The present essay aims to account for F.A. Hayek's oft-noted 'turn' away from technical economics to concerns of a more philosophical nature. In particular, the paper seeks an explanatory principle that reconciles various elements of both continuity and discontinuity in Hayek's intellectual development, especially with respect to the evolution of his arguments concerning economic fluctuations. The essay uncovers such an explanatory principle in Hayek's own methodology of sciences of complex phenomena. According to this principle, an inquirer who confronts phenomena too (...) complex for adequate explanation on the basis of current knowledge must move to a more general, albeit less testable, explanation. This is precisely what occurred in the evolution of Hayek's thought concerning trade cycles. The concluding section considers the implications of the argument for the extensive secondary literature on Hayek's 'transformation'. (shrink)
What socially beneficial causes should philanthropists prioritize if they give equal ethical weight to the welfare of current and future generations? Many have argued that, because human extinction would result in a permanent loss of all future generations, extinction risk mitigation should be the top priority given this impartial stance. Using standard models of population dynamics, we challenge this conclusion. We first introduce a theoretical framework for quantifying undiscounted cost-effectiveness over the long term. We then show that standard population models (...) imply that there are interventions other than extinction risk mitigation that can produce persistent social benefits. In fact, these social benefits are large enough to render the associated interventions at least as cost-effective as extinction risk mitigation. (shrink)
This paper claims that how economists actually treat the consumption function, both theoretically and empirically, seems to be at odds with traditional structural realism. While economics aims to find out the way the world actually is, economic theory – including theoretical staples such as the consumption Euler equation – do not always state literal truths. Yet, such methods persist. Our investigation will reveal that the Euler equation is deployed as part of a realist methodology to identify scale-dominant behaviors. These analyses (...) permit the economist to conduct counterfactual reasoning and sometimes (via policy) to intervene on the world itself; the implication is when this is successful, the economist has uncovered real structure. (shrink)
Economists associated with the Austrian School of Economics are known to deny the value of macroeconomics as descended from the work of John Maynard Keynes and, especially, his followers. Yet, Austrian economists regularly engage in a related scientific activity: theorizing about the causes and consequences of economic fluctuations, i.e., the business cycle. What explains the Austrians’ willingness to engage in theorizing about the business cycle while denying the scientific import of macroeconomics? The present paper argues that the methodological precepts of (...) the School, which have remained largely in place since Carl Menger first pronounced them at the start of the Methodenstreit, justify the kind of business-cycle theorizing that Austrians do and imply the limited scientific value of macroeconomics as descended from Keynes. (shrink)
Goodwill is an intangible asset that we can find in a company's accounting cycle. Goodwill is basically subject to depreciation and the measurement related to the amount of depreciation of goodwill does not yet have a strong enough basis so that the assessment of goodwill tends to be subjective and based on management's interests, the impact of this subjective assessment is a failure to present good financial statements and can trigger decision-making errors for third parties. internal or external. The asymmetry (...) of the philosophy of economic materialism is an approach that can be used to repress or negate goodwill by providing an alternative to eliminating goodwill. However, this Philosophical Asymmetry of Economic Materialism is not a final approach because it still depends on several factors that will influence it. Ethical utilitarianism is one of the factors that can influence the effectiveness and implementation of the Philosophical Asymmetry of Economic Materialism as a form of increasing profits and optimizing costs to be incurred by companies in the future. Philosophical asymmetry of Economic Materialism seeks to suppress or negate the existence of goodwill as a form of ethical utilitarianism in the business environment. (shrink)
The authors of the book have come to the conclusion that toensuring the country’s security in the conditions of military aggression, it is necessary to use the mechanisms of protection of territories and population, support of economic entities, international legal levers of influence on the aggressor country. Basic research focuses on assessment the resource potential of enterprises during martial law, the analysis of migration flows in the middle of the country and abroad, the volume of food exports, marketing and logistics (...) system. The research results have been implemented in the different decision-making models during martial law, information and economic security management, formation of personnel potential and assets of enterprises, food, energy and environmental security management, use of budgetary levers and financial instruments. The results of the study can be used in the developing of directions, programs and strategies for the post-war recovery of Ukraine’s economy and the attraction of foreign investments in the regions, decision-making at the level of ministries and agencies that regulate security management processes. The results can also be used by students and young scientists in the educational process and conducting scientific research on the problems of ensuring the country’s security. (shrink)
