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  1. Mary Shepherd and the Causal Relation (2003).McRobert Jennifer -
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  2. Mary Shepherd and the Causal Relation - Part One.Jennifer McRobert - manuscript
    Mary Shepherd and the Causal Relation - Part One -/- Part One gives context to the life and work of Lady Mary Shepherd. It weaves together the stories of her ancestors, her own stories and the wider social, historical and philosophical context. The aim is to evoke a world from which to mark the emergence of Mary Shepherd, Scotland’s first female philosopher.
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  3. Mary Shepherd's Metaphysics of Emergence.Ariel Melamedoff -
    Shepherd begins her 1824 Essay upon the Relation of Cause and Effect (ERCE) by arguing for the Causal Maxim: that every beginning of existence requires a cause. She then derives a variety of metaphysical commitments from this: there can be no difference in effects without a difference in their causes; cause and effect are necessarily synchronic; causation requires a union of previous existents; and several others. There is not yet an interpretation of Shepherd’s metaphysics that explains the exact logical connections (...)
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  4. Is Shepherd a Bundle Theorist?David Landy - forthcoming - Journal of Scottish Philosophy.
    Shepherd appears to endorse something like the following biconditonal regarding qualities and objects. □(An object, O, exists ↔ Some bundle of qualities, Q1, Q2, … Qn exists). There is a growing consensus in the secondary literature that she also takes the right side of this biconditional to ground the left side. I.e. Shepherd is a bundle theorist who takes an object to be nothing but a mass of qualities, or causal powers. I argue here that despite appearances, this interpretation reverses (...)
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  5. Mary Shepherd’s Essays on the Perception of an External Universe.Amy M. Schmitter - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-1.
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  6. On Mary Shepherd's Essay Upon the Relation of Cause and Effect.Jessica Wilson - forthcoming - In Eric Schliesser (ed.), Neglected Classics of Philosophy, II. Oxford University Press.
    Mary Shepherd (1777–1847) was a fierce and brilliant critic of Berkeley and Hume, who moreover offered strikingly original positive views about the nature of reality and our access to it which deserve much more attention (and credit, since she anticipates many prominent views) than they have received thus far. By way of illustration, I focus on Shepherd's 1824 Essay Upon the Relation of Cause and Effect, Controverting the Doctrine of Mr. Hume, Concerning the Nature of that Relation (ERCE). After a (...)
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  7. Mary Shepherd: A Guide.Deborah A. Boyle - 2023 - New York, NY, United States of America: Oxford University Press.
    This guide leads readers systematically through the arguments of Mary Shepherd's two books. Chapters 1-4 cover the arguments in the Essay Upon the Relation of Cause and Effect (1824), where Shepherd argues that causal principles can be known by reason to be necessary truths and that causal inferences can be rationally justified. Shepherd's primary target in this work is Hume, but she also addresses the views of Thomas Brown and William Lawrence. Shepherd considered her second book, Essays on the Perception (...)
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  8. Shepherd on Causal Necessity and Human Agency.Louise Daoust - 2022 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 4 (1):15.
    Shepherd defends an account of the universe founded on two causal principles: that effects necessarily have causes, and that like causes have like effects. Folding mind into the class of natural phenomena governed by these principles, Shepherd naturalizes the mind, but in doing so she sets herself the challenge of explaining how, within a deterministic universe, agents can be necessary causes of their own actions. With special attention to Shepherd’s resistance to materialism and to any reduction of the mental, the (...)
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  9. Mary Shepherd on the Role of Proofs in Our Knowledge of First Principles.M. Folescu - 2022 - Noûs 56 (2):473-493.
    This paper examines the role of reason in Shepherd's account of acquiring knowledge of the external world via first principles. Reason is important, but does not have a foundational role. Certain principles enable us to draw the required inferences for acquiring knowledge of the external world. These principles are basic, foundational and, more importantly, self‐evident and thus justified in other ways than by demonstration. Justificatory demonstrations of these principles are neither required, nor possible. By drawing on textual and contextual evidence, (...)
