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Summary An abstraction principle (AP) allows one to introduce new singular terms by providing appropriate identity conditions. For instance, the most celebrated abstraction principle, called Hume's Principle (HP), introduces numerical terms by saying: "The number of Fs is the same as the number of Gs if and only if Fs and Gs are equinumerous (the relation of equinumerosity is definable in a second-order language without reference to numbers)." The first (and unsuccessful, because inconsistent) attempt at using APs in foundations of mathematics is due to Frege. Neo-Fregeans try to salvage Frege's project. One of the tasks is to show how various mathematical theories can be derived from appropriate APs. Another task is to develop a well-motivated acceptability criterion for APs (given that Frege's Basic Law V leads to contradiction and HP doesn't). The Bad Company objection (according to which there are separately consistent but mutually inconsistent abstraction principles) indicates that mere consistency of an AP is not enough for its acceptability. Finally neo-Fregeans have to develop a philosophically acceptable story explaining why APs can play an important role in the platonist epistemology of mathematics and what role exactly it is. 
Key works Wright 1983 is a seminal book on the topic. The consistency of arithmetic based on Hume's Principle has been proven by Boolos 1987Fine 2002 is a good survey of technical aspects of neologicism. A nice anthology of papers related to the Bad Company problem is vol. 70 no 3 of Synthese edited by Linnebo 2009. A good collection of essays related to neologicism is Wright & Hale 2001.
Introductions A good place to start is Zalta 2008 and more focused Zalta 2008 and Tennant 2013. A good introductory paper focused on philosophical motivations is  Cook 2009. A nice introduction to worries surrounding the acceptability criteria of APs is Linnebo 2009.
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  1. Frege's Theorem in Plural Logic.Simon Hewitt - manuscript
    A version of Frege's theorem can be proved in a plural logic with pair abstraction. We talk through this and discuss the philosophical implications of the result.
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  2. Tuples All the Way Down?Simon Hewitt - manuscript
    We can introduce singular terms for ordered pairs by means of an abstraction principle. Doing so proves useful for a number of projects in the philosophy of mathematics. However there is a question whether we can appeal to the abstraction principle in good faith, since a version of the Caesar Problem can be generated, posing the worry that abstraction fails to introduce expressions which refer determinately to the requisite sort of object. In this short paper I will pose the difficulty, (...)
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  3. Nominalist Neologicism.Rafal Urbaniak - manuscript
    The goal is to sketch a nominalist approach to mathematics which just like neologicism employs abstraction principles, but unlike neologicism is not committed to the idea that mathematical objects exist and does not insist that abstraction principles establish the reference of abstract terms. It is well-known that neologicism runs into certain philosophical problems and faces the technical difficulty of finding appropriate acceptability criteria for abstraction principles. I will argue that a modal and iterative nominalist approach to abstraction principles circumvents those (...)
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  4. Content Recarving as Subject Matter Restriction.Vincenzo Ciccarelli - forthcoming - Manuscrito: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 42 (1).
    In this article I offer an explicating interpretation of the procedure of content recarving as described by Frege in §64 of the Foundations of Arithmetic. I argue that the procedure of content recarving may be interpreted as an operation that while restricting the subject matter of a sentence, performs a generalization on what the sentence says about its subject matter. The characterization of the recarving operation is given in the setting of Yablo’s theory of subject matter and it is based (...)
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  5. What is Neologicism?Symbolic Logic - forthcoming - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic.
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  6. The Metametaphysics of Neo-Fregeanism.Matti Eklund - 2020 - In Ricki Bliss & James Miller (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Metametaphysics. Routledge.
  7. Neo-Logicism and Its Logic.Panu Raatikainen - 2020 - History and Philosophy of Logic 41 (1):82-95.
    The rather unrestrained use of second-order logic in the neo-logicist program is critically examined. It is argued in some detail that it brings with it genuine set-theoretical existence assumptions and that the mathematical power that Hume’s Principle seems to provide, in the derivation of Frege’s Theorem, comes largely from the ‘logic’ assumed rather than from Hume’s Principle. It is shown that Hume’s Principle is in reality not stronger than the very weak Robinson Arithmetic Q. Consequently, only a few rudimentary facts (...)
