About this topic
Summary The content of this category can be found in the categories "Can machines think?" and "Machine consciousness." 
Key works The content of this category can be found in the categories "Can machines think?" and "Machine consciousness."  See those two for readings and references, also.
Introductions See the categories "Can machines think?" and "Machine consciousness"
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  1. On the Matter of Robot Minds.Brian P. McLaughlin & David Rose - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy.
    The view that phenomenally conscious robots are on the horizon often rests on a certain philosophical view about consciousness, one we call “nomological behaviorism.” The view entails that, as a matter of nomological necessity, if a robot had exactly the same patterns of dispositions to peripheral behavior as a phenomenally conscious being, then the robot would be phenomenally conscious; indeed it would have all and only the states of phenomenal consciousness that the phenomenally conscious being in question has. We experimentally (...)
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  2. Equivalence of the Frame and Halting Problems.Eric Dietrich & Chris Fields - 2020 - Algorithms 13 (175):1-9.
    The open-domain Frame Problem is the problem of determining what features of an open task environment need to be updated following an action. Here we prove that the open-domain Frame Problem is equivalent to the Halting Problem and is therefore undecidable. We discuss two other open-domain problems closely related to the Frame Problem, the system identification problem and the symbol-grounding problem, and show that they are similarly undecidable. We then reformulate the Frame Problem as a quantum decision problem, and show (...)
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  3. Artificial Life and ‘Nature’s Purposes’: The Question of Behavioral Autonomy.Elena Popa - 2020 - Human Affairs 30 (4):587-596.
    This paper investigates the concept of behavioral autonomy in Artificial Life by drawing a parallel to the use of teleological notions in the study of biological life. Contrary to one of the leading assumptions in Artificial Life research, I argue that there is a significant difference in how autonomous behavior is understood in artificial and biological life forms: the former is underlain by human goals in a way that the latter is not. While behavioral traits can be explained in relation (...)
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  4. Gods of Transhumanism.Alex V. Halapsis - 2019 - Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research 16:78-90.
    Purpose of the article is to identify the religious factor in the teaching of transhumanism, to determine its role in the ideology of this flow of thought and to identify the possible limits of technology interference in human nature. Theoretical basis. The methodological basis of the article is the idea of transhumanism. Originality. In the foreseeable future, robots will be able to pass the Turing test, become “electronic personalities” and gain political rights, although the question of the possibility of machine (...)
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  5. Machine Learning and Irresponsible Inference: Morally Assessing the Training Data for Image Recognition Systems.Owen King - 2019 - In Matteo Vincenzo D'Alfonso & Don Berkich (eds.), On the Cognitive, Ethical, and Scientific Dimensions of Artificial Intelligence. Springer Verlag. pp. 265-282.
    Just as humans can draw conclusions responsibly or irresponsibly, so too can computers. Machine learning systems that have been trained on data sets that include irresponsible judgments are likely to yield irresponsible predictions as outputs. In this paper I focus on a particular kind of inference a computer system might make: identification of the intentions with which a person acted on the basis of photographic evidence. Such inferences are liable to be morally objectionable, because of a way in which they (...)
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  6. Review of I Am a Strange Loop by Douglas Hofstadter (2007) (Review Revised 2019).Michael Starks - 2019 - In Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century-- Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization -- Articles and Reviews 2006-2019 4th Edition Michael Starks. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 217-235.
    Latest Sermon from the Church of Fundamentalist Naturalism by Pastor Hofstadter. Like his much more famous (or infamous for its relentless philosophical errors) work Godel, Escher, Bach, it has a superficial plausibility but if one understands that this is rampant scientism which mixes real scientific issues with philosophical ones (i.e., the only real issues are what language games we ought to play) then almost all its interest disappears. I provide a framework for analysis based in evolutionary psychology and the work (...)
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  7. Crítica da Razão Positrônica.Sandro Rinaldi Feliciano - 2018 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal Do ABC
    Existe um horizonte à frente. Este horizonte está longe de ser aquele aqui descrito em sua forma, mas talvez o seja em sua essência. O que quero dizer com isso é que existe uma possibilidade de os cérebros positrônicos do título nunca existirem para além das brilhantes mentes que os conceberam na Ficção Científica, mas isto não quer dizer que não existirão sistemas análogos em suas funções, principalmente quanto à racionalidade. A Crítica da Razão Positrônica é um texto que tem (...)
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  8. Why Computers Are Not Intelligent: An Argument.Richard Oxenberg - 2017 - Political Animal Magazine.
