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Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) was an Austrian philosopher whom many regard to have been the most important philosopher of the twentieth century. His work is often divided into two distinct periods, early and later, with the division occurring at some point shortly after his return to Cambridge in 1929 following a period of self-imposed exile as, among other things, a village school-teacher, monastery gardener, and architect. Wittgenstein wrote extensively on many topics including the philosophy of language, logic, mathematics and mind though he published little during his lifetime. His work is distinctive particularly for his claim that philosophy is for the most part nonsense, his aim being to bring to light the confusions that give to it the appearance of sense.

Key works Wittgenstein’s most important works are the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (first published in English in 1922) and the Philosophical Investigations (first published posthumously in 1953). The nature and extent of the continuity between these two works is a matter of great controversy, with one extreme representing them as offering fundamentally opposed philosophies and another treating the differences as largely stylistic. Among the many other works produced from his manuscripts and notebooks, Wittgenstein’s On Certainty, compiled from notes made in the two years before his death, is sometimes regarded as his third “masterpiece”.
Introductions There are many good introductions to Wittgenstein's thought. Monk 2005 and Hacker 1999 are both short and accessible. More in-depth, but still engaging, are Child 2011, Kenny 1973, and Sluga 2011. Dean Jolley 2010 contains a good selection of essays on central topics. McGinn 2006 and McGinn 2013 provide in-depth introductions to the Tractatus and Philosophical Investigations, respectively.
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  1. What is Spoken of When We Speak About Being.Niel Bezrookove - manuscript
    τὰ ὄντα ἰέναι τε πάντα καὶ μένειν οὐδέν: Another look at being, asking what a interlocutor means to show by saying they feel themselves to be something. An ambiguity of the verb "to be" is disambiguated to reveal that it can be meant to show what something is and a process of being something. The relationship between being and essence is made by describing engagement through the encounter, giving us a non-exhaustive account of something's essence. Practice is then understood as (...)
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  2. Showing Certainty: An Essay on Wittgenstein's Response to Scepticism.Anne Newstead - manuscript
    Coping with everyday life limits the extent of one’s scepticism. It is practically impossible to doubt the existence of the things with which one is immediately engaged and interacting. To doubt that, say, a door exists, is to step back from merely using the door (opening it) and to reflect on it in a detached, theoretical way. It is impossible to simultaneously act and live immersed in situation S while doubting that one is in S. Sceptical doubts—such as ‘Is this (...)
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  3. Phenomenal Concepts and Wittgenstein's Private Language Argument.Martina Prinz & François-Igor Pris - manuscript
  4. Pragmatism and Legal Reasoning.Narve Strand - manuscript
  5. Wittgenstein’s Analysis on Cantor’s Diagonal Argument.Chaohui Zhuang - manuscript
    In Zettel, Wittgenstein considered a modified version of Cantor’s diagonal argument. According to Wittgenstein, Cantor’s number, different with other numbers, is defined based on a countable set. If Cantor’s number belongs to the countable set, the definition of Cantor’s number become incomplete. Therefore, Cantor’s number is not a number at all in this context. We can see some examples in the form of recursive functions. The definition "f(a)=f(a)" can not decide anything about the value of f(a). The definiton is incomplete. (...)
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  6. Wittgenstein and Deconstruction.Nick Gier - manuscript
    forthcoming in Review of Contemporary Philosophy 6 (2007).
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  7. Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Mathematics.Victor Rodych - unknown - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  8. Wittgenstein And Alice's Dreams.Fulya Alıç - unknown - Yeditepe'de Felsefe (Philosophy at Yeditepe) 8.
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  9. Seeing Wittgenstein Anew.Norton Batkin, Sandra Laugier, Timouthy Gould, Stanley Cavell, Garry L. Hagberg & Victor J. Krebs - unknown - Cambridge University Press.
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  10. The Impact of Wittgenstein on Theology.Rasul Bergisian - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 51.
