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  1. added 2019-01-30
    Interpretations of Einstein’s Equation E = Mc 2.Francisco Flores - 2005 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 19 (3):245-260.
    Interpretations of Einstein’s equation differ primarily concerning whether E = mc2 entails that mass and energy are the same property of physical systems, and hence whether there is any sense in which mass is ever ‘converted’ into energy. In this paper, I examine six interpretations of Einstein’s equation and argue that all but one fail to satisfy a minimal set of conditions that all interpretations of physical theories ought to satisfy. I argue that we should prefer the interpretation of Einstein’s (...)
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  2. added 2019-01-28
    What Is the Validity Domain of Einstein’s Equations? Distributional Solutions Over Singularities and Topological Links in Geometrodynamics.Elias Zafiris - 2016 - 100 Years of Chronogeometrodynamics: The Status of the Einstein's Theory of Gravitation in Its Centennial Year.
    The existence of singularities alerts that one of the highest priorities of a centennial perspective on general relativity should be a careful re-thinking of the validity domain of Einstein’s field equations. We address the problem of constructing distinguishable extensions of the smooth spacetime manifold model, which can incorporate singularities, while retaining the form of the field equations. The sheaf-theoretic formulation of this problem is tantamount to extending the algebra sheaf of smooth functions to a distribution-like algebra sheaf in which the (...)
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  3. added 2019-01-28
    The Nature of Local/Global Distinctions, Group Actions and Phases: A Sheaf=Theoretic Approach to Quantum Geometric Spectra.Elias Zafiris - 2015 - In Vera Bühlmann, Ludger Hovestadt & Vahid Moosavi (eds.), Coding as Literacy - Metalithicum IV. Basel: BIRKHÄUSER. pp. 172-186.
  4. added 2018-07-29
    Mehr Seinsschichten Für Die Welt? Vergleich Und Kritik der Schichtenkonzeptionen von Nicolai Hartmann Und Werner Heisenberg.Gregor Schiemann - 2012 - In M. Wunsch & G. Hartung (eds.), Nicolai Hartmann – Von der Systemphilosophie zur Systemetischen Philosophie.
    Ich thematisiere die beiden Konzeptionen als Varianten der wissenschaftlichen Weltsicht. Der Reiz des Vergleichs liegt aber weniger in den Gemeinsamkeiten als vielmehr in den Differenzen und den dabei hervortretenden Desideraten der beiden Konzeptionen. Heisenberg versteht sein Schichtenmodell nicht wie Hartmann als Fortsetzung und Zusammenfassung vorangehender philosophischer Bemühungen, sondern als einen Bruch mit den Hauptströmungen der philosophischen Tradition. In der geschichtlichen Entwicklung der Versuche um eine Bestimmung der Weltstruktur sieht er statt einer Generaltendenz, die langfristig auf eine Annäherung an die Wahrheit (...)
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  5. added 2018-07-25
    A New Reading of Aritsotle's "Hyle".Dennis F. Polis - 1991 - Modern Schoolman 68 (3):225-244.
    Aritsotle's hyle is contrasted with Plato's chora and Aquinas's prima materia. It is argued that Plato and Aristotle developed their concepts in response to very different needs, and that Aquinas's theory reflects a conflation of their views by Neoplatonic commentators. Hyle is shown to be an active potential to a determinate form in contrast to Aquinas's prima materia, which is a purely indeterminate passive potential. This gives a point of attachment in Aristotle's philosophy of nature for the later notion of (...)
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  6. added 2018-02-16
    On the Biological Significance of the Properties of Matter: L.J. Henderson's Theory of the Fitness of the Environment.Iris Fry - 1996 - Journal of the History of Biology 29 (2):155-196.
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  7. added 2018-02-03
    Journey of Physics between Continuity and Discontinuity مسيرة الفيزياء بين مقولتي الاتصال والانفصال.Salah Osman - 1998 - In Continuity and Infinity between Science and Philosophy. pp. 151 - 241.