    Computers can mimic human intelligence, sometimes quite impressively. This has led some to claim that, a.) computers can actually acquire intelligence, and/or, b.) the human mind may be thought of as a very sophisticated computer. In this paper I argue that neither of these inferences are sound. The human mind and computers, I argue, operate on radically different principles.
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  9. Giving Robots a Voice: Testimony, Intentionality, and the Law.Billy Wheeler - 2017 - In Steve Thompson & Steven John Thompson (eds.), Androids, Cyborgs, and Robots in Contemporary Society and Culture. Hershey, PA, USA: pp. 1-34.
    Humans are becoming increasingly dependent on the ‘say-so' of machines, such as computers, smartphones, and robots. In epistemology, knowledge based on what you have been told is called ‘testimony' and being able to give and receive testimony is a prerequisite for engaging in many social roles. Should robots and other autonomous intelligent machines be considered epistemic testifiers akin to those of humans? This chapter attempts to answer this question as well as explore the implications of robot testimony for the criminal (...)
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  10. Robots, Autonomy, and Responsibility.Raul Hakli & Pekka Mäkelä - 2016 - In Johanna Seibt, Marco Nørskov & Søren Schack Andersen (eds.), What Social Robots Can and Should Do: Proceedings of Robophilosophy 2016. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press. pp. 145-154.
    We study whether robots can satisfy the conditions for agents fit to be held responsible in a normative sense, with a focus on autonomy and self-control. An analogy between robots and human groups enables us to modify arguments concerning collective responsibility for studying questions of robot responsibility. On the basis of Alfred R. Mele’s history-sensitive account of autonomy and responsibility it can be argued that even if robots were to have all the capacities usually required of moral agency, their history (...)
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  11. The “Bottom-Up” Approach to Mental Life - A Commentary on Holk Cruse & Malte Schilling.Aaron Julian Gutknecht - 2015 - Open MIND.
    With their “bottom-up” approach, Holk Cruse and Malte Schilling present a highly intriguing perspective on those mental phenomena that have fascinated humankind since ancient times. Among them are those aspects of our inner lives that are at the same time most salient and yet most elusive: we are conscious beings with complex emotions, thinking and acting in pursuit of various goals. Starting with, from a biological point of view, very basic abilities, such as the ability to move and navigate in (...)
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  12. Chess Metaphors: Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind.Marcel Herbst - 2015 - The European Legacy 20 (7):787-789.
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  13. The Social Robot as ‘Charismatic Leader’: A Phenomenology of Human Submission to Nonhuman Power.Matthew E. Gladden - 2014 - In Johanna Seibt, Raul Hakli & Marco Nørskov (eds.), Sociable Robots and the Future of Social Relations: Proceedings of Robo-Philosophy 2014. IOS Press. pp. 329-339.
    Much has been written about the possibility of human trust in robots. In this article we consider a more specific relationship: that of a human follower’s obedience to a social robot who leads through the exercise of referent power and what Weber described as ‘charismatic authority.’ By studying robotic design efforts and literary depictions of robots, we suggest that human beings are striving to create charismatic robot leaders that will either (1) inspire us through their display of superior morality; (2) (...)
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  14. Robot Pain.Simon van Rysewyk - 2014 - International Journal of Synthetic Emotions 4 (2):22-33.
    Functionalism of robot pain claims that what is definitive of robot pain is functional role, defined as the causal relations pain has to noxious stimuli, behavior and other subjective states. Here, I propose that the only way to theorize role-functionalism of robot pain is in terms of type-identity theory. I argue that what makes a state pain for a neuro-robot at a time is the functional role it has in the robot at the time, and this state is type identical (...)
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  15. The Quest for Artificial Wisdom.David Casacuberta Sevilla - 2013 - AI and Society 28 (2):199-207.
    The term “Contemplative sciences” refers to an interdisciplinary approach to mind that aims at a better understanding of alternative states of consciousness, like those obtained trough deep concentration and meditation, mindfulness and other “superior” or “spiritual” mental states. There is, however, a key discipline missing: artificial intelligence. AI has forgotten its original aims to create intelligent machines that could help us to understand better what intelligence is and is more worried about pragmatical stuff, so almost nobody in the field seems (...)
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  16. Kees van Deemter: Not Exactly: In Praise of Vagueness: Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2010, Xvi+341, $29.95, ISBN: 0-199-5459-01. [REVIEW]Patrick Allo - 2012 - Minds and Machines 22 (1):41-45.