    The present paper deals with Wittgenstein's influence on theology considering the concept of "logical atmosphere", which connects his earlier and later philosophical ideas.It reveals that the concepts underlying his earlier and later philosophies have had numerous impacts upon theology. Accordingly, they have been discussed under two groups of actual and potential ones.
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  11. The Wittgensteinian Paradox.Matt Campbell - unknown - Proceedings of the Heraclitean Society 18.
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  12. »the Greatest Jewish Thinker Is Only A Talent. « Wittgenstein’s Revoked Judaism.Donatella Di Cesare - unknown - Phainomena 74.
    In the latest studies on Wittgenstein, the interest for his life has raised a question that had remained in the shadow: the question of his »Judaism«. This essay acknowledges Steven S. Schwarzschild’s suggestion, according to which Wittgenstein could be seen as an »alienated Jew«. Contrasting those who consider Wittgenstein’s Judaism as a negligible, if not insignificant, detail of his biography, it tries not to claim a Jewish identity for Wittgenstein, but rather to evaluate the effects elicited on his philosophy by (...)
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  13. Investigating Wittgenstein.J. F. M. Hunter - unknown - Eidos: The Canadian Graduate Journal of Philosophy 9.
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  14. A Comparison Of Logical Form In Russell And Wittgenstein.Philip May - unknown - Eidos: The Canadian Graduate Journal of Philosophy 2.
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  15. A Very Short Guide To Understanding Wittgenstein.Larry Resnick - unknown - Eidos: The Canadian Graduate Journal of Philosophy 9.
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  16. Wittgenstein's Understanding Of The Subject.Çetin Türkyılmaz - unknown - Yeditepe'de Felsefe (Philosophy at Yeditepe) 8.
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  17. Recent Canadian Work on Wittgenstein: 1980-1989.George Williamson - unknown - Eidos: The Canadian Graduate Journal of Philosophy 9.
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  18. With Factualist Friends, Kripke's Wittgenstein Needs No Enemies: On Byrne's Case for Kripke's Wittgenstein Being a Factualist About Meaning Attributions.John Humphrey - manuscript
    _Private Language_ is that it almost universally sees KW as offering, in his sceptical solution, an account of meaning attributions (i.e., statements of the form, "X means such-and-so by 's'"; hereafter, MAs) which takes their legitimate attribution to be a function of something other than facts or truth conditions. KW is almost universally read as having rejected any account of meaning attributions which takes them to be stating facts or corresponding to facts. In a word, KW is understood as offering (...)
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  19. Avner Baz on Aspects and Concepts: A Critique.Reshef Agam-Segal - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-33.
    ABSTRACTI defend the view that aspect-perception – seeing as a duck, or a face as courageous – typically involves concept-application. Seemingly obvious, this is contested by Avner Baz: ‘aspects ma...
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  20. Belief and Religious ‘Belief’.Arif Ahmed - forthcoming - Religious Studies:1-15.
    Is the analysis of religion best conducted in terms of the beliefs of its practitioners? I describe a Wittgenstein-inspired approach to belief on which it is dubious that religious practices satisfy the criteria for the attribution of belief. I defend this more moderate and plausible version of Needham's thesis against two natural reasons to think religious belief widespread.
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  21. El Futuro de la Filosofía Después de Wittgenstein.Gómez Alonso & M. Modesto - forthcoming - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía.
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  22. Ludwig Wittgenstein.B. Anat & M. Anat - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  23. On Wittgenstein’s Notion of a Surveyable Representation: Rituals, Aesthetics, and Aspect-Perception.Nir Ben-Moshe - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy.
    I demonstrate that analogies, both explicit and implicit, between Wittgenstein’s discussions of rituals, aesthetics, and aspect-perception, have important payoffs in terms of understanding his notion of a “surveyable representation” (übersichtliche Darstellung) as it applies to phenomena that are not exclusively grammatical in nature. In particular, I argue that a surveyable representation of certain anthropological and aesthetic facts allows us to see, qua form of aspect-perception, internal relations and formal connections, so that the inner nature of a ritual or the solution (...)