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  10. Shepherd on Meaning, Reference, and Perception.David Landy - 2022 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 4 (1):12.
    The aim of this paper is to present an interpretation of Shepherd’s account of our most fundamental cognitive powers, most especially the faculty that Shepherd calls perception, which she claims is a unity of contributions from the understanding and the senses. I find that Shepherd is what we would nowadays call a meaning holist: she holds that the meaning of any natural-kind term is constituted by its place in a system of definitions, which system specifies the causal roles of the (...)
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  11. Mary Shepherd.Antonia LoLordo - 2022 - Cambridge University Press.
    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the early nineteenth century Scottish philosopher Mary Shepherd. This Element is intended to provide an overview of Shepherd's system, including her views on the following wide range of topics: causation, induction, knowledge of the external world, matter, life, animal cognition, the relationship between mind and body, the immortality of the soul, the existence of God, miracles, and the nature of divine creation. The author also provides an overview of relevant secondary literature (...)
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  12. Saints, Heretics, and Atheists: A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion.Jeffrey K. McDonough - 2022 - New York, NY, United States of America: Oxford University Press.
    This book offers a historical introduction to fundamental questions in the philosophy of religion. It is divided into twenty-five chapters. The first chapter discusses the nature of piety drawing on Plato's Euthyphro. The next three chapters discuss the nature of evil, free will, foreknowledge, and sin in the context of Augustine's On Free Choice of Will. Chapter Five discusses Anslem's "ontological" argument for the existence of God. Chapter Six explores Ibn Sina's account of the nature of the soul and immortality. (...)
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  13. How Good Was Shepherd’s Response to Hume’s Epistemological Challenge?Travis Tanner - 2022 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 30 (1):71-89.
    Recent work on Mary Shepherd has largely focused on her metaphysics, especially as a response to Berkeley and Hume. However, relatively little attention has thus far been paid to the epistemological aspects of Shepherd’s program. What little attention Shepherd’s epistemology has received has tended to cast her as providing an unsatisfactory response to the skeptical challenge issued by Hume. For example, Walter Ott and Jeremy Fantl have each suggested that Shepherd cannot avoid Hume’s inductive skepticism even if she is granted (...)
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  14. The Content/Object Equivocation.Monique Whitaker - 2022 - Dialogue and Universalism 32 (1):233-248.
    John Searle roundly rejects what he calls the Bad Argument: a long-standing equivocation in philosophy over the contents and the objects of perception. But, as Josh Armstrong points out, this insight is not unique to Searle. By the late 19th Century the equivocation had been observed by Franz Brentano and students of his, such as Alexius Meinong and Kazimierz Twardowski, and was highlighted too in the 20th century by G. E. M. Anscombe. What Armstrong does take to be a novel (...)
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  15. Mary Shepherd and the Meaning of ‘Life’.Deborah Boyle - 2021 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 29 (2):208-225.
    In the final chapters of her 1824 Essay upon the Relation of Cause and Effect, Lady Mary Shepherd considers what it means for an organism to be alive. The physician William Lawrence had...
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  16. Mary Shepherd's 'Threefold Variety of Intellect' and its Role in Improving Education.Manuel Fasko - 2021 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 19 (3):185–201.
    The aims of this paper are twofold. First, I offer a new insight into Shepherd’s theory of mind by demonstrating that she distinguishes a threefold ‘Variety of Intellect’, that is, three kinds of minds grouped according to their cognitive limitations. Following Shepherd, I call them (i) minds afflicted with idiocy, (ii) inferior understandings, and (iii) sound understandings. Second, I show how Shepherd’s distinction informs her theory of education. While Shepherd claims that her views serve to improve educational practices, she does (...)