    تجلت المعالجة الفيزيائية المعاصرة لموضوع الاتصال في نظريتين كبريتين تقاسمتا البحث في الظواهر الطبيعية منذ بداية القرن العشرين: إحداهما نظريــة النسبية (الخاصـة والعامـة)، والأخرى نظرية الكم. وبينما تُعيد النسبية الخاصة صياغة القوانين الأساسية للحركة على نحو أدق مما قدمه نيوتن، تتجه النسبية العامة إلى تعليل خواص المادة على النطاق الواسع، أي على مستوى الكون الأكبر، حيث النجوم والكواكب وحركاتها التجاذبية. أما نظرية الكمّ فتًعلل خواص المادة على النطاق الضيق جدًا، أي على مستوى الكون الذري. وليس هناك فيما يبدو أية رابطة (...)
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  8. added 2018-01-16
    Concepts of Mass in Contemporary Physics and Philosophy.Max Jammer - 2009 - Princeton University Press.
    The concept of mass is one of the most fundamental notions in physics, comparable in importance only to those of space and time. But in contrast to the latter, which are the subject of innumerable physical and philosophical studies, the concept of mass has been but rarely investigated. Here Max Jammer, a leading philosopher and historian of physics, provides a concise but comprehensive, coherent, and self-contained study of the concept of mass as it is defined, interpreted, and applied in contemporary (...)
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  9. added 2017-11-29
    Einstein's Die Philosophischen Grundlagen der Wissenschaften. [REVIEW]William Ernest Hocking - 1907 - Journal of Philosophy 4 (13):359.
  10. added 2017-11-28
    Gerontological Observations Supporting Einstein and Mao.Henry R. Hirsch - 1997 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 40 (4):562-563.
  11. added 2017-11-25
    Historical Roots of the Principle of Conservation of Energy.Erwin N. Hiebert - 1963 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 14 (54):160-166.
  12. added 2017-11-24
    The Ontological Status of Bodies in Leibniz (Part II).Shane Duarte - 2016 - Studia Leibnitiana 48 (1):68-88.
    In the second part of this essay, I aim to show that Leibniz, in asserting that bodies are aggregates of substances, wants to affirm something about bodies insofar as they exist a parte rei or in reality: in reality a body is not a being, but a multitude of beings or substances. And this, on my view, is precisely what leads Leibniz to assert that bodies are phenomena: since a body is not in reality a being, but many beings, it (...)
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  13. added 2017-10-11
    What is Matter? The Fundamental Ontology of Atomism and Structural Realism.Michael Esfeld, Dirk-André Deckert & Andrea Oldofredi - unknown
    We set out a fundamental ontology of atomism in terms of matter points. While being most parsimonious, this ontology is able to match both classical and quantum mechanics, and it remains a viable option for any future theory of cosmology that goes beyond current quantum physics. The matter points are structurally individuated: all there is to them are the spatial relations in which they stand; neither a commitment to intrinsic properties nor to an absolute space is required. The spatial relations (...)
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  14. added 2017-10-11
    System, Holons, and Persons.Joseph L. Esposito - 1976 - International Philosophical Quarterly 16 (2):219-236.
  15. added 2017-10-06
    Inertia, the Communication of Motion, and Kant's Third Law of Mechanics.Howard Duncan - 1984 - Philosophy of Science 51 (1):93-119.
    In Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science are found a dynamist reduction of matter and an account of the communication of motion by impact. One would expect to find an analysis of the causal mechanism involved in the communication of motion between bodies given in terms of the fundamental dynamical nature of bodies. However, Kant's analysis, as given in the discussion of his third law of mechanics (an action-reaction law) is purely kinematical, invoking no causal mechanisms at all, let alone (...)
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  16. added 2017-10-05
    The Physical Theory of Kalām: Atoms, Space, and Void in Basrian Mu‘Tazilī Cosmology.Alnoor Dhanani - 1993 - Brill.
    This book reconstructs the kalām theories of matter, space, and void in the tenth and eleventh centuries A.D., using texts that have only recently become available.
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  17. added 2017-06-06
    The Concept of Matter in Modern Philosophy. Edited by Ernan McMullin.Paul Trainor - 1980 - Modern Schoolman 57 (3):272-273.
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  18. added 2016-12-14
    Mie's Theories of Matter and Gravitation.Chris Smeenk - 2007 - In Jürgen Renn (ed.), The Genesis of General Relativity. Boston: Springer. pp. 1543-1553.