  17. DAKO on Trial.Kimberly Bonia, Fern Brunger, Laura Fullerton, Chad Griffiths & Chris Kaposy - 2012 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 16 (3):275-295.
    This paper tells the story of a recent laboratory medicine controversy in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. During the controversy, a DAKOAutostainer machine was blamed for inaccurate breast cancer test results that led to the suboptimal treatment of many patients. In truth, the machine was not at fault. Using concepts developed by Bruno Latour and Pierre Bourdieu, we document the changing nature of the DAKO machine’s agency before, during, and after the controversy, and we make the ethical argument (...)
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  18. The Superintelligent Will: Motivation and Instrumental Rationality in Advanced Artificial Agents. [REVIEW]Nick Bostrom - 2012 - Minds and Machines 22 (2):71-85.
    This paper discusses the relation between intelligence and motivation in artificial agents, developing and briefly arguing for two theses. The first, the orthogonality thesis, holds (with some caveats) that intelligence and final goals (purposes) are orthogonal axes along which possible artificial intellects can freely vary—more or less any level of intelligence could be combined with more or less any final goal. The second, the instrumental convergence thesis, holds that as long as they possess a sufficient level of intelligence, agents having (...)
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  19. Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right From Wrong.Lisa Damm - 2012 - Philosophical Psychology 25 (1):149 - 153.
  20. What Are Computers (If They're Not Thinking Things)?John Preston - 2012 - In S. Barry Cooper, A. Dawar & B. Lowe (eds.), How the World Computes: Turing Centenary Conference and 8th Conference on Computability in Europe, Cie 2012, Cambridge Uk June 2012 Proceedings. pp. 609-615.
  21. Semiotic Systems, Computers, and the Mind: How Cognition Could Be Computing.William J. Rapaport - 2012 - International Journal of Signs and Semiotic Systems 2 (1):32-71.
    In this reply to James H. Fetzer’s “Minds and Machines: Limits to Simulations of Thought and Action”, I argue that computationalism should not be the view that (human) cognition is computation, but that it should be the view that cognition (simpliciter) is computable. It follows that computationalism can be true even if (human) cognition is not the result of computations in the brain. I also argue that, if semiotic systems are systems that interpret signs, then both humans and computers are (...)
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  22. Computers, Persons, and the Chinese Room. Part 1: The Human Computer.Ricardo Restrepo - 2012 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 33 (1):27-48.
    Detractors of Searle’s Chinese Room Argument have arrived at a virtual consensus that the mental properties of the Man performing the computations stipulated by the argument are irrelevant to whether computational cognitive science is true. This paper challenges this virtual consensus to argue for the first of the two main theses of the persons reply, namely, that the mental properties of the Man are what matter. It does this by challenging many of the arguments and conceptions put forth by the (...)
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  23. Computers, Persons, and the Chinese Room. Part 2: Testing Computational Cognitive Science.Ricardo Restrepo - 2012 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 33 (3):123-140.
    This paper is a follow-up of the first part of the persons reply to the Chinese Room Argument. The first part claims that the mental properties of the person appearing in that argument are what matter to whether computational cognitive science is true. This paper tries to discern what those mental properties are by applying a series of hypothetical psychological and strengthened Turing tests to the person, and argues that the results support the thesis that the Man performing the computations (...)
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  24. The Turing Thesis Vs. The Turing Test.Georges Rey - 2012 - The Philosophers' Magazine 57 (57):84-89.
  25. Workspace Theories Are Alive and Well.Igor Aleksander - 2011 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 3 (02):309-312.
  26. Informational Minds: From Aristotle to Laptops (Book Extract).Igor Aleksander & Helen B. Morton - 2011 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 3 (02):383-397.
  27. Word Associations Contribute to Machine Learning in Automatic Scoring of Degree of Emotional Tones in Dream Reports.Reza Amini, Catherine Sabourin & Joseph De Koninck - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1570-1576.
    Scientific study of dreams requires the most objective methods to reliably analyze dream content. In this context, artificial intelligence should prove useful for an automatic and non subjective scoring technique. Past research has utilized word search and emotional affiliation methods, to model and automatically match human judges’ scoring of dream report’s negative emotional tone. The current study added word associations to improve the model’s accuracy. Word associations were established using words’ frequency of co-occurrence with their defining words as found in (...)
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  28. Machine Ethics.M. Anderson & S. Anderson (eds.) - 2011 - Cambridge Univ. Press.