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  17. Mary Shepherd on Mind, Soul, and Self.Deborah Boyle - 2020 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 58 (1):93-112.
    the philosophical writings ofx Lady Mary Shepherd were apparently well regarded in her own time, but dropped out of view in the mid-nineteenth century.1 Some historians of philosophy have recently begun attending to the distinctive arguments in Shepherd's two books, but the secondary literature that exists so far has largely focused on her critiques of Hume and Berkeley. However, many other themes and arguments in Shepherd's writings have not yet been explored. This paper takes up one such issue, what Shepherd (...)
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  18. Snapshot: Lady Mary Shepherd.Deborah Boyle - 2020 - The Philosophers' Magazine 89:55-59.
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  19. A Mistaken Attribution to Lady Mary Shepherd.Deborah Boyle - 2020 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 2 (1):5.
    In addition to the 1824 and 1827 books known to have been written by Lady Mary Shepherd, another philosophical treatise, published in 1819, has sometimes been attributed to her. While evidence for this attribution has so far been inconclusive, this paper provides reasons for thinking that Shepherd was not, in fact, the author of this book. New external evidence is provided to show that the author was James Milne, an Edinburgh architect and engineer.
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  20. Mary Shepherd's Essays on the Perception of an External Universe Ed. By Antonia LoLordo.Louise Daoust - 2020 - Hume Studies 46 (1):167-170.
    On Mary Shepherd's view of our perception of the external world, perceived qualities are "as a landscape, sent from an unseen country by which we may know it". Originally published in 1827, Shepherd's Essays on the Perception of an External Universe made important contributions in epistemology and the philosophy of perception, among other areas. In Antonia LoLordo's much-anticipated new edition of the text, advanced undergraduate students and scholars alike will find an inviting and authoritative introduction to Shepherd's work, followed by (...)
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  21. A Defense of Shepherd’s Account of Cause and Effect as Synchronous.David Landy - 2020 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 2 (1):1.
    Lady Mary Shepherd holds that the relation of cause and effect consists of the combination of two objects to create a third object. She also holds that this account implies that causes are synchronous with their effects. There is a single instant in which the objects that are causes combine to create the object which is their effect. Hume argues that cause and effect cannot be synchronous because if they were then the entire chain of successive causes and effects would (...)
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  22. Shepherd on Hume’s Argument for the Possibility of Uncaused Existence.David Landy - 2020 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 2 (1):13.
    Shepherd’s argument against Hume’s thesis that an object can begin its existence uncaused has received short shrift in the secondary literature. I argue that the key to understanding that argument’s success is understanding its dialectical context. Shepherd sees the dialectical situation as follows. Hume presents an argument against Locke and Clarke the conclusion of which is that an object can come into existence uncaused. An essential premise of that argument is Hume’s theory of mental representation. Hume’s theory of mental representation, (...)
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  23. Mary Shepherd's Essays on the Perception of an External Universe.Antonia Lolordo (ed.) - 2020 - Oup Usa.
    This is the first modern edition of an important work by a previously neglected early 19th century woman philosopher, Mary Shepherd. Shepherd develops a distinctive philosophical system that can be seen as a competitor to Kant's Transcendental Idealism. The edition is aimed at researchers in early modern philosophy and is also intended to be used in graduate and undergraduate courses. It contains a concise introduction as guide for the reader.
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  24. Mary Shepherd's Essays on the Perception of an External Universe.Mary Shepherd - 2020 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This is the first modern edition of the works of Lady Mary Shepherd, one of the most important women philosophers of the early modern period. Shepherd has been widely neglected in the history of philosophy, but her work engaged with the dominant philosophers of the time - among them Hume, Berkeley, and Reid. In particular, her 1827 volume Essays on the Perception of an External Universe outlines a theory of causation, perception, and knowledge which Shepherd presents as an alternative to (...)
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  25. Lady Mary Shepherd and David Hume on Cause and Effect.Martha Brandt Bolton - 2019 - In Eileen O’Neill & Marcy P. Lascano (eds.), Feminist History of Philosophy: The Recovery and Evaluation of Women’s Philosophical Thought. Springer. pp. 129-152.