This paper explores the socio-epistemic practice of shopping for experts. I argue that expert shopping is particularly likely to occur on what Thi Nguyen calls cognitive islands. To support my argument, I focus on macroeconomics. First, I make a prima-facie case for thinking that macroeconomics is a cognitive island. Then, I argue that ordinary people are particularly likely to engage in expert shopping when it comes to macroeconomic matters. In particular, I distinguish between two kinds of expert shopping, which I (...) call cynical and wishful, and introduce the notion of assisted expert shopping, which occurs when people or organizations shop for experts on behalf of other people. I argue that assisted expert shopping can sometime result in what I call a propagandistic use of expertise. Finally, I critically examine some possible reasons for optimism and find them wanting. I conclude by suggesting that that much of what I said about shopping for macroeconomic experts might also apply mutatis mutandis to other policy-relevant domains of expertise. (shrink)
At present, the research on the influence mechanism of psychological capital on farmers’ entrepreneurial behavior is relatively mature. However, the relationship between farmers’ entrepreneurial behavior and macroeconomics by entrepreneurial psychological capital is still unclear. Based on this, firstly, this work analyzes the entrepreneurial PsyCap in detail. Secondly, the research hypothesis is put forward and a conceptual model is implemented. A questionnaire is designed to analyze the current situation of farmers’ entrepreneurial PsyCap and entrepreneurial behavior. Finally, a structural equation model is (...) implemented to explore the relationship between farmers’ entrepreneurial behavior and macroeconomics. The path test of the SEM is utilized to obtain the following. Macroeconomic growth has a significant positive impact on entrepreneurial behavior. Macroeconomics can affect farmers’ entrepreneurial behavior to varying degrees by affecting the four entrepreneurial PsyCap of farmers’ subjective cognition, Tenacity, hope and open-mindedness. This indicates that entrepreneurial PsyCap plays an intermediary role between farmers’ entrepreneurial behavior and macroeconomics. The purpose of this work is to explore the relationship among farmers’ entrepreneurial behavior, macroeconomics, and the role of entrepreneurial PsyCap through empirical analysis, thereby providing a theoretical reference for the subsequent country’s optimization of farmers’ entrepreneurial strategies. (shrink)
In this article, I offer a methodological analysis of the empirical research on the causal effects of trade liberalisation, and assess whether such studies can be of any use for guiding policy prescriptions in real-world economies. The analysis focuses on the mainstream economic research that has been used to support arguments in favour of trade liberalisation during the last decades. Even though there are empirical results that could be taken as valid evidence for a causal connection between free trade and (...) economic gains, none of the existing evidence licences trustworthy inferences about the policy effectiveness of trade liberalisation reforms in real-world cases. There are three aspects of the empirical literature that make it highly problematic for making reliable policy inferences: (a) the criteria used to define the notion of ‘free trade’, (b) the background assumptions embedded in the econometric techniques used for estimating causal effects, and (c) the widespread desire among academic economists to attain scientific results in terms of universally valid generalisations. The analysis exposes a worrisome mismatch between, on the one hand, the research aims and outcomes of scientific economics and, on the other, the kind of evidence that would be useful for guiding actual policy deliberations. (shrink)
This paper has two goals. The first is to fill a gap in the literature on inductive risk by exploring the relevance of the notion of inductive risk to macroeconomics and monetary policy. The second goal is to draw some general lessons about inductive risk from the case discussed. The most important of these lessons is that the notion of inductive risk is no less relevant to the relationship between the proximate and distal goals of policy than it is to (...) the relationship between policies and their goals. (shrink)
This book is a collection of early papers. These papers are available on the web. They include 'Fact-Value Confusion Driving Methodological Error in Macroeconomic Theory', 'The Genealogy of Natural Law', and 'The Philosophical Values Inherent in Alberta's Approach to Starting Point Sentences'.
