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  1. Russell's 1927 The Analysis of Matter as the First Book on Quantum Gravity.Said Mikki - manuscript
    The goal of this note is to bring into wider attention the often neglected important work by Bertrand Russell on the foundations of physics published in the late 1920s. In particular, we emphasize how the book The Analysis of Matter can be considered the earliest systematic attempt to unify the modern quantum theory, just emerging by that time, with general relativity. More importantly, it is argued that the idea of what I call Russell space, introduced in Part III of that (...)
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  2. Matter is Not Enough. Georg Ernst Stahl, Friedrich Hoffmann and the Issue of Animism.Francesco Paolo de Ceglia - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  3. What is Matter? The Fundamental Ontology of Atomism and Structural Realism.Michael Esfeld, Dirk-André Deckert & Andrea Oldofredi - forthcoming - In B. Lower and A. Ijjas (ed.), A guide to the philosophy of Cosmology. Oxford University Press.
    We set out a fundamental ontology of atomism in terms of matter points. While being most parsimonious, this ontology is able to match both classical and quantum mechanics, and it remains a viable option for any future theory of cosmology that goes beyond current quantum physics. The matter points are structurally individuated: all there is to them are the spatial relations in which they stand; neither a commitment to intrinsic properties nor to an absolute space is required. The spatial relations (...)
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  4. Humility Regarding Intrinsic Properties.Lok-Chi Chan - 2021 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The Humility Thesis is a persistent thesis in contemporary metaphysics. It is known by a variety of names, including, but not limited to, Humility, Intrinsic Humility, Kantian Humility, Kantian Physicalism, Intrinsic Ignorance, Categorical Ignorance, Irremediable Ignorance, and Noumenalism. According to the thesis, we human beings, and any knowers that share our general ways of knowing, are irremediably ignorant of a certain class of properties that are intrinsic to material entities … Continue reading Humility Regarding Intrinsic Properties →.
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  5. Self-Knowledge, Perception, and Margaret Cavendish’s Metaphysics of the Individual.Laura Georgescu - 2021 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (6):618-639.
    For Margaret Cavendish, every single part of matter has self-knowledge, and almost every part has perceptive knowledge. This paper asks what is at stake for Cavendish in ascribing self-knowing and perceptive properties to matter. Whereas many commentators take perception and self-knowledge to be guides to Cavendish’s epistemology, this paper takes them to be guides to her metaphysics, in that it shows that these categories account for individual specificity and for relationality. A part of matter is a unique individual insofar as (...)
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  6. Animism, Aristotelianism, and the Legacy of William Gilbert’s De Magnete.Jeff Kochan - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (2):157-188.
    William Gilbert’s 1600 book, De magnete, greatly influenced early modern natural philosophy. The book describes an impressive array of physical experiments, but it also advances a metaphysical view at odds with the soon to emerge mechanical philosophy. That view was animism. I distinguish two kinds of animism – Aristotelian and Platonic – and argue that Gilbert was an Aristotelian animist. Taking Robert Boyle as an example, I then show that early modern arguments against animism were often effective only against Platonic (...)
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  7. What Did Hooke Want From the Microscope? Magnification, Matter Theory and Mechanism.Ian Lawson - 2021 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (6):640-664.
    This article discusses Hooke’s microscopy in the context of the nature of his explanations of natural phenomena. It illustrates that while Hooke’s particular conception of microscopy certainly cohered with his general framework of mechanical philosophy, he thought of his microscope as an artisanal tool that could help him examine unknown natural machinery. It seems, however, that he never used magnifying lenses with the hope of confirming mechanism by glimpsing fundamental particles. Indeed, through a consideration of sources spanning from his 1665 (...)
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  8. Introduction: Matter and Perception – Interactions Between Metaphysics, Epistemology, and Natural Philosophy.Doina-Cristina Rusu - 2021 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (6):537-542.
  9. Why Did Aristotle Invent the Material Cause ? The Early Development of the Concept of Hê Hylê.Monte Ransome Johnson - 2020 - In Pierre Pellegrin & Françoise Graziani (eds.), L'HÉRITAGE D'ARISTOTE AUJOURD'HUI : NATURE ET SOCIÉTÉ. Alessandria: Editzioni dell'Orso. pp. 59-86.