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  24. The Logical Analysis of Colour Statements in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus.Bradford F. Blue - forthcoming - Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  25. The Logical Analysis of Colour Statements in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus.Bradford F. Blue - forthcoming - Wiley: Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  26. The Search for the "Essence of Human Language" in Wittgenstein and Davidson.Jason Bridges - forthcoming - In Claudine Verheggen (ed.), Wittgenstein and Davidson on Language, Thought and Action. cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 139-158.
    This paper offers an interpretation of the later Wittgenstein's handling of the idea of an "essence of human language", and examines in particular his treatment of the 'Augustinean' vision of reference as constituting this "essence". A central theme of the interpretation is the perennial philosophical desire to impose upon linguistic meaning conceptual templates drawn from outside the forms of thought about meaning in which we engage when we exercise our capacity to speak and understand a language. The paper closes with (...)
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  27. Wittgenstein and Ascriptions of "Religion".Thomas D. Carroll - forthcoming - In Gorazd Andrejč & Daniel Weiss (eds.), Interpreting Interreligious Relations with Wittgenstein: Philosophy, Theology and Religious Studies. Leiden, Netherlands:
    Recent years have seen an increasing amount of studies of the history of the term “religion” and how it figures in conceptions of “the secular” and of cultural differences generally. A recurrent theme in these studies is that “religion” carries associations with Protestant Christianity and thus is not as universal a category as it might appear. The aim of this paper is to explore some resources in Wittgenstein’s philosophy to obtain greater clarity about the contexts of ascription of religion-status to (...)
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  28. Types Categories and Nonsense.J. W. Cornman - forthcoming - Studies in Logical Theory, American Philosophical Quarterly.
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  29. Being and holding responsible: Reconciling the disputants through a meaning-based Strawsonian account.Benjamin De Mesel - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-21.
    A fundamental question in responsibility theory concerns the relation between being responsible and our practices of holding responsible. ‘Strawsonians’ often claim that being responsible is somehow a function of our practices of holding responsible, while others think that holding responsible depends on being responsible, and still others think of being and holding responsible as interdependent. Based on a Wittgensteinian reading of Strawson, I develop an account of the relation between being and holding responsible which respects major concerns of all parties (...)
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  30. Wittgenstein, antyesencjalizm i definicja sztuki.Terence J. Diffey - forthcoming - Estetyka I Krytyka 9 (9/10):76-92.
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  31. A Abordagem Ecológica das Habilidades e a Epistemologia dos eixos.Carvalho Eros - forthcoming - In Plinio J. Smith & Nara Figueiredo (eds.), A epistemologia dos eixos: uma introdução e debate sobre as certezas de Wittgenstein. São Paulo:
    Neste texto, discuto a interpretação defendida por Moyal-Sharrock, segundo a qual as proposições eixo são maneiras de agir com o objetivo de oferecer uma proposta sobre como compreendê-las. Sustento que a posição de Moyal-Sharrock deixa algumas lacunas, porque não explica a origem das nossas certezas fundamentais. A sua leitura também carece de recursos para responder ao problema da demarcação, uma vez que não é claro como distinguir maneiras de agir que podem legitimamente cumprir o papel de fundamento não fundamentado das (...)
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  32. Wittgenstein, Defationism and Moral Entities.Jordi Fairhurst - forthcoming - Synthese:1-28.
    This paper discusses the meta-ethical implications of Wittgenstein’s later moral philosophy. According to Lovibond and Brandhorst, Wittgenstein provided a novel conception of moral facts, properties and objects by adopting deflationism. Lovibond argues that Wittgenstein’s seamless conception of language together with his non-foundational epistemology and non-transcendent understanding of rationality involves a change of perspective towards a plausible and non-mystificatory moral realism. Meanwhile, Brandhorst argues that Wittgenstein’s provides a deflationist conception of moral truths from which we obtain a deflationist conception of moral (...)