Critics argued that the 2007–09 financial crisis was failure of macroeconomics, locating its source in the dynamic, stochastic general-equilibrium model and calling for fundamental re-orientation of the field. Critics exaggerated the role of DSGE models in actual policymaking, and DSGE modelers addressed some criticisms within the DSGE framework. But DSGE modelers oversold their success and even claimed that their approach is the sine qua non of competent macroeconomics. The DSGE modelers and their critics renew an old debate over the relative (...) priority of a priori theory and empirical data, classically exemplified in the Measurement without Theory Debate of the 1940s between the Cowles Commission and the National Bureau of Economic Research. The earlier debate is reviewed for its implications for the recent controversy. In adopting the Cowles-Commission position, some DSGE modelers would essentially straight-jacket macroeconomics and undermine economic science and the pursuit of knowledge in an open-minded, yet critical framework. (shrink)
After ratifying the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control in 2004, Bangladesh enacted anti-tobacco laws, policies, and administrative measures. Evidence suggests that the progress so far has not been significant, and Bangladesh will most likely fail to meet its target to become tobacco-free by 2040. This study undertakes a national-level political economy analysis to explore the dynamics that affect the processes of required tobacco policy reforms and implementation. Based on a desk review of pertinent pieces of literature and key informant interviews, (...) this research examines the political behavior of key individuals, institutional reform initiatives, and the government’s commitment to the tobacco control agenda. The findings indicate that the political will of becoming tobacco-free is explicitly present in key narratives. However, intra-government conflict of interests and incentives, the skewed commitment of government bodies, state-business nexus, incapacity of vital organizations, and the dubious role of key individuals and committees fail to translate this will into active implementation. The article concludes that the idea of tobacco control remains a strategic accommodation, and its implementation requires genuine commitment and wider public support. The government must confer adequate authority and resources to the national tobacco control cell and call for agencies to convene to the common of creating a tobacco-free Bangladesh. (shrink)
The world never stands still. There is always a Brownian movement of economic subjects and objects on the face of it. But, if we have been visualizing this movement over a relatively long period of time, then we can distinguish the acceleration and increase in the volume of movements along individual commodity routes, the growth and formation of new subjects of international economic relations. From time to time, "accelerators" of this movement appear, either in the form of new types of (...) energy to service production, or technologies to simplify the exchange and distribution of benefits. The market, controlled by the "invisible hand", is gradually taking over the whole world, and some new goods appear to meet the needs. We use technologies and devices described in unreal fantasy plots of classical literature already today in real life. The speed of change is exciting on the one hand and is frightening on the other hand. In the modern world, it would seem, everything is mobile. The quality and cost of transportation has no longer been a physical obstacle to any exchange and travel. The forms of modern financial transactions for service international economic relations, their speed and coverage are impressive. Enterprises, in terms of capitalization, exceed the national incomes of states and do not have spatial territorial boundaries, being the main players in international economic relations along with states, their associations and international organizations. Digitalization is no longer a challenge for society, but our present. It seems sometimes that the world allegedly wants to slow down the further development of mankind and creates obstacles in the form of wars, epidemics and crises. Such obstacles become challenges for the development of economic entities of all levels. Change always creates unexpected opportunities for someone and insurmountable restrictions for other one. Change always leads to a redistribution of forces. Changes are needed to overthink the nature and direction of movement. Changes are the certain reorganization of the world economic system. The world is always on the verge of changes. What will they be this time? (shrink)
The entire world community, since 2019, affected by the global pandemic COVID-19. The pandemic caused by this virus, led not only to significant human losses worldwide, but also imposed significant restrictions on the socio-cultural life of the population and radically changed the trends of the global economy and the further functioning of socio-economic systems. Now, huge economic losses have been recorded, which affected almost all sectors of the national economy and the state in the short, medium and long term. However, (...) it is important to consider individual economic development forecasts and measures developed by the governments of the world’s leading countries to overcome the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. This will allow to form a real vision of the possible course of economic processes that will directly affect the living standards of the population and the restoration of socio-economic systems. To further restore the socio-economic system it is necessary to developing modern strategies and forecasts to ensure the effective functioning of economic entities through innovation, digitalization, marketing and use of competitive advantages in the consumer markets in conditions of limited resources, development promising sectors of the national economy, etc. The purpose of writing this scientific monograph is to substantiate the theoretical and methodological foundations, the formation new strategies for restoring socio-economic systems and overcoming the negative consequences of the caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, taking into account changes and challenges in the modern world. The object of the authors’ research is the process of forming new approaches, strategies and mechanisms for managing socio-economic systems in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, eliminating the negative consequences in the activities of economic entities. The subject of research is socio-economic, organizational and institutional processes of formation and effective implementation of approaches, strategies and mechanisms for managing socio-economic systems; stabilization of the functioning of economic entities; introduction of innovative processes and digital technologies; implementation of best practices in the managing of socio-economic systems using world experience in various sectors of the economy caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. (shrink)