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  8. Thin Objects: An Abstractionist Account, by Øystein Linnebo.J. P. Studd - 2020 - Mind 129 (514):646-656.
    Thin Objects: Anionist Account, by LinneboØystein. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018. Pp. xviii + 238.
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  9. The Generous Ontology of Thin Objects: Øystein Linnebo: Thin Objects: An Abstractionist Account. New York: Oxford University Press, Xvii + 231 Pp, $50.00 HB. [REVIEW]Nathaniel Gan - 2019 - Metascience 28 (1):167-169.
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  10. Formal Arithmetic Before Grundgesetze.Richard Kimberly Heck - 2019 - In Philip A. Ebert & Marcus Rossberg (eds.), Essays on Frege's Basic Laws of Arithmetic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 497-537.
    A speculative investigation of how Frege's logical views change between Begriffsschrift and Grundgesetze and how this might have affected the formal development of logicism.
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  11. The Basic Laws of Cardinal Number.Richard Kimberly Heck - 2019 - In Philip A. Ebert & Marcus Rossberg (eds.), Essays on Frege's Basic Laws of Arithmetic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1-30.
    An overview of what Frege accomplishes in Part II of Grundgesetze, which contains proofs of axioms for arithmetic and several additional results concerning the finite, the infinite, and the relationship between these notions. One might think of this paper as an extremely compressed form of Part II of my book Reading Frege's Grundgesetze.
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  12. The Problem of Fregean Equivalents.Joongol Kim - 2019 - Dialectica 73 (3):367-394.
    It would seem that some statements like ‘There are exactly four moons of Jupiter’ and ‘The number of moons of Jupiter is four’ have the same truth-conditions and yet differ in ontological commitment. One strategy to resolve this paradoxical phenomenon is to insist that the statements have not only the same truth-conditions but also the same ontological commitments; the other strategy is to reject the presumption that they have the same truth-conditions. This paper critically examines some popular versions of these (...)
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  13. Cardinality and Acceptable Abstraction.Roy T. Cook & Øystein Linnebo - 2018 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 59 (1):61-74.
    It is widely thought that the acceptability of an abstraction principle is a feature of the cardinalities at which it is satisfiable. This view is called into question by a recent observation by Richard Heck. We show that a fix proposed by Heck fails but we analyze the interesting idea on which it is based, namely that an acceptable abstraction has to “generate” the objects that it requires. We also correct and complete the classification of proposed criteria for acceptable abstraction.
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  14. Logicism, Ontology, and the Epistemology of Second-Order Logic.Richard Kimberly Heck - 2018 - In Ivette Fred-Rivera & Jessica Leach (eds.), Being Necessary: Themes of Ontology and Modality from the Work of Bob Hale. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 140-169.
    In two recent papers, Bob Hale has attempted to free second-order logic of the 'staggering existential assumptions' with which Quine famously attempted to saddle it. I argue, first, that the ontological issue is at best secondary: the crucial issue about second-order logic, at least for a neo-logicist, is epistemological. I then argue that neither Crispin Wright's attempt to characterize a `neutralist' conception of quantification that is wholly independent of existential commitment, nor Hale's attempt to characterize the second-order domain in terms (...)
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  15. Tuples All the Way Down?Simon Thomas Hewitt - 2018 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 7 (3):161-169.
  16. Thin Objects.Øystein Linnebo - 2018 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Are there objects that are “thin” in the sense that their existence does not make a substantial demand on the world? Frege famously thought so. He claimed that the equinumerosity of the knives and the forks suffices for there to be objects such as the number of knives and the number of forks, and for these objects to be identical. The idea of thin objects holds great philosophical promise but has proved hard to explicate. This book attempts to develop the (...)
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  17. The Limits of Reconstructive Neologicist Epistemology.Eileen S. Nutting - 2018 - Philosophical Quarterly 68 (273):717-738.