    I present a developmental account of Aristotle’s concept of hê hylê (usually translated “the matter”), focused the earliest developments. I begin by analyzing fragments of some lost early works and a chapter of the Organon, texts which indicate that early in his career Aristotle had not yet begun to use he hylê in a technical sense. Next, I examine Physics II 3, a chapter in which Aristotle conceives of he hylê not as a kind of cause in its own right, (...)
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  10. What Is Quantum Information? Information Symmetry and Mechanical Motion.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Information Theory and Research eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 1 (20):1-7.
    The concept of quantum information is introduced as both normed superposition of two orthogonal sub-spaces of the separable complex Hilbert space and in-variance of Hamilton and Lagrange representation of any mechanical system. The base is the isomorphism of the standard introduction and the representation of a qubit to a 3D unit ball, in which two points are chosen. The separable complex Hilbert space is considered as the free variable of quantum information and any point in it (a wave function describing (...)
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  11. Empirical Incoherence and Double Functionalism.Sam Baron - 2019 - Synthese:1-27.
    Recent work on quantum gravity suggests that neither spacetime nor spatiotemporally located entites exist at a fundamental level. The loss of both brings with it the threat of empirical incoherence. A theory is empirically incoherent when the truth of that theory undermines the empirical justification for believing it. If neither spacetime nor spatiotemporally located entities exist as a part of a fundamental theory of QG, then such a theory seems to imply that there are no observables and so no way (...)
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  12. Membranes to Molecular Machines: Active Matter and the Remaking of Life.Mathias Grote - 2019 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  13. Why Technoscience Cannot Reproduce Human Desire According to Lacanian Thomism.Graham McAleer & Christopher M. Wojtulewicz - 2019 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 24 (2):279-300.
    Being born into a family structure—being born of a mother—is key to being human. It is, for Jacques Lacan, essential to the formation of human desire. It is also part of the structure of analogy in the Thomistic thought of Erich Przywara. AI may well increase exponentially in sophistication, and even achieve human-like qualities; but it will only ever form an imaginary mirroring of genuine human persons—an imitation that is in fact morbid and dehumanising. Taking Lacan and Przywara at a (...)
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  14. Materia: Solide, Lichide, Gaze, Plasma - Fenomenologie.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2018 - Drobeta Turnu Severin: MultiMedia Publishing.
    O perspectivă contemporană asupra materiei, care ia în considerare toate entităţile ştiinţifice observabile, cu accent pe fenomene. În principiu, definiţia materiei se limitează la astfel de entităţi explorate de fizică. În funcţie de condiţiile termodinamice diferite, cum ar fi temperatura şi presiunea, materia poate exista în diferite “faze”, cele mai familiare fiind cele de solid, lichid, şi gaz. Alte faze pot fi cele de plasmă, superfluid, şi condensat Bose-Einstein. Atunci când materia trece dintr-o fază în alta, este supusă la ceea (...)
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  15. Matière et mélanges.David Nicolas - 2017 - le Français Moderne 2:246-260.
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  16. Euler, Newton, and Foundations for Mechanics.Marius Stan - 2017 - In Chris Smeenk & Eric Schliesser (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Newton. Oxford University Press. pp. 1-22.
    This chapter looks at Euler’s relation to Newton, and at his role in the rise of ‘Newtonian’ mechanics. It aims to give a sense of Newton’s complicated legacy for Enlightenment science, and to raise awareness that some key ‘Newtonian’ results really come from Euler.
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  17. The Universe, the ‘Body’ of God. About the Vibration of Matter to God’s Command or The Theory of Divine Leverages Into Matter.Tudor Cosmin Ciocan - 2016 - Dialogo 3 (1):226-254.
    The link between seen and unseen, matter and spirit, flesh and soul was always presumed, but never clarified enough, leaving room for debates and mostly controversies between the scientific domains and theologies of a different type; how could God, who is immaterial, have created the material world? Therefore, the logic of obtaining a result on this concern is first to see how religions have always seen the ratio between divinity and matter/universe. In this part, the idea of a world personality (...)
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  18. The Ontological Status of Bodies in Leibniz (Part II).Shane Duarte - 2016 - Studia Leibnitiana 48 (1):68-88.
