second-order Heyting arithmetic, prove Sat\ to be false outright. Following the lead of Carter :75–95, 2008), we then generalize this result to some provably intermediate first-order logics, including the Rose logic. These metatheorems (...)
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  27. L -effect Algebras.Wolfgang Rump & Xia Zhang - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (4):725-750.
    L-effect algebras are introduced as a class of L-algebras which specialize to all known generalizations of effect algebras with a \-semilattice structure. Moreover, L-effect algebras X arise in connection with quantum sets and Frobenius algebras. The translates of X in the self-similar closure S form a covering, and the structure of X is shown to be equivalent to the compatibility of overlapping translates. A second characterization represents an L-effect algebra in the spirit of closed categories. As an application, it is (...)
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  28. A Note on Strong Axiomatization of Gödel Justification Logic.Nicholas Pischke - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (4):687-724.
    Justification logics are special kinds of modal logics which provide a framework for reasoning about epistemic justifications. For this, they extend classical boolean propositional logic by a family of necessity-style modal operators “t : ”, indexed over t by a corresponding set of justification terms, which thus explicitly encode the justification for the necessity assertion in the syntax. With these operators, one can therefore not only reason about modal effects on propositions but also about dynamics inside the justifications themselves. We (...)
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  29. A Classical Logic of Existence and Essence.Sergio Galvan & Alessandro Giordani - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    The purpose of this paper is to provide a new system of logic for existence and essence, in which the traditional distinctions between essential and accidental properties, abstract and concrete objects, and actually existent and possibly existent objects are described and related in a suitable way. In order to accomplish this task, a primitive relation of essential identity between different objects is introduced and connected to a first order existence property and a first order abstractness property. The basic idea is (...)
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  30. Leibnizian Identity and Paraconsistent Logic.Ali Abasnezhad - 2020 - History and Philosophy of Logic 41 (3):236-243.
    The standard Leibnizian view of identity allows for substitutivity of identicals and validates transitivity of identity within classical semantics. However, in a series of works, Graham Priest argues that Leibnizian identity invalidates both principles when formalized in paraconsistent semantics. This paper aims to show the Leibnizian view of identity validates substitutivity of identicals and transitivity of identity whether the logic is classical or paraconsistent. After presenting Priest's semantics of identity, I show what a semantic expression of Leibnizian identity does amount (...)
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  31. More Observations.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    Anthropic principle, Perspectival ontology, Hard problem, Why something rather than nothing, Life after death, Buddhism, God.
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  32. Angels in the Areopagetic Tradition.Christos Terezis & Lydia Petridou - 2019 - Augustinianum 59 (2):505-522.
    In this article, we deal with the intelligible world of the angels in the Areopagetic tradition and we compose references found in the De divinis nominibus to form, as far as possible, a complete definition of them. This systematic approach to the Areopagetic corpus takes into consideration Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite’s text and George Pachymeres’ Paraphrasis of this treatise. We also offer a methodological proposal on how we can structure theoretically general concepts that refer to objective realities, which however cannot be (...)
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  33. A Description Logic Based Knowledge Representation Model for Concept Understanding.Farshad Badie - 2017 - In Jasper van den Herik, A. Rocha & J. Filipe (eds.), Agents and Artificial Intelligence. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
    This research employs Description Logics in order to focus on logical description and analysis of the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’. The article will deal with a formal-semantic model for figuring out the underlying logical assumptions of ‘concept understanding’ in knowledge representation systems. In other words, it attempts to describe a theoretical model for concept understanding and to reflect the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’ in terminological knowledge representation systems. Finally, it will design an ontology that schemes the structure of concept understanding (...)
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  34. Modelling Last-Act Attempted Crime in Criminal Law.Jiraporn Pooksook, Phan Minh Dung, Ken Satoh & Giovanni Sartor - 2019 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 29 (4):327-357.
    In the court of law, a person can be punished for attempting to commit a crime. An open issue in the study of Artificial Intelligence and Law is whether the law of attempts could be formally modelled. There are distinct legal rules for determining attempted crime whereas the last-act rule (also called proximity rule) represents the strictest approach. In this paper, we provide a formal model of the last-act rule using structured argumentation.
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  35. Varieties of BL-Algebras III: Splitting Algebras.Paolo Aglianó - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (6):1235-1259.
    In this paper we investigate splitting algebras in varieties of logics, with special consideration for varieties of BL-algebras and similar structures. In the case of the variety of all BL-algebras a complete characterization of the splitting algebras is obtained.
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  36. The Balanced Pseudocomplemented Ockham Algebras with the Strong Endomorphism Kernel Property.Jie Fang - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (6):1261-1277.
    An endomorphism on an algebra \ is said to be strong if it is compatible with every congruence on \; and \ is said to have the strong endomorphism kernel property if every congruence on \, other than the universal congruence, is the kernel of a strong endomorphism on \. Here we characterise the structure of Ockham algebras with balanced pseudocomplementation those that have this property via Priestley duality.
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  37. Completeness in Equational Hybrid Propositional Type Theory.Maria Manzano, Manuel Martins & Antonia Huertas - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (6):1159-1198.
    Equational hybrid propositional type theory ) is a combination of propositional type theory, equational logic and hybrid modal logic. The structures used to interpret the language contain a hierarchy of propositional types, an algebra and a Kripke frame. The main result in this paper is the proof of completeness of a calculus specifically defined for this logic. The completeness proof is based on the three proofs Henkin published last century: Completeness in type theory, The completeness of the first-order functional calculus (...)
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  38. Lyndon Interpolation Theorem of Instantial Neighborhood Logic – Constructively Via a Sequent Calculus.Junhua Yu - 2020 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 171 (1):102721.
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  39. A Family of Neighborhood Contingency Logics.Jie Fan - 2019 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 60 (4):683-699.