    Wright claims that his and Hale’s abstractionist neologicist project is primarily epistemological in aim. Its epistemological aims include establishing the possibility of a priori mathematical knowledge, and establishing the possibility of reference to abstract mathematical objects. But, as Wright acknowledges, there is a question of how neologicist epistemology applies to actual, ordinary mathematical beliefs. I take up this question, focusing on arithmetic. Following a suggestion of Hale and Wright, I consider the possibility that the neologicist account provides an idealised reconstruction (...)
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  18. Thin Reference, Metaontological Minimalism and Abstraction Principles: The Prospects for Tolerant Reductionism.Andrea Sereni - 2018 - In Annalisa Coliva, Paolo Leonardi & Sebastiano Moruzzi (eds.), Eva Picardi on Language, Analysis and History. Palgrave. pp. 161-181.
    A standard understanding of abstraction principles elicits two opposite readings: Intolerant Reductionism, where abstractions are seen as reducing talk of abstract objects to talk about non-problematic domains, and Robustionism, where newly introduced terms genuinely refer to abstract objects. Against this dichotomy between such “austere” and “robust” readings, Dummett suggested ways to steer intermediate paths. We explore different options for intermediate stances, by reviewing metaontological strategies and semantic ones. Based on Dummett’s and Picardi’s understanding of the Context Principle, the paper acknowledges (...)
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  19. Abstraction and Four Kinds of Invariance.Roy T. Cook - 2017 - Philosophia Mathematica 25 (1):3–25.
    Fine and Antonelli introduce two generalizations of permutation invariance — internal invariance and simple/double invariance respectively. After sketching reasons why a solution to the Bad Company problem might require that abstraction principles be invariant in one or both senses, I identify the most fine-grained abstraction principle that is invariant in each sense. Hume’s Principle is the most fine-grained abstraction principle invariant in both senses. I conclude by suggesting that this partially explains the success of Hume’s Principle, and the comparative lack (...)
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  20. Introduction to Special Issue: Abstraction Principles.Salvatore Florio - 2017 - Philosophia Mathematica 25 (1):1-2.
    Introduction to a special issue on abstraction principles.
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  21. Identity and Sortals.Ansten Klev - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (1):1-16.
    According to the sortal conception of the universe of individuals every individual falls under a highest sortal, or category. It is argued here that on this conception the identity relation is defined between individuals a and b if and only if a and b fall under a common category. Identity must therefore be regarded as a relation of the form \, with three arguments x, y, and Z, where Z ranges over categories, and where the range of x and y (...)
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  22. Categories for the Neologicist.Shay Allen Logan - 2017 - Philosophia Mathematica 25 (1):26-44.
    Abstraction principles provide implicit definitions of mathematical objects. In this paper, an abstraction principle defining categories is proposed. It is unsatisfiable and inconsistent in the expected ways. Two restricted versions of the principle which are consistent are presented.
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  23. Number Words as Number Names.Friederike Moltmann - 2017 - Linguistics and Philosophy 40 (4):331-345.
    This paper criticizes the view that number words in argument position retain the meaning they have on an adjectival or determiner use, as argued by Hofweber :179–225, 2005) and Moltmann :499–534, 2013a, 2013b). In particular the paper re-evaluates syntactic evidence from German given in Moltmann to that effect.
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  24. Composition as Abstraction.Jeffrey Sanford Russell - 2017 - Journal of Philosophy 114 (9):453-470.
    The existence of mereological sums can be derived from an abstraction principle in a way analogous to numbers. I draw lessons for the thesis that “composition is innocent” from neo-Fregeanism in the philosophy of mathematics.
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  25. The Breadth of the Paradox.Patricia Blanchette - 2016 - Philosophia Mathematica 24 (1):30-49.
    This essay examines Frege's reaction to Russell's Paradox and his views about the grounding of existence claims in mathematics. It is argued that Frege's strict requirements on existential proofs would rule out the attempt to ground arithmetic in. It is hoped that this discussion will help to clarify the ways in which Frege's position is both coherent and significantly different from the neo-logicist position on the issues of: what's required for proofs of existence; the connection between models, consistency, and existence; (...)