    The essays in this volume represent the first steps by philosophers and artificial intelligence researchers toward explaining why it is necessary to add an ...
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  29. The Designer Stance Towards Shanahan's Dynamic Network Theory of the "Conscious Condition".Luc Patrick Beaudoin - 2011 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 3 (02):313-319.
  30. Homo Sapiens 2.0 Why We Should Build the Better Robots of Our Nature.Eric Dietrich - 2011 - In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press.
    It is possible to survey humankind and be proud, even to smile, for we accomplish great things. Art and science are two notable worthy human accomplishments. Consonant with art and science are some of the ways we treat each other. Sacrifice and heroism are two admirable human qualities that pervade human interaction. But, as everyone knows, all this goodness is more than balanced by human depravity. Moral corruption infests our being. Why?
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  31. Two Acts of Social Intelligence: The Effects of Mimicry and Social Praise on the Evaluation of an Artificial Agent. [REVIEW]Maurits Kaptein, Panos Markopoulos, Boris Ruyter & Emile Aarts - 2011 - AI and Society 26 (3):261-273.
    This paper describes a study of the effects of two acts of social intelligence, namely mimicry and social praise, when used by an artificial social agent. An experiment ( N = 50) is described which shows that social praise—positive feedback about the ongoing conversation—increases the perceived friendliness of a chat-robot. Mimicry—displaying matching behavior—enhances the perceived intelligence of the robot. We advice designers to incorporate both mimicry and social praise when their system needs to function as a social actor. Different ways (...)
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  32. Toward Incorporating Emotions with Rationality Into a Communicative Virtual Agent.Andrey Kiselev, Benjamin Alexander Hacker, Thomas Wankerl, Niyaz Abdikeev & Toyoaki Nishida - 2011 - AI and Society 26 (3):275-289.
    This paper addresses the problem of human–computer interactions when the computer can interpret and express a kind of human-like behavior, offering natural communication. A conceptual framework for incorporating emotions with rationality is proposed. A model of affective social interactions is described. The model utilizes the SAIBA framework, which distinguishes among several stages of processing of information. The SAIBA framework is extended, and a model is realized in human behavior detection, human behavior interpretation, intention planning, attention tracking behavior planning, and behavior (...)
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  33. Searle’s Wager.Neil Levy - 2011 - AI and Society 26 (4):363-369.
    Nicholas Agar has recently argued that it would be irrational for future human beings to choose to radically enhance themselves by uploading their minds onto computers. Utilizing Searle’s argument that machines cannot think, he claims that uploading might entail death. He grants that Searle’s argument is controversial, but he claims, so long as there is a non-zero probability that uploading entails death, uploading is irrational. I argue that Agar’s argument, like Pascal’s wager on which it is modelled, fails, because the (...)
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  34. A Case Study of Low‐Status Women’s Attitudes Towards Computers.Ruey S. Shieh, Sung‐Lu Chang & Eric Zhi‐Feng Liu - 2011 - Educational Studies 37 (2):233-243.
    This study investigates the attitudes of a group of low‐status women towards computers through a deliberately designed computer training programme. Four aspects of the women’s attitudes were examined, including computer anxiety, confidence, liking and usefulness. Data sources consist of pre‐ and post‐surveys and interviews with the participants. The results show that the participants’ attitudes towards computers improved greatly after attending the training course, especially in terms of the aspect of anxiety. It was also found that the instructor’s patience, repeated step‐by‐step (...)
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  35. A Computational Model of Machine Consciousness.Janusz A. Starzyk & Dilip K. Prasad - 2011 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 3 (02):255-281.
  36. Turing Interrogative Games.Paweł Łupkowski & Andrzej Wiśniewski - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (3):435-448.
    The issue of adequacy of the Turing Test (TT) is addressed. The concept of Turing Interrogative Game (TIG) is introduced. We show that if some conditions hold, then each machine, even a thinking one, loses a certain TIG and thus an instance of TT. If, however, the conditions do not hold, the success of a machine need not constitute a convincing argument for the claim that the machine thinks.
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  37. MICHAEL POLANYI: CAN THE MIND BE REPRESENTED BY A MACHINE?Paul Richard Blum - 2010 - Polanyiana 19 (1-2):35-60.
    In 1949, the Department of Philosophy at the University of Manchester organized a symposium “Mind and Machine” with Michael Polanyi, the mathematicians Alan Turing and Max Newman, the neurologists Geoff rey Jeff erson and J. Z. Young, and others as participants. Th is event is known among Turing scholars, because it laid the seed for Turing’s famous paper on “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, but it is scarcely documented. Here, the transcript of this event, together with Polanyi’s original statement and his (...)