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  33. Wittgenstein and Gadamer on Private Language.Ghasem Fazli - forthcoming - Philosophical Investigations.
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  34. Wittgensteins Diagonal-Argument: Eine Variation auf Cantor und Turing.Juliet Floyd - forthcoming - In Joachim Bromand & Bastian Reichert (eds.), Wittgenstein und die Philosophie der Mathematik. Münster: Mentis Verlag. pp. 167-197.
    A German translation with 2017 postscript of Floyd, Juliet. 2012. "Wittgenstein's Diagonal Argument: A Variation on Cantor and Turing." In Epistemology versus Ontology, Logic, Epistemology: Essays in Honor of Per Martin-Löf, edited by P. Dybjer, S. Lindström, E. Palmgren and G. Sundholm, 25-44. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media. An analysis of philosophical aspects of Turing's diagonal argument in his (136) "On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem" in relation to Wittgenstein's writings on Turing and Cantor.
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  35. Wittgenstein's Practical Thought.Florian Franken Figueiredo - forthcoming
    The book investigates Wittgenstein's practical thought after his return to Cambridge in 1929 until the first version of his 'Philosophical Investigations' in 1936. It is argued that Wittgenstein's philosophical development is determined by his practical turn in 1929-30. The assumption is rejected that the practical turn is to be interpreted as a continuation of ideas of classic pragmatists like Peirce and James. Instead it is argued that due to his development Wittgenstein abandons the picture theory of the Tractatus and the (...)
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  36. Wittgenstein’s Dreams of Meaning.Heather J. Gert - forthcoming - Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  37. Wittgenstein’s Dreams of Meaning.Heather J. Gert - forthcoming - Wiley: Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  38. The Later Wittgenstein and Moral Philosophy Benjamin de Mesel, Cham, Springer, 2018, € 50.28, Vii+186 Pp. [REVIEW]Hans-Johann Glock - forthcoming - Ratio.
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  39. Wittgenstein and the ABC's of Religious Epistemics.Axtell Guy - forthcoming - In Pritchard Duncan & Venturinha Nuno (eds.), Wittgenstein and the Epistemology of Religion. Oxford University Press.
    This paper continues my development of philosophy of religion as multi-disciplinary comparative research. An earlier paper, “Wittgenstein and Contemporary Belief-Credence Dualism” compared Wittgensteinian reflections on religious discourse and praxis with B-C dualism as articulated by its leading proponents. While some strong commonalities were elaborated that might help to bridge Continental and Analytic approaches in philosophy of religion, Wittgenstein was found to be a corrective to B-C dualism especially as regards how the psychology and philosophy of epistemic luck/risk applies to doxastic (...)
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  40. Probability in Wittgenstein's Tractatus.Clare Hay - forthcoming - Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  41. Probability in Wittgenstein's Tractatus.Clare Hay - forthcoming - Wiley: Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  42. Wittgenstein and Other Philosophers: His Influence on Historical and Contemporary Analytic Philosophers (Volume I).Ali Hossein Khani & Gary Kemp (eds.) - forthcoming - Routledge.
    This edited volume includes 36 Chapters, each of which discusses the influence of a philosopher's reading of Wittgenstein in his/her philosophical works and the way such Wittgensteinian ideas have manifested themselves in those works.
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  43. Wittgenstein and Other Philosophers: His Influence on Historical and Contemporary Analytic Philosophers (Volume II).Ali Hossein Khani & Gary Kemp (eds.) - forthcoming - Routledge.
    This edited volume includes 49 Chapters, each of which discusses the influence of a philosopher's reading of Wittgenstein in his/her philosophical works and the way such Wittgensteinian ideas have manifested themselves in those works.