Economic theory is the science that studies the actions of people in the process of choosing rare resources for the production, exchange, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Economic theory is a science that studies the laws of development of the economic system arising from the production and appropriation of goods and services in all spheres of social reproduction, as well as those aspects of the evolution of the national consciousness of the spirit of the people, its culture, psychology, (...) morality and behavior that affect the process economy. (shrink)
The main thesis of this paper is that the empirical success of Keynesianism shows it to be scientific. Keynesianism here refers not to a specific theory, but to a paradigm. It is argued that Kuhn's notion of paradigm can be applied to economics, but, in contrast to the natural sciences, in economics there are always competing paradigms. The principal ones in contemporary economics are the Neoclassical, Keynesian and Marxist. To investigate whether the Keynesian paradigm is scientific we need a criterion (...) for the scientificity of a paradigm. The paper first considers one approach to this problem due to Kant, but this is rejected as incorrect and called 'the Kantian fallacy'. Another approach is then put forward: 'the empirical confirmation principle', and reasons are given for accepting this as correct. Using this principle, it is then argued that that Keynesianism is indeed scientific. (shrink)
In 2001 soon after the Asian Crises of 1997-1998, the DotcomBubble, 9/11, the Enron crises triggered a fraud crisis in Wall Street that impacted the market to the core. Since then scandals such as the Lehman Brothers and WorldCom in 2007-2008 and the Great Recession have surpassed it, Enron still remains one of the most important cases of fraudulent accounting. In 2000’s even though the financial industry had become highly regulated, deregulation of the energy industry allowed companies to place bets (...) on future prices. At the peak of the dotcom bubble Enron was named as a star innovator but when the dotcom bubble burst, Enron’s plan to build high speed internet did not flourish and investors started to realize losses. Furthermore, the financial losses of the operations were hid using the market to market accounting technique instead of book value and using special purpose entities to hide debt. The root cause that was identified as a company with a toxic corporate culture focused on officer compensation rather than social responsibility and hence faulty leadership. Is it possible then that; ethical accounting practices, social responsibility and ethics all become inferior goods as income rises in an ‘irrationally exuberant’era? (shrink)
The credit crises experienced in the US in year 2008 is labeled as perhaps the most significant crises since the great depression. The roots of the crises were found in the default of the sub-prime mortgages and the failure occurred in both the US and the UK. Due to the integrated nature of international financial systems the spillover impacted many countries as the economies in Asia and Europe were purchasers of the sub-prime mortgages that originated in both UK and US. (...) The impact of the credit crises in Canada is of unique importance due to the close proximity to US, and both the US and Canada being of great strategic importance to each other as well as one of the largest trading partners.Even though the international financial credit crises adversely impacted many countries, the evidence that has come across recent years point towards the conclusion that Canada was able to weather the crises much better than many other countries. (shrink)
The authors of the book have come to the conclusion that it is necessary to effectively use modern approaches to developing and implementation strategies of sustainable socio-economic development in order to increase efficiency and competitiveness of economic entities. Basic research focuses on economic diagnostics of socio-economic potential and financial results of economic entities, transition period in the economy of individual countries and ensuring their competitiveness, assessment of educational processes and knowledge management. The research results have been implemented in the different (...) models and strategies of supply and logistics management, development of non-profit organizations, competitiveness of tourism and transport, financing strategies for small and medium-sized enterprises, cross-border cooperation. The results of the study can be used in decision-making at the level the economic entities in different areas of activity and organizational-legal forms of ownership, ministries and departments that promote of development the economic entities on the basis of models and strategies for sustainable socio-economic development. The results can also be used by students and young scientists in modern concepts and mechanisms for management of sustainable socio-economic development of economic entities in the condition of global economic transformations and challenges. (shrink)
This article intends to analyze the performance and the efficiency of companies and to identify the key factors that may explain it. It was selected a sample with 15 enterprises: 7 Portuguese and 8 Ukrainian ones, belonging to several industries. Financial and non-financial data was collected for 6 years, during the period of 2009 to 2014. Research questions that guided this work were: Are the enterprises efficient/profitable? What factors influence enterprises’ efficiency/performance? Is there any difference between Ukrainian and Portuguese enterprises’ (...) efficiency/performance, which factors have more influence? Which industrial sector is represented by more efficient/profitable enterprises? The main results showed that in average enterprises were efficient with low level of profitability. According to gained results several indicators were highlighted so that companies would pay more attention to them. (shrink)
The study of the essence of the sustainable tourism, transformation of the modern functions of global tourism, rethinking of its basic principles made it possible to form the conceptual framework of the sustainable tourism. The conditions for promotion of the sustainable tourism to the world market and the factors of impact on its development in the global economy have been determined. The technique for calculation of the tourism sustainability index, taking into account the anthropogenic factor, was improved.