    In the second part of this essay, I aim to show that Leibniz, in asserting that bodies are aggregates of substances, wants to affirm something about bodies insofar as they exist a parte rei or in reality: in reality a body is not a being, but a multitude of beings or substances. And this, on my view, is precisely what leads Leibniz to assert that bodies are phenomena: since a body is not in reality a being, but many beings, it (...)
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  19. What Is the Validity Domain of Einstein’s Equations? Distributional Solutions Over Singularities and Topological Links in Geometrodynamics.Elias Zafiris - 2016 - 100 Years of Chronogeometrodynamics: The Status of the Einstein's Theory of Gravitation in Its Centennial Year.
    The existence of singularities alerts that one of the highest priorities of a centennial perspective on general relativity should be a careful re-thinking of the validity domain of Einstein’s field equations. We address the problem of constructing distinguishable extensions of the smooth spacetime manifold model, which can incorporate singularities, while retaining the form of the field equations. The sheaf-theoretic formulation of this problem is tantamount to extending the algebra sheaf of smooth functions to a distribution-like algebra sheaf in which the (...)
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  20. Neural Plasticity and the Limits of Scientific Knowledge.Pasha Parpia - 2015 - Dissertation, University of Sussex
    Western science claims to provide unique, objective information about the world. This is supported by the observation that peoples across cultures will agree upon a common description of the physical world. Further, the use of scientific instruments and mathematics is claimed to enable the objectification of science. In this work, carried out by reviewing the scientific literature, the above claims are disputed systematically by evaluating the definition of physical reality and the scientific method, showing that empiricism relies ultimately upon the (...)
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  21. Space and the Extension of Power in Leibniz’ Monadic Metaphysics.Edward Slowik - 2015 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 32 (3):253-270.
    This paper attempts to resolve the puzzle associated with the non-spatiality of monads by investigating the possibility that Leibniz employed a version of the extension of power doctrine, a Scholastic concept that explains the relationship between immaterial and material beings. As will be demonstrated, not only does the extension of power doctrine lead to a better understanding of Leibniz’ reasons for claiming that monads are non-spatial, but it also supports those interpretations of Leibniz’ metaphysics that accepts the real extension of (...)
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  22. The Nature of Local/Global Distinctions, Group Actions and Phases: A Sheaf=Theoretic Approach to Quantum Geometric Spectra.Elias Zafiris - 2015 - In Vera Bühlmann, Ludger Hovestadt & Vahid Moosavi (eds.), Coding as Literacy - Metalithicum IV. Basel: BIRKHÄUSER. pp. 172-186.
  23. Quantum Mechanics and the Manifestation of the World.Ulrich Mohrhoff - 2014 - Quantum Studies: Mathematics and Foundations 1 (3-4):195-202.
    Quantum theory’s irreducible empirical core is a probability calculus. While it presupposes the events to which (and on the basis of which) it serves to assign probabilities, and therefore cannot account for their occurrence, it has to be consistent with it. It must make it possible to identify a system of observables that have measurement-independent values.What makes this possible is the incompleteness of the spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world. This is shown by applying a novel interpretive principle to interfering (...)
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  24. Hobbes and the Phantasm of Space.Edward Slowik - 2014 - Hobbes Studies 27 (1):61-79.
    This essay examines Hobbes’ philosophy of space, with emphasis placed on the variety of interpretations that his concept of imaginary space has elicited from commentators. The process by which the idea of space is acquired from experience, as well as the role of nominalism, will be offered as important factors in tracking down the elusive content of Hobbes’ conception of imaginary space.
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  25. New prospects for de Broglie interferometry.Thomas Juffmann, Stefan Nimmrichter, Markus Arndt, Herbert Gleiter & Klaus Hornberger - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (1):98-110.
    We consider various effects that are encountered in matter wave interference experiments with massive nanoparticles. The text-book example of far-field interference at a grating is compared with diffraction into the dark field behind an opaque aperture, commonly designated as Poisson’s spot or the spot of Arago. Our estimates indicate that both phenomena may still be observed in a mass range exceeding present-day experiments by at least two orders of magnitude. They both require, however, the development of sufficiently cold, intense and (...)
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  26. Francis Bacon: Constructing Natural Histories of the Invisible.Doina-Cristina Rusu - 2012 - Early Science and Medicine 17 (1):112-133.