    Shepherd propounds a theory of mind with a fair claim to be better than Hume’s at explaining the sources of commonly held human beliefs about causal necessity due largely to her relational theory of sense perception. In comparison with Hume’s account, it incorporates a more sophisticated treatment of mental representation, especially the role of relational structure and logical form. Most important, perhaps, Shepherd’s theory enforces the division, obscured by Hume, between the evidence of necessity and the metaphysical foundation of necessity.
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  26. Early Modern Women on the Cosmological Argument: A Case Study in Feminist History of Philosophy.Marcy P. Lascano - 2019 - In Eileen O'Neill & Marcy P. Lascano (eds.), Feminist History of Philosophy: The Recovery and Evaluation of Women’s Philosophical Thought. Springer, NM 87747, USA: pp. 23-47.
    This chapter discusses methodology in feminist history of philosophy and shows that women philosophers made interesting and original contributions to the debates concerning the cosmological argument. I set forth and examine the arguments of Mary Astell, Damaris Masham, Catherine Trotter Cockburn, Emilie Du Châtelet, and Mary Shepherd, and discuss their involvement with philosophical issues and debates surrounding the cosmological argument. I argue that their contributions are original, philosophically interesting, and result from participation in the ongoing debates and controversies about the (...)
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  27. Women Philosophers and the Cosmological Argument: A Case Study in Feminist History of Philosophy.Marcy P. Lascano - 2019 - In Eileen O’Neill & Marcy P. Lascano (eds.), Feminist History of Philosophy: The Recovery and Evaluation of Women’s Philosophical Thought. Springer. pp. 23-47.
    This chapter discusses methodology in feminist history of philosophy and shows that women philosophers made interesting and original contributions to the debates concerning the cosmological argument. I set forth and examine the arguments of Mary Astell, Damaris Masham, Catherine Trotter Cockburn, Emilie Du Châtelet, and Mary Shepherd, and discuss their involvement with philosophical issues and debates surrounding the cosmological argument. I argue that their contributions are original, philosophically interesting, and result from participation in the ongoing debates and controversies about the (...)
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  28. Mary Shepherd on Causation, Induction, and Natural Kinds.Antonia LoLordo - 2019 - Philosophers' Imprint 19.
    In several early 19th century works, Mary Shepherd articulates a theory of causation that is intended to respond to Humean skepticism. I argue that Shepherd's theory should be read in light of the science of the day and her conception of her place in the British philosophical tradition. Reading Shepherd’s theory in light of her conception of the history of philosophy, including her claim to be the genuine heir of Locke, illuminates the broader significance of her attempt to reinstate reason (...)
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  29. Lady Mary Shepherd: Selected Writings, Edited by Deborah Boyle.Antonia LoLordo - 2019 - Teaching Philosophy 42 (2):168-170.
    Review of Deborah's Boyle's Lady Mary Shepherd: Selected Writings.
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  30. Lady Mary Shepherd: Selected Writings.Deborah Boyle - 2018 - Exeter, UK: Imprint Academic.
    The philosophical writings of Lady Mary Shepherd (1777–1847) reveal an astute and lively intellect. In An Essay upon the Relation of Cause and Effect (1824) and Essays on the Perception of an External Universe, and Other Subjects Connected with the Doctrine of Causation (1827), Shepherd engaged critically with the views of Hume, Berkeley, Reid, Stewart, de Condillac, and others, but she also presented an original and carefully argued philosophical system of her own. Highly regarded in her day, Shepherd's work faded (...)
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  31. Is Shepherd's Pen Mightier Than Berkeley's Word?Samuel C. Rickless - 2018 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 26 (2):317-330.
    In 1827, Lady Mary Shepherd published Essays on the Perception of an External Universe, which offers both an argument for the existence of a world of external bodies existing outside our minds and a criticism of Berkeley's argument for idealism in A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge. In this paper, I evaluate Margaret Atherton's criticisms of Shepherd's case against Berkeley, and provide reasons for thinking that, although Shepherd's particular criticisms of Berkeley do not succeed, she correctly identifies an (...)