    Unifying physics by describing a variety of interactions – or even all interactions – within a common framework has long been an alluring goal for physicists. One of the most ambitious attempts at unification was made in the 1910s by Gustav Mie. Mie aimed to derive electromagnetism, gravitation, and aspects of the emerging quantum theory from a single variational principle and a well-chosen Lagrangian. Mie’s main innovation was to consider nonlinear field equations to allow for stable particle-like solutions (now called (...)
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  19. added 2016-12-05
    ARE DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY OPPOSITE EFFECTS OF THE QUANTUM VACUUM?Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez - manuscript
    In the standard model of cosmology, λCDM, were introduced to explain the anomalies of the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters highest according estimated by General Relativity the dark matter and the accelerated expansion of the universe the dark energy. The model λCDM is based in the equations of the General Relativity that of the total mass-energy of the universe assigns 4.9% to matter (including only baryonic matter), 26.8%, to dark matter and 68.3% to dark energy adjusted according observed in (...)
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  20. added 2016-08-14
    Neural Plasticity and the Limits of Scientific Knowledge.Pasha Parpia - 2015 - Dissertation, University of Sussex
    Western science claims to provide unique, objective information about the world. This is supported by the observation that peoples across cultures will agree upon a common description of the physical world. Further, the use of scientific instruments and mathematics is claimed to enable the objectification of science. In this work, carried out by reviewing the scientific literature, the above claims are disputed systematically by evaluating the definition of physical reality and the scientific method, showing that empiricism relies ultimately upon the (...)
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  21. added 2015-09-11
    Space and the Extension of Power in Leibniz’ Monadic Metaphysics.Edward Slowik - 2015 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 32 (3):253-270.
    This paper attempts to resolve the puzzle associated with the non-spatiality of monads by investigating the possibility that Leibniz employed a version of the extension of power doctrine, a Scholastic concept that explains the relationship between immaterial and material beings. As will be demonstrated, not only does the extension of power doctrine lead to a better understanding of Leibniz’ reasons for claiming that monads are non-spatial, but it also supports those interpretations of Leibniz’ metaphysics that accepts the real extension of (...)
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  22. added 2015-09-11
    Perfect Solidity: Natural Laws and the Problem of Matter in Descartes' Universe.Edward Slowik - 1996 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 13 (2):187 - 204.
    In the Principles of Philosophy, Descartes attempts to explicate the well-known phenomena of varying bodily size through an appeal to the concept of "solidity," a notion that roughly corresponds to our present-day concept of density. Descartes' interest in these issues can be partially traced to the need to define clearly the role of matter in his natural laws, a problem particularly acute for the application of his conservation principle. Specifically, since Descartes insists that a body's "quantity of motion," defined as (...)
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  23. added 2015-09-07
    Hobbes and the Phantasm of Space.Edward Slowik - 2014 - Hobbes Studies 27 (1):61-79.
    This essay examines Hobbes’ philosophy of space, with emphasis placed on the variety of interpretations that his concept of imaginary space has elicited from commentators. The process by which the idea of space is acquired from experience, as well as the role of nominalism, will be offered as important factors in tracking down the elusive content of Hobbes’ conception of imaginary space.
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  24. added 2015-04-05
    Aristotle on Matter.Kit Fine - 1992 - Mind 101 (401):35-58.
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  25. added 2014-10-28
    Euler, Newton, and Foundations for Mechanics.Marius Stan - 2017 - In Chris Smeenk & Eric Schliesser (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Newton. Oxford University Press. pp. 1-22.
    This chapter looks at Euler’s relation to Newton, and at his role in the rise of ‘Newtonian’ mechanics. It aims to give a sense of Newton’s complicated legacy for Enlightenment science, and to raise awareness that some key ‘Newtonian’ results really come from Euler.
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  26. added 2014-10-22
    Quantum Mechanics and the Manifestation of the World.Ulrich Mohrhoff - 2014 - Quantum Studies: Mathematics and Foundations 1 (3-4):195-202.
    Quantum theory’s irreducible empirical core is a probability calculus. While it presupposes the events to which (and on the basis of which) it serves to assign probabilities, and therefore cannot account for their occurrence, it has to be consistent with it. It must make it possible to identify a system of observables that have measurement-independent values.What makes this possible is the incompleteness of the spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world. This is shown by applying a novel interpretive principle to interfering (...)
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  27. added 2014-10-14
    Ludwig Boltzmann's Mathematical Argument for Atomism.Torsten Wilholt - 2001 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 9:199-211.