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  38. Meeting Floridi's Challenge to Artificial Intelligence From the Knowledge-Game Test for Self-Consciousness.Selmer Bringsjord - 2010 - Metaphilosophy 41 (3):292-312.
    Abstract: In the course of seeking an answer to the question "How do you know you are not a zombie?" Floridi (2005) issues an ingenious, philosophically rich challenge to artificial intelligence (AI) in the form of an extremely demanding version of the so-called knowledge game (or "wise-man puzzle," or "muddy-children puzzle")—one that purportedly ensures that those who pass it are self-conscious. In this article, on behalf of (at least the logic-based variety of) AI, I take up the challenge—which is to (...)
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  39. The Singularity: A Philosophical Analysis.David J. Chalmers - 2010 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 17 (9-10):9 - 10.
    What happens when machines become more intelligent than humans? One view is that this event will be followed by an explosion to ever-greater levels of intelligence, as each generation of machines creates more intelligent machines in turn. This intelligence explosion is now often known as the “singularity”. The basic argument here was set out by the statistician I.J. Good in his 1965 article “Speculations Concerning the First Ultraintelligent Machine”: Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far (...)
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  40. Are Turing Machines Platonists? Inferentialism and the Computational Theory of Mind.Jon Cogburn & Jason Megil - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (3):423-439.
    We first discuss Michael Dummett’s philosophy of mathematics and Robert Brandom’s philosophy of language to demonstrate that inferentialism entails the falsity of Church’s Thesis and, as a consequence, the Computational Theory of Mind. This amounts to an entirely novel critique of mechanism in the philosophy of mind, one we show to have tremendous advantages over the traditional Lucas-Penrose argument.
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  41. Varieties of Justification in Machine Learning.David Corfield - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (2):291-301.
    Forms of justification for inductive machine learning techniques are discussed and classified into four types. This is done with a view to introduce some of these techniques and their justificatory guarantees to the attention of philosophers, and to initiate a discussion as to whether they must be treated separately or rather can be viewed consistently from within a single framework.
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  42. Can Machines Think? An Old Question Reformulated.Achim Hoffmann - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (2):203-212.
    This paper revisits the often debated question Can machines think? It is argued that the usual identification of machines with the notion of algorithm has been both counter-intuitive and counter-productive. This is based on the fact that the notion of algorithm just requires an algorithm to contain a finite but arbitrary number of rules. It is argued that intuitively people tend to think of an algorithm to have a rather limited number of rules. The paper will further propose a modification (...)
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  43. Erratum: "What Does a Sloman Want?".Drew Mcdermott - 2010 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 2 (2):385-385.
  44. Bica and Beyond: How Biology and Anomalies Together Contribute to Flexible Cognition.Donald Perlis - 2010 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 2 (2):261-271.
  45. Logic and Abstraction as Capabilities of the Mind: Reconceptualizations of Computational Approaches to the Mind.D. J. Saab & U. V. Riss (eds.) - 2010 - IGI.
    In this chapter we will investigate the nature of abstraction in detail, its entwinement with logical thinking, and the general role it plays for the mind. We find that non-logical capabilities are not only important for input processing, but also for output processing. Human beings jointly use analytic and embodied capacities for thinking and acting, where analytic thinking mirrors reflection and logic, and where abstraction is the form in which embodied thinking is revealed to us. We will follow the philosophical (...)
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  46. Is It Time for the New Cognitive Revolution?Alexei V. Samsonovich - 2010 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 2 (1):55-58.
  47. Information or Logic in Modeling Conscious Systems?Igor Aleksander, David Gamez & Helen Morton - 2009 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 1 (2):185-192.
  48. Consciousness is Computational: The Lida Model of Global Workspace Theory.Bernard J. Baars & Stan Franklin - 2009 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 1 (1):23-32.
  49. 'You Gotta Listen to How People Talk': Machines and Natural Language.Jacob Berger & Kyle Ferguson - 2009 - In Richard Brown & Kevin S. Decker (eds.), Terminator and Philosophy: I'll be Back, Therefore I Am. pp. 239-252.
    A fun piece discussing the challenges to and prospects of building machines that are able to produce and understand natural language.
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  50. Book Review: "World in My Mind, My Mind in the World" by Igor Aleksander. [REVIEW]Antonio Chella - 2009 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 1 (1):177-179.
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