    The natural histories contained in Francis Bacon's Historia naturalis et experimentalis seem to differ from the model presented in De augmentis scientiarum and the Descriptio globi intellectualis in that they are focused on the defining properties of matter, its primary schematisms and the spirits. In this respect, they are highly speculative. In this paper I aim to describe the Historia naturalis et experimentalis as a text about matter theory, the histories of which are ascending from what is most evident to (...)
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  27. Mehr Seinsschichten Für Die Welt? Vergleich Und Kritik der Schichtenkonzeptionen von Nicolai Hartmann Und Werner Heisenberg.Gregor Schiemann - 2012 - In M. Wunsch & G. Hartung (eds.), Nicolai Hartmann – Von der Systemphilosophie zur Systemetischen Philosophie.
    Ich thematisiere die beiden Konzeptionen als Varianten der wissenschaftlichen Weltsicht. Der Reiz des Vergleichs liegt aber weniger in den Gemeinsamkeiten als vielmehr in den Differenzen und den dabei hervortretenden Desideraten der beiden Konzeptionen. Heisenberg versteht sein Schichtenmodell nicht wie Hartmann als Fortsetzung und Zusammenfassung vorangehender philosophischer Bemühungen, sondern als einen Bruch mit den Hauptströmungen der philosophischen Tradition. In der geschichtlichen Entwicklung der Versuche um eine Bestimmung der Weltstruktur sieht er statt einer Generaltendenz, die langfristig auf eine Annäherung an die Wahrheit (...)
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  28. Alchemy as Studies of Life and Matter: Reconsidering the Place of Vitalism in Early Modern Chymistry.Ku-Ming Chang - 2011 - Isis 102:322-329.
  29. The Dilemma of the Continuity of Matter / O Dilema da Continuidade da Matéria.Rodrigo Cid - 2011 - Revista Do Seminário Dos Alunos Do PPGLM/UFRJ 2:paper 2.
    In this paper I intend to present the Dilemma of Continuity of Matter and a possible solution to it. This dilemma consists in choosing between two misfortunes in explaining the continuity of matter: or to say that material objects are infinitely divisible and not explain what constitutes the continuity of some kind of object, or to say that there is a certain kind of indivisible object and not explain what constitutes the continuity of such an object. The solution we provide (...)
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  30. Deriving the Manifestly Qualitative World From a Pure-Power Base: Light-Like Networks.Sharon R. Ford - 2011 - Philosophia Scientiae 15 (3):155-175.
    Seeking to derive the manifestly qualitative world of objects and entities without recourse to fundamental categoricity or qualitativity, I offer an account of how higher-order categorical properties and objects may emerge from a pure-power base. I explore the possibility of ‘fields’ whose fluctuations are force-carrying entities, differentiated with respect to a micro-topology of curled-up spatial dimensions. Since the spacetime paths of gauge bosons have zero ‘spacetime interval’ and no time-like extension, I argue that according them the status of fundamental entities (...)
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  31. 'Speed of Light -A Fundamental Retrospection to Prospection'.Narendra Katkar - 2011 - Journal of American Science 7 (5):16.
    Speed of light can not be achieved independently by any Body even a Photon, unless it has a source, a thrust of that speed. Further, no amount of radiation or light form can be produced freely, unless some amount of (mass) rest energy is converted to dynamic liberated energy. With the investigation of above query and retrospection in mass- energy relation, a paradigm shift in understanding fundamental nature of Energy and Universe is presented.
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  32. Le substrat galénique des idées médicales d’Isaac Beeckman.Elisabeth Moreau - 2011 - Studium : Revue D’Histoire des Sciences Et des Universités 4 (3):137.
    In the history of early modern science, the ‘Journal’ of Isaac Beeckman (1588–1637) has been examined from the angle of Cartesian mechanicism, Lucretian atomism and pre–molecular theories of matter. However, by focusing on the traditional themes of the seventeenth–century “scientific revolution,” previous studies have failed to explore the medical side of Beeckman’s thinking and its debt to the Galenic tradition. The present article aims to fill this gap by examining how Beeckman considered the material structure of the living body in (...)