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  32. Expanding the Canon of Scottish Philosophy: The Case for Adding Lady Mary Shepherd.Deborah Boyle - 2017 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 15 (3):275-293.
    Lady Mary Shepherd argued for distinctive accounts of causation, perception, and knowledge of an external world and God. However, her work, engaging with Berkeley and Hume but written after Kant, does not fit the standard periodisation of early modern philosophy presupposed by many philosophy courses, textbooks, and conferences. This paper argues that Shepherd should be added to the canon as a Scottish philosopher. The practical reason for doing so is that it would give Shepherd a disciplinary home, opening up additional (...)
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  33. Identifying Scottish Philosophers: A Brief Response to Deborah Boyle.Gordon Graham - 2017 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 15 (3):295-297.
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  34. Mary Shepherd on Causal Necessity.Jeremy Fantl - 2016 - Metaphysica 17 (1):87-108.
    Lady Mary Shepherd’s critique of Hume’s account of causation, his worries about knowledge of matters of fact, and the contention that it is possible for the course of nature to spontaneously change relies primarily on three premises, two of which – that objects are merely bundles of qualities and that the qualities of an object are individuated by the causal powers contributed by those qualities – anticipate contemporary metaphysical views in ways that she should be getting credit for. The remaining (...)
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  35. Causation and Modern Philosophy.Keith Allen & Tom Stoneham (eds.) - 2010 - Routledge.
    This volume brings together a collection of new essays by leading scholars on the subject of causation in the early modern period, from Descartes to Lady Mary Shepherd. Aimed at researchers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates, the volume advances the understanding of early modern discussions of causation, and situates these discussions in the wider context of early modern philosophy and science. Specifically, the volume contains essays on key early modern thinkers, such as Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Hume, Kant. It also (...)
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  36. Continental Rationalism.Shannon Dea, Julie Walsh & Thomas M. Lennon - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The expression “continental rationalism” refers to a set of views more or less shared by a number of philosophers active on the European continent during the latter two thirds of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth. Rationalism is most often characterized as an epistemological position. On this view, to be a rationalist requires at least one of the following: (1) a privileging of reason and intuition over sensation and experience, (2) regarding all or most ideas as innate (...)
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  37. Reading Lady Mary Shepherd.Margaret Atherton - 2005 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 13 (2):73-85.
    Virginia Woolf, in A Room of One’s Own, asked why there were no women writers before 1800. If she had been thinking about philosophers instead of writers in the traditional women’s areas of plays and fiction, she might have asked why there were no women philosophers at all, for I suspect that most people would find it very hard to name a woman philosopher before the present day. To help her in answering her question, she invented a fictional character, Judith (...)
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  38. Philosophical Works of Lady Mary Shepherd.Jennifer McRobert (ed.) - 2000 - Thoemmes Press.
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  39. Introduction.Jennifer McRobert - 2000 - In Philosophical Works of Lady Mary Shepherd. Thoemmes Press. pp. 21.
    Introductory article in a collection entitled Philosophical Works of Lady Mary Shepherd. Published in 2 volumes. Thoemmes Press, 2000.
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  40. Lady Mary Shepherd's Case Against George Berkeley.Margaret Atherton - 1996 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 4 (2):347 – 366.
  41. An Essay Upon the Relation of Cause and Effect, Controverting the Doctrine of Mr. Hume Concerning the Nature of That Relation, with Observations Upon the Opinions of Dr. Brown and Mr. Lawrence [by Lady M. Shepherd]. [REVIEW]Mary Shepherd - 1824
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  42. Mary Shepherd's Refutation of Idealism (1999).Jennifer McRobert - manuscript
  43. Mary Shepherd's Two Senses of Necessary Connection (2002).Jennifer McRobert -
  44. Mary Shepherd and the University (2002).Jennifer McRobert - manuscript