    This article proposes the axiomatizations of contingency logics of various natural classes of neighborhood frames. In particular, by defining a suitable canonical neighborhood function, we give sound and complete axiomatizations of monotone contingency logic and regular contingency logic, thereby answering two open questions raised by Bakhtiari, van Ditmarsch, and Hansen. The canonical function is inspired by a function proposed by Kuhn in 1995. We show that Kuhn’s function is actually equal to a related function originally given by Humberstone.
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  40. Noncontractive Classical Logic.Lucas Rosenblatt - 2019 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 60 (4):559-585.
    One of the most fruitful applications of substructural logics stems from their capacity to deal with self-referential paradoxes, especially truth-theoretic paradoxes. Both the structural rules of contraction and the rule of cut play a crucial role in typical paradoxical arguments. In this paper I address a number of difficulties affecting noncontractive approaches to paradox that have been discussed in the recent literature. The situation was roughly this: if you decide to go substructural, the nontransitive approach to truth offers a lot (...)
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  41. Oppositional Geometry in the Diagrammatic Calculus CL.Jens Lemanski - 2017 - South American Journal of Logic 3 (2):517-531.
    The paper presents the diagrammatic calculus CL, which combines features of tree, Euler-type, Venn-type diagrams and squares of opposition. In its basic form, `CL' (= Cubus Logicus) organizes terms in the form of a square or cube. By applying the arrows of the square of opposition to CL, judgments and inferences can be displayed. Thus CL offers on the one hand an intuitive method to display ontologies and on the other hand a diagrammatic tool to check inferences. The paper focuses (...)
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  42. Modal Logic with Non-Deterministic Semantics: Part I—Propositional Case.Marcelo E. Coniglio & Luis Fariñas del Cerro - forthcoming - Logic Journal of the IGPL.
    Dugundji proved in 1940 that most parts of standard modal systems cannot be characterized by a single finite deterministic matrix. In the eighties, Ivlev proposed a semantics of four-valued non-deterministic matrices (which he called quasi-matrices), in order to characterize a hierarchy of weak modal logics without the necessitation rule. In a previous paper, we extended some systems of Ivlev’s hierarchy, also proposing weaker six-valued systems in which the (T) axiom was replaced by the deontic (D) axiom. In this paper, we (...)
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  43. The Modal Logic of Set-Theoretic Potentialism and the Potentialist Maximality Principles.Joel David Hamkins & Øystein Linnebo - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-36.
  44. An Epistemic Approach to Nondeterminism: Believing in the Simplest Course of Events.James P. Delgrande & Hector J. Levesque - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (5):859-886.
    This paper describes an approach for reasoning in a dynamic domain with nondeterministic actions in which an agent’s beliefs correspond to the simplest, or most plausible, course of events consistent with the agent’s observations and beliefs. The account is based on an epistemic extension of the situation calculus, a first-order theory of reasoning about action that accommodates sensing actions. In particular, the account is based on a qualitative theory of nondeterminism. Our position is that for commonsense reasoning, the world is (...)
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  45. Categories with Families and First-Order Logic with Dependent Sorts.Erik Palmgren - 2019 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 170 (12):102715.
    First-order logic with dependent sorts, such as Makkai's first-order logic with dependent sorts (FOLDS), or Aczel's and Belo's dependently typed (intuitionistic) first-order logic (DFOL), may be regarded as logic enriched dependent type theories. Categories with families (cwfs) is an established semantical structure for dependent type theories, such as Martin-Löf type theory. We introduce in this article a notion of hyperdoctrine over a cwf, and show how FOLDS and DFOL fit in this semantical framework. A soundness and completeness theorem is proved (...)
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  46. A Strict Implication Calculus for Compact Hausdorff Spaces.G. Bezhanishvili, N. Bezhanishvili, T. Santoli & Y. Venema - 2019 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 170 (11):102714.
  47. Non Decomposable Connectives of Linear Logic.Roberto Maieli - 2019 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 170 (11):102709.
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  48. Understanding Predication in Conceptual Spaces.Daniele Porello & Claudio Masolo - 2016 - In Roberta Ferrario & Werner Kuhn (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference (FOIS 2016). pp. 139--152.
    We argue that a cognitive semantics has to take into account the possibly partial information that a cognitive agent has of the world. After discussing Gärdenfors's view of objects in conceptual spaces, we offer a number of viable treatments of partiality of information and we formalize them by means of alternative predicative logics. Our analysis shows that understanding the nature of simple predicative sentences is crucial for a cognitive semantics.
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  49. Representing Concepts by Weighted Formulas.Daniele Porello & Claudio Masolo - 2018 - In Stefano Borgo, Pascal Hitzler & Oliver Kutz (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference, {FOIS} 2018, Cape Town, South Africa, 19-21 September 2018. IOS Press. pp. 55--68.
    A concept is traditionally defined via the necessary and sufficient conditions that clearly determine its extension. By contrast, cognitive views of concepts intend to account for empirical data that show that categorisation under a concept presents typicality effects and a certain degree of indeterminacy. We propose a formal language to compactly represent concepts by leveraging on weighted logical formulas. In this way, we can model the possible synergies among the qualities that are relevant for categorising an object under a concept. (...)
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  50. The Development of Gödel’s Ontological Proof.Annika Kanckos & Tim Lethen - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-19.
    Gödel’s ontological proof is by now well known based on the 1970 version, written in Gödel’s own hand, and Scott’s version of the proof. In this article new manuscript sources found in Gödel’s Nachlass are presented. Three versions of Gödel’s ontological proof have been transcribed, and completed from context as true to Gödel’s notes as possible. The discussion in this article is based on these new sources and reveals Gödel’s early intentions of a liberal comprehension principle for the higher order (...)
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