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  33. The Isomorphism of Space, Time and Matter in Seventeenth-Century Natural Philosophy.Carla Rita Palmerino - 2011 - Early Science and Medicine 16 (4):296-330.
    This article documents the general tendency of seventeenth-century natural philosophers, irrespective of whether they were atomists or anti-atomists, to regard space, time and matter as magnitudes having the same internal composition. It examines the way in which authors such as Fromondus, Basson, Sennert, Arriaga, Galileo, Magnen, Descartes, Gassendi, Charleton as well as the young Newton motivated their belief in the isomorphism of space, time and matter, and how this belief reflected on their views concerning the relation between geometry and physics. (...)
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  34. Newton’s Substance Monism, Distant Action, and the Nature of Newton’s Empiricism: Discussion of H. Kochiras “Gravity and Newton’s Substance Counting Problem”.Eric Schliesser - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):160-166.
    This paper is a critical response to Hylarie Kochiras’ “Gravity and Newton’s substance counting problem,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 40 267–280. First, the paper argues that Kochiras conflates substances and beings; it proceeds to show that Newton is a substance monist. The paper argues that on methodological grounds Newton has adequate resources to respond to the metaphysical problems diagnosed by Kochiras. Second, the paper argues against the claim that Newton is committed to two speculative doctrines attributed to (...)
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  35. From Matter to Materialism ... And (Almost) Back.Ernan McMullin - 2010 - In P. C. W. Davies & Niels Henrik Gregersen (eds.), Information and the Nature of Reality: From Physics to Metaphysics. Cambridge University Press.
    The matter concept has had an extraordinarily complex history, dating back to the earliest days of the sort of reflective thought that came to be called ‘philosophy'. History here, as elsewhere, offers a valuable means of understanding the present, so it is with history that I will be concerned – history necessarily compressed into simplified outline. This story, like that of Caesar's Gaul, falls readily into three parts. First is the gradual emergence in early Greek thought of a factor indispensable (...)
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  36. Concepts of Mass in Contemporary Physics and Philosophy.Max Jammer - 2009 - Princeton University Press.
    The concept of mass is one of the most fundamental notions in physics, comparable in importance only to those of space and time. But in contrast to the latter, which are the subject of innumerable physical and philosophical studies, the concept of mass has been but rarely investigated. Here Max Jammer, a leading philosopher and historian of physics, provides a concise but comprehensive, coherent, and self-contained study of the concept of mass as it is defined, interpreted, and applied in contemporary (...)
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  37. Gravity and Newton’s Substance Counting Problem.Hylarie Kochiras - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (3):267-280.
    A striking feature of Newton’s thought is the very broad reach of his empiricism, potentially extending even to immaterial substances, including God, minds, and should one exist, a non-perceiving immaterial medium. Yet Newton is also drawn to certain metaphysical principles—most notably the principle that matter cannot act where it is not—and this second, rationalist feature of his thought is most pronounced in his struggle to discover ‘gravity’s cause’. The causal problem remains vexing, for he neither invokes primary causation, nor accepts (...)
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  38. Particle or Wave: The Evolution of the Concept of Matter in Modern Physics. [REVIEW]Daniela Monaldi - 2009 - Isis 100:373-374.
  39. A Condensed Matter Interpretation of SM Fermions and Gauge Fields.I. Schmelzer - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (1):73-107.
    We present the bundle (Aff(3)⊗ℂ⊗Λ)(ℝ3), with a geometric Dirac equation on it, as a three-dimensional geometric interpretation of the SM fermions. Each (ℂ⊗Λ)(ℝ3) describes an electroweak doublet. The Dirac equation has a doubler-free staggered spatial discretization on the lattice space (Aff(3)⊗ℂ)(ℤ3). This space allows a simple physical interpretation as a phase space of a lattice of cells.We find the SM SU(3) c ×SU(2) L ×U(1) Y action on (Aff(3)⊗ℂ⊗Λ)(ℝ3) to be a maximal anomaly-free gauge action preserving E(3) symmetry and symplectic (...)
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  40. Mind as Hardware and Matter as Software.Jan-Markus Schwindt - 2008 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (4):5-27.