Relative strengths of the innovation system are in Innovation-friendly environment, human resources, and employment impacts. Relative weaknesses are in innovators, attractive research systems, and linkages. Notable structural differences are a larger share of employment in Agriculture & Mining, a smaller share of employment in High and Medium high-tech manufacturing, a larger share of micro enterprises and SMEs in turnover, a smaller share of large enterprises in turnover, a larger share of foreign controlled enterprises, lower GDP per capita, a higher growth (...) rate of GDP, a lower and negative growth rate of population, and lower population density. According to the conducted studies, Latvia's economic development is impossible without implementing radical structural changes in the production and updating of its technologies, using modern advances in scientific and technological progress. It is precisely the application new advances in science and technology that allows for high profit for enterprises and stimulates economic growth of the country. It is possible to determine the possibilities of innovation and economic development of Latvia through the assessment of innovative potential. The country's innovative potential can be judged by the level of development of research and development work, educational institutions, and technical innovations. (shrink)
In the present article, attention is focused on the existing potential to ensure national self-sufficiency, the main challenges to its achievement and future prospects. According to the authors, transportation and communication system of the country can become the dominant model for self-sufficient development, due to its geostrategic location which allows it to be an advantageous bridge for goods, and passengers transit transportation between the states of Europe, Asia and the Middle East. To date, the transport and communication system is hardly (...) the only sector of national economy, which is capable to become the catalyst for socio-economic growth without significant investment, a tool to achieve self-sufficient and safe level of Ukraine's development. -/- У представленій статті акцентовано увагу на наявних потенційних можливостях забезпечення національної самодостатності, основні проблеми на шляху її досягнення і подальші перспективи. Домінантою моделі самодостатнього розвитку країни може стати транспортно-комунікативна система, яка в силу геостратегічного розташування дозволяє їй бути вигідним мостом для транзитних перевезень товарів і пасажирів між державами Європи, Азії і Близького Сходу. На сьогоднішній день транспортно-комунікативна система є чи не єдиним сектором національної господарської системи, який здатний без істотних капіталовкладень стати каталізатором соціально-економічного зростання, інструментом досягнення самодостатнього і безпечного рівня розвитку України. (shrink)
Стаття присвячена дослідженню питань формування нової стратегії самодостатнього розвитку транспортно- комунікативної системи України. Проаналізовано стратегічний документ «Транспортна стратегія України на період до 2020 р.» та виявлено низку недоліків. Було виокремлено недоліки стратегічного та методич- ного характеру. Окрему увагу автором приділено недосконалості системи стратегічних документів, які регулюють розвиток ТКС, відсутності деяких стратегій розвитку галузей ТКС, проблемам фінансування, а також проблемам, пов’язаним з цільовими програмами розвитку. Вказано на проблеми, пов’язані із структурним наповненням зазначеної стратегії. -/- Статья посвящена исследованию вопросов формирования новой стратегии (...) самодостаточного развития транспортно-коммуникативной системы Украины. Проанализирован стратегический документ «Транс- портная стратегия Украины на период до 2020 г.» и выявлен ряд недостатков. Были выделены недостатки стратегического и методического характера. Особое внимание автором уделено несовершенству системы стратегических документов, регулирующих развитие ТКС, отсутствию некоторых стратегий развития отраслей ТКС, проблемам финансирования, а также проблемам, связанным с целевыми программами развития. Указано на проблемы, связанные со структурным наполнением действующей стратегии. (shrink)
Macroeconomists overwhelmingly believe that macroeconomics requires microfoundations, typically understood as a strong eliminativist reductionism. Microfoundations aims to recover intentionality. In the face of technical and data constraints macroeconomists typically employ a representative-agent model, in which a single agent solves the microeconomic optimization problem for the whole economy, and take it to be microfoundationally adequate. The characteristic argument for the representative-agent model holds that the possibility of the sequential elaboration of the model to cover any number of individual agents justifies treating (...) the policy conclusions of the single-agent model as practically relevant. This eschatological justification is examined and rejected. (shrink)