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  44. The Philosopher as Artist: Ludwig Wittgenstein Seen Through Edoardo Paolozzi.Wolfgang Huemer - forthcoming - In The philosopher and the Artist: Wittgenstein and Paolozzi. Palgrave Macmillan.
    In this article I argue that the strong fascination that Wittgenstein has had for artists cannot be explained primarily by the content of his work, and in particular not by his sporadic observation on aesthetics, but rather by stylistic features of his work formal aspects of his writing. Edoardo Paolozzi’s testimony shows that artists often had a feeling of acquaintance or familiarity with the philosopher, which I think is due to stylistic features of his work, such as the colloquial tone (...)
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  45. Wittgenstein's Enigmatic Remarks on Shakespeare.Wolfgang Andreas Huemer - forthcoming - In Craig Bourne & Emily Caddick Bourne (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Shakespeare and Philosophy. London, New York: Routledge.
  46. Extended Rationality: A Hinge Epistemology, By Annalisa Coliva. [REVIEW]Michael Hymers - forthcoming - Analysis:anx030.
    Extended Rationality: A Hinge Epistemology by Annalisa Coliva, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. xii + 222 pp. £60.00.
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  47. Wittgenstein Und Die Philosophie der Mathematik.Bromand Joachim & Reichert Bastian (eds.) - forthcoming - Mentis Verlag.
    Ludwig Wittgenstein selbst hielt seine Überlegungen zur Mathematik für seinen bedeutendsten Beitrag zur Philosophie. So beabsichtigte er zunächst, dem Thema einen zentralen Teil seiner Philosophischen Untersuchungen zu widmen. Tatsächlich wird kaum irgendwo sonst in Wittgensteins Werk so deutlich, wie radikal die Konsequenzen seines Denkens eigentlich sind. Vermutlich deshalb haben Wittgensteins Bemerkungen zur Mathematik unter all seinen Schriften auch den größten Widerstand provoziert: Seine Bemerkungen zu den Gödel’schen Unvollständigkeitssätzen bezeichnete Gödel selbst als Nonsens, und Alan Turing warf Wittgenstein vor, dass aufgrund (...)
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  48. Quine and First-Person Epistemology (In Persian).Ali Hossein Khani - forthcoming - Iranian Institute of Philosophy (IRIP) Publishing.
    The book will discuss and criticize the objections from Blackburn, Searle and Glock to Quine's arguments for the indeterminacy of translation, i.e., that these arguments result in a denial of first-person authority, as well as Hylton’s solution to these objections. The book argues that these objections, as well as Hylton's solution, all rely on a misconstrual of Quine, among other things, that there can be a distinction between meaning and translation for Quine. I will then offer a Strawsonian-Wittgensteinian account of (...)
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  49. Machines, Logic and Wittgenstein.Srećko Kovač - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-20.
    Wittgenstein’s “machines-as-symbols” are considered with respect to their historical sources and their symbolic and logical nature. Among these sources and precursors, along with Leonardo’s drawings of machines, there are illustrated “machine books”, a kind of book published in the period from the 16th to the 18th centuries which consist of pictures and descriptions of a variety of mechanical devices. Most probably, these books were one of Wittgenstein’s inspirations for his view of machines as components of language-games. The picture of homo (...)
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  50. The Duckrabbit: Wittgenstein and the Semantics of the View of Aspects (in Hungarian).Janos Laki - forthcoming - Magyar Filozofiai Szemle.
    The question of "how our visual experience is related to the objects seen?" was not raised by the young Wittgenstein. It seems that at the time of writing the "Tractatus" he thought that seeing as a physically and physiologically determined act was not in need of any semantical explanation. In this essay I seek to present how Wittgenstein located the concept of "aspect-seeing" among the empirical concepts and what solution he offered for the problem of visual semantics. (edited).
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1 — 50 / 7734