    We present an argument against physicalism in two steps: 1) Physics reduces the world to a mathematical structure; 2) The notion of 'structure' only makes sense when carried by something and interpreted by something else. Physicalism does not allow such a carrier and interpreter at a fundamental level, hence it must be wrong. An extended notion of Mind is presented as the fundamental 'hardware' which is necessary by the argument. In particular, qualia correspond to the 'monitor component' of mind. Some (...)
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  41. When Realism Made a Difference: The Constitution of Matter and its Conceptual Enigmas in Late 19th Century Physics.Torsten Wilholt - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 39 (1):1-16.
    The late 19th century debate among German-speaking physicists about theoretical entities is often regarded as foreshadowing the scientific realism debate. This paper brings out differences between them by concentrating on the part of the earlier debate that was concerned with the conceptual consistency of the competing conceptions of matter—mainly, but not exclusively, of atomism. Philosophical antinomies of atomism were taken up by Emil Du Bois-Reymond in an influential lecture in 1872. Such challenges to the consistency of atomism had repercussions within (...)
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  42. Can We Get Our Materialism Back, Please?Bruno Latour - 2007 - Isis 98 (1):138-142.
  43. Mie's Theories of Matter and Gravitation.Chris Smeenk - 2007 - In Jürgen Renn (ed.), The Genesis of General Relativity. Boston: Springer. pp. 1543-1553.
    Unifying physics by describing a variety of interactions – or even all interactions – within a common framework has long been an alluring goal for physicists. One of the most ambitious attempts at unification was made in the 1910s by Gustav Mie. Mie aimed to derive electromagnetism, gravitation, and aspects of the emerging quantum theory from a single variational principle and a well-chosen Lagrangian. Mie’s main innovation was to consider nonlinear field equations to allow for stable particle-like solutions (now called (...)
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  44. Matter.Michael Faraday - 2006 - Scientiae Studia 4 (4):621-626.
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  45. On Math, Matter and Mind.Piet Hut, Mark Alford & Max Tegmark - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (6):765-794.
    We discuss the nature of reality in the ontological context of Penrose’s math-matter-mind triangle. The triangle suggests the circularity of the widespread view that math arises from the mind, the mind arises out of matter, and that matter can be explained in terms of math. Non-physicists should be wary of any claim that modern physics leads us to any particular resolution of this circularity, since even the sample of three theoretical physicists writing this paper hold three divergent views. Some physicists (...)
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  46. What's the Matter?: Readings in Physics.Donald Whitfield & Ashley L. Preston (eds.) - 2006 - Great Books Foundation.
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  47. Interpretations of Einstein’s Equation E = Mc 2.Francisco Flores - 2005 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 19 (3):245-260.
    Interpretations of Einstein’s equation differ primarily concerning whether E = mc2 entails that mass and energy are the same property of physical systems, and hence whether there is any sense in which mass is ever ‘converted’ into energy. In this paper, I examine six interpretations of Einstein’s equation and argue that all but one fail to satisfy a minimal set of conditions that all interpretations of physical theories ought to satisfy. I argue that we should prefer the interpretation of Einstein’s (...)
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  48. Wesson’s Induced Matter Theory with a Weylian Bulk.Mark Israelit - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (10):1725-1748.
    The foundations of Wesson’s induced matter theory are analyzed. It is shown that the empty—without matter—5-dimensional bulk must be regarded as a Weylian space rather than as a Riemannian one. Revising the geometry of the bulk, we have assumed that a Weylian connection vector and a gauge function exist in addition to the metric tensor. The framework of a Weyl–Dirac version of Wesson’s theory is elaborated and discussed. In the 4-dimensional hypersurface, one obtains equations describing both fields, the gravitational and (...)
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  49. Was Gassendi an Epicurean?Monte Ransome Johnson - 2003 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 20 (4):339 - 360.
    Pierre Gassendi was a major factor in the revival of Epicureanism in early modern philosophy, not only through his contribution to the restoration and criticism of Epicurean texts, but also by his adaptation of Epicurean ideas in his own philosophy, which was itself influential on such important figures of early modern philosophy as Hobbes, Locke, Newton, and Boyle (to name just a few). Despite his vigorous defense of certain Epicurean ideas and ancient atomism, Gassendi goes to great lengths to differentiate (...)
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  50. What is Materialism?Michael Philips - 2003 - Philosophy Now 42:18-19.
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