We address the most fundamental yet routinely ignored issue in economics today: that of distributive impact of the monetary system on the real economy. By re-examining the logical implications of token re-presentation of value and Irving Fisher’s theory of exchange, we argue that producers of value incur incidental expropriation of wealth associated with the deflationary effect that new value supply has on the purchasing power of money. In order to remedy the alleged inequity we propose a value-added negative tax (VANT) (...) based on net individual contribution to the economic output, which is structured as a negative tax function geared to profits derived from eligible productive activities in consideration of their estimated deflationary impact. We show that an adequately optimised VANT can be non-inflationary and have zero net cost to the public. Furthermore, economic output stands to improve due to direct incentivisation of value creation, making the proposed scheme not only politically feasible but economically desirable. The proposal advances the principle of ‘fair money’, where all forms of economic value are attributed to their rightful owners prior to any positive taxation. (shrink)
This book offers an excellent survey of various macroeconomic topics that feature prominently in the research agenda and have inspired both theoretical and policy debate. The book presents an authoritative and comprehensive summary and original critique of macroeconomic approaches by a scholar whose own contribution to the field is considerable.
F.A. Hayek essentially quit economic theory and gave up the phenomena of industrial fluctuations as an explicit object of theoretical investigation following the publication of his last work in technical economics, 1941’s The Pure Theory of Capital. Nonetheless, several of Hayek’s more methodologically-oriented writings bear important implications for economic phenomena, especially those of industrial fluctuations. Decisions (usually, for Hayek, of a political nature) taken on the basis of a “pretence” of knowledge impede the operation of the price system’s belief-coordinating function (...) and thereby contribute to episodes of economic disequilibrium. Moreover, this later account – which I call Hayek’s epistemic theory of industrial fluctuations – implies certain aspects of his earlier theory. The two accounts are connected in virtue of the role that ignorance and the limits of human knowledge play in each. Indeed, it turns out that – substantively, if not methodologically – Hayek’s early theory of the cycle is a special case of the more general epistemic account. (shrink)
In recent years, the project of providing microeconomic foundations for macroeconomics has taken on new urgency. Some philosophers and economists have challenged the project, both for the way economists actually approach microfoundations and for more general anti-reductionist reasons. Reductionists and anti-reductionists alike, however, have taken it to be trivial that the macroeconomic facts are exhaustively determined by microeconomic ones. In this paper, I challenge this supposed triviality. I argue that macroeconomic properties do not even globally supervene on microeconomic ones. This (...) is simply a consequence of the difference in the explanatory goals of the respective fields, which implicitly carve out the microeconomic property set in such a way that it underdetermines macroeconomic properties. It means, however, that microeconomics-based foundations for macroeconomics are inadequate in principle. (shrink)
Whenever debt is itself money, this money becomes a self-inflating debt principal by already being its own interest. Hence modern inflation, deflation, and eventual monetary crises. Yet why does money become debt? The concept of representational monetary identity answers to precisely this question.
The book under review is critiqued with regard to its adherence, modification, and departure from John Maynard Keynes’s position. This review is weighted to emphasizing the role of "expectation" in Keynes’s work and its role in the book under review. The review seeks to develop an interpretation of the "psychology of society" or "structural rationality" in Keynes’s work and contrasts this with the positions of the authors in the book under review. Following this Keynes’s work is advocated as being highly (...) malleable and a corpus that can illuminate further research and policy prescription. (shrink)