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  26. Necessity, Necessitism, and Numbers.Roy T. Cook - 2016 - Philosophical Forum 47 (3-4):385-414.
    Timothy Williamson’s Modal Logic as Metaphysics is a book-length defense of necessitism about objects—roughly put, the view that, necessarily, any object that exists, exists necessarily. In more formal terms, Williamson argues for the validity of necessitism for objects (NO: ◻︎∀x◻︎∃y(x=y)). NO entails both the (first-order) Barcan formula (BF: ◇∃xΦ → ∃x◇Φ, for any formula Φ) and the (first-order) converse Barcan formula (CBF: ∃x◇Φ → ◇∃xΦ, for any formula Φ). The purpose of this essay is not to assess Williamson’s arguments either (...)
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  27. Frege's Cardinals and Neo-Logicism.Roy T. Cook - 2016 - Philosophia Mathematica 24 (1):60-90.
    Gottlob Frege defined cardinal numbers in terms of value-ranges governed by the inconsistent Basic Law V. Neo-logicists have revived something like Frege's original project by introducing cardinal numbers as primitive objects, governed by Hume's Principle. A neo-logicist foundation for set theory, however, requires a consistent theory of value-ranges of some sort. Thus, it is natural to ask whether we can reconstruct the cardinal numbers by retaining Frege's definition and adopting an alternative consistent principle governing value-ranges. Given some natural assumptions regarding (...)
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  28. Frege's Recipe.Roy T. Cook & Philip A. Ebert - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy 113 (7):309-345.
    In this paper, we present a formal recipe that Frege followed in his magnum opus “Grundgesetze der Arithmetik” when formulating his definitions. This recipe is not explicitly mentioned as such by Frege, but we will offer strong reasons to believe that Frege applied it in developing the formal material of Grundgesetze. We then show that a version of Basic Law V plays a fundamental role in Frege’s recipe and, in what follows, we will explicate what exactly this role is and (...)
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  29. Introduction to Abstractionism.Philip A. Ebert & Marcus Rossberg - 2016 - In Philip A. Ebert & Marcus Rossberg (eds.), Abstractionism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 3-33.
  30. Hale and Wright on the Metaontology of Neo-Fregeanism.Matti Eklund - 2016 - In Marcus Rossberg & Philip A. Ebert (eds.), Abstractionism.
  31. Term Models for Abstraction Principles.Leon Horsten & Øystein Linnebo - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (1):1-23.
    Kripke’s notion of groundedness plays a central role in many responses to the semantic paradoxes. Can the notion of groundedness be brought to bear on the paradoxes that arise in connection with abstraction principles? We explore a version of grounded abstraction whereby term models are built up in a ‘grounded’ manner. The results are mixed. Our method solves a problem concerning circularity and yields a ‘grounded’ model for the predicative theory based on Frege’s Basic Law V. However, the method is (...)
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  32. The Number of Moons Is Not a Number. Towards a Comprehensive Linguistic Approach to Frege's Commitment Puzzle.Borys Jastrzębski - 2016 - Filozofia Nauki 24 (2 (94)):31-49.
    Comprehensive Linguistic Approach to Frege's Commitment Puzzle There is a puzzle, noticed by Frege, about inferences from sentences like (F1) "Jupiter has four moons" to sentences like (F2) "The number of moons of Jupiter is four". They seem to be truth-conditionally equivalent but, apparently, they say something about completely different things. (F1) seems to be about moons, while (F2) about numbers. This phenomenon raises several puzzles about semantics, syntax, and is one of main tools of easy ontology. Recently, new linguistic (...)
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  33. Arithmetic with Fusions.Jeff Ketland & Thomas Schindler - 2016 - Logique Et Analyse 234:207-226.
    In this article, the relationship between second-order comprehension and unrestricted mereological fusion (over atoms) is clarified. An extension PAF of Peano arithmetic with a new binary mereological notion of “fusion”, and a scheme of unrestricted fusion, is introduced. It is shown that PAF interprets full second-order arithmetic, Z_2.
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  34. Abstraction and its Limits: Finding Space For Novel Explanation.Eleanor Knox - 2016 - Noûs 50 (1):41-60.
    Several modern accounts of explanation acknowledge the importance of abstraction and idealization for our explanatory practice. However, once we allow a role for abstraction, questions remain. I ask whether the relation between explanations at different theoretical levels should be thought of wholly in terms of abstraction, and argue that changes of the quantities in terms of which we describe a system can lead to novel explanations that are not merely abstractions of some more detailed picture. I use the example of (...)
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  35. Ontologie Neofreghiane.Michele Lubrano - 2016 - Philosophy Kitchen 3 (4):113-125.
    In the present contribution I would like to examine some theories of the ontology of abstract entities that take inspiration from the deep insights of Gottlob Frege. These theories develop in full details some ideas explicitly or implicitly articulated in Frege’s works and try to defend a sophisticated version of Platonism about abstract entities. The review of such theories should allow us to cast light on their merits and their possible flaws and, moreover, to determine which of them is the (...)
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  36. Priority, Platonism, and the Metaontology of Abstraction.Michele Lubrano - 2016 - Dissertation, University of Turin
    In this dissertation I examine the NeoFregean metaontology of mathematics. I try to clarify the relationship between what is sometimes called Priority Thesis and Platonism about mathematical entities. I then present three coherent ways in which one might endorse both these stances, also answering some possible objections. Finally I try to show which of these three ways is the most promising.
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  37. NeoFregean Metaontology.Fraser MacBride - 2016 - In P. Ebert & M. Rossberg (eds.), Abstractionism: Essays in Philosophy of Mathematics. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press. pp. 94-112.
    According to neo-Fregeans, an expression that is syntactically singular and figures in a true sentence is guaranteed to have some existing thing in the world to pick out. But this approach is confronted by a dilemma. If reality is crystalline, has a structure fixed independently of language, then the view that reality is guaranteed to contain a sufficient plenitude of objects to supply referents for the relevant expressions is left hostage to cosmological fortune. Whereas if reality is plastic then it (...)
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  38. The Number of Planets, a Number-Referring Term?Friederike Moltmann - 2016 - In Philip A. Ebert & Marcus Rossberg (eds.), Abstractionism: Essays in Philosophy of Mathematics. Oxford University Press. pp. 113-129.
    The question whether numbers are objects is a central question in the philosophy of mathematics. Frege made use of a syntactic criterion for objethood: numbers are objects because there are singular terms that stand for them, and not just singular terms in some formal language, but in natural language in particular. In particular, Frege (1884) thought that both noun phrases like the number of planets and simple numerals like eight as in (1) are singular terms referring to numbers as abstract (...)
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  39. A Vindication of Logicism.Peter Roeper - 2016 - Philosophia Mathematica 24 (3):360-378.
    Frege regarded Hume's Principle as insufficient for a logicist account of arithmetic, as it does not identify the numbers; it does not tell us which objects the numbers are. His solution, generally regarded as a failure, was to propose certain sets as the referents of numerical terms. I suggest instead that numbers are properties of pluralities, where these properties are treated as objects. Given this identification, the truth-conditions of the statements of arithmetic can be obtained from logical principles with the (...)
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  40. Singular Terms Revisited.Robert Schwartzkopff - 2016 - Synthese 193 (3).
    Neo-Fregeans take their argument for arithmetical realism to depend on the availability of certain, so-called broadly syntactic tests for whether a given expression functions as a singular term. The broadly syntactic tests proposed in the neo-Fregean tradition are the so-called inferential test and the Aristotelian test. If these tests are to subserve the neo-Fregean argument, they must be at least adequate, in the sense of correctly classifying paradigm cases of singular terms and non-singular terms. In this paper, I pursue two (...)
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  41. Number Sentences and Specificational Sentences: Reply to Moltmann.Robert Schwartzkopff - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (8):2173-2192.
    Frege proposed that sentences like ‘The number of planets is eight’ be analysed as identity statements in which the number words refer to numbers. Recently, Friederike Moltmann argued that, pace Frege, such sentences be analysed as so-called specificational sentences in which the number words have the same non-referring semantic function as the number word ‘eight’ in ‘There are eight planets’. The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, I argue that Moltmann fails to show that such sentences should be analysed (...)
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  42. Abstraction Reconceived.J. P. Studd - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (2):579-615.
    Neologicists have sought to ground mathematical knowledge in abstraction. One especially obstinate problem for this account is the bad company problem. The leading neologicist strategy for resolving this problem is to attempt to sift the good abstraction principles from the bad. This response faces a dilemma: the system of ‘good’ abstraction principles either falls foul of the Scylla of inconsistency or the Charybdis of being unable to recover a modest portion of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory with its intended generality. This article (...)
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  43. The Nuisance Principle in Infinite Settings.Sean C. Ebels-Duggan - 2015 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 4 (4):263-268.
    Neo-Fregeans have been troubled by the Nuisance Principle, an abstraction principle that is consistent but not jointly satisfiable with the favored abstraction principle HP. We show that logically this situation persists if one looks at joint consistency rather than satisfiability: under a modest assumption about infinite concepts, NP is also inconsistent with HP.
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  44. A Generic Russellian Elimination of Abstract Objects.Kevin C. Klement - 2015 - Philosophia Mathematica:nkv031.
    In this paper I explore a position on which it is possible to eliminate the need for postulating abstract objects through abstraction principles by treating terms for abstracta as ‘incomplete symbols’, using Russell's no-classes theory as a template from which to generalize. I defend views of this stripe against objections, most notably Richard Heck's charge that syntactic forms of nominalism cannot correctly deal with non-first-orderizable quantifcation over apparent abstracta. I further discuss how number theory may be developed in a system (...)
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  45. Structural-Abstraction Principles.Graham Leach-Krouse - 2015 - Philosophia Mathematica:nkv033.
    In this paper, I present a class of ‘structural’ abstraction principles, and describe how they are suggested by some features of Cantor's and Dedekind's approach to abstraction. Structural abstraction is a promising source of mathematically tractable new axioms for the neo-logicist. I illustrate this by showing, first, how a theorem of Shelah gives a sufficient condition for consistency in the structural setting, solving what neo-logicists call the ‘bad company’ problem for structural abstraction. Second, I show how, in the structural setting, (...)
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  46. Categories and Constructs.Shay Logan - 2015 - Dissertation, University of Minnesota
  47. Higher‐Order Abstraction Principles.Beau Madison Mount - 2015 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 4 (4):228-236.
    I extend theorems due to Roy Cook on third- and higher-order versions of abstraction principles and discuss the philosophical importance of results of this type. Cook demonstrated that the satisfiability of certain higher-order analogues of Hume's Principle is independent of ZFC. I show that similar analogues of Boolos's new v and Cook's own ordinal abstraction principle soap are not satisfiable at all. I argue, however, that these results do not tell significantly against the second-order versions of these principles.
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  48. Number Sentences and Specificational Sentences. Reply to Moltmann.Robert Schwartzkopff - 2015 - Philosophical Studies:1-20.
    Frege proposed that sentences like ‘The number of planets is eight’ be analysed as identity statements in which the number words refer to numbers. Recently, Friederike Moltmann argued that, pace Frege, such sentences be analysed as so-called specificational sentences in which the number words have the same non-referring semantic function as the number word ‘eight’ in ‘There are eight planets’. The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, I argue that Moltmann fails to show that such sentences should be analysed (...)
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  49. Frege Meets Brouwer.Stewart Shapiro & Øystein Linnebo - 2015 - Review of Symbolic Logic 8 (3):540-552.
    We show that, by choosing definitions carefully, a version of Frege's theorem can be proved in intuitionistic logic.
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  50. The Detour of Abstraction.Alberto Toscano - 2015 - Diacritics 43 (2):68-90.
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