    In recent years, the philosophy of Ludwig Boltzmann has become a point of interest within the field of history of philosophy of science. Attention has centred around Boltzmann’s philosophical considerations connected to his defense of atomism in physics. In analysing these considerations, several scholars have attributed a pragmatist stance to Boltzmann. In this paper, I want to argue that, whatever pragmatist traits may be found in Boltzmann’s diverse writings, his defense of atomism in physics can not be analysed this way. (...)
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  28. added 2014-10-14
    Mass, Matter, and Energy. A Relativistic Approach.Eftichios Bitsakis - 1991 - Foundations of Physics 21 (1):63-81.
    The debate concerning the relations between matter and motion has the same age as philosophy itself. In modern times this problem was transformed into the one concerning the relations between mass and energy. Newton identified mass with matter. Classical thermodynamics brought this conception to its logical conclusion, establishing an ontic dichotomy between mass-matter and energy. On the basis of this pre-relativistic conception, Einstein's famous equation has been interpreted as a relation of equivalence between mass-matter and energy. Nevertheless, if we reject (...)
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  29. added 2014-04-03
    Matter and Geometry in a Unified Theory.Leopold Halpern - 1994 - Foundations of Physics 24 (12):1697-1703.
    The prediction of general relativity on the gravitational collapse of matter ending in a point is viewed as an absurdity of the kind to be expected in any consistent physical theory due to ultimate conflicts of the axioms of geometry with the properties of physical objects. The necessity to introduce a probability interpretation for the solution of partial differential equations in space time for quantum theory points to similar roots. It is pointed out that quantum theory in the very small (...)
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  30. added 2014-04-03
    The Wave Properties of Matter and the Zeropoint Radiation Field.L. De la Peña & A. M. Cetto - 1994 - Foundations of Physics 24 (5):753-781.
    The origin of the wave properties of matter is discussed from the point of view of stochastic electrodynamics. A nonrelativistic model of a charged particle with an effective structure embedded in the random zeropoint radiation field reveals that the field induces a high-frequency vibration on the particle; internal consistency of the theory fixes the frequency of this jittering at mc2/ħ. The particle is therefore assumed to interact intensely with stationary zeropoint waves of this frequency as seen from its proper frame (...)
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  31. added 2014-04-02
    Cosmic Dark Matter and Dirac Gauge Function.Mark Israelit & Nathan Rosen - 1995 - Foundations of Physics 25 (5):763-777.
    It is suggested that the dark matter of the universe is due to the presence of a scalar field described by the gauge function introduced by Dirac in his modification of the Weyl geometry. The behavior of such dark matter is investigated.
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  32. added 2014-04-01
    Imploding Stars, Shifting Continents, and the Inconstancy of Matter.Werner Israel - 1996 - Foundations of Physics 26 (5):595-616.
    Two revolutionary concepts of the twentieth century—continental drift and the existence of superdense stars and black holes—had extended histories which ran in curious parallel for five decades. Between the wars each encountered a fierce and emotionally charged resistance which may have had a common psychological root. Each threatened man's instinctive faith in the permanence of matter.
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  33. added 2014-04-01
    Strangeness of Matter Waves.Christian Cormier-Delanoue - 1996 - Foundations of Physics 26 (1):95-103.
    The concept of waves associated with any material particle has been a considerable boost to theoretical physics, and it appears to be in accordance with many experimental results. Some relativistic properties of these assumed waves are studied in comparison to other physical waves. It turns out that matter waves may nor be considered as objectively real, and that any physics resting on such a concept can only be subjective.
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  34. added 2014-03-30
    Newton Versus Einstein: How Matter Interacts with Matter. [REVIEW]Thomas E. Phipps Jr - 1997 - Foundations of Physics 27 (10):1457-1460.
  35. added 2014-03-26
    An Effective Field Theory Model to Describe Nuclear Matter in Heavy-Ion Collisions.M. M. Islam & H. Weigel - 2000 - Foundations of Physics 30 (4):577-597.
    Relativistic mean field theory with mesons σ, ω, π and ρ mediating interactions and nucleons as basic fermions has been very successful in describing nuclear matter and finite nuclei. However, in heavy-ion collisions, where the c. m. energy of two colliding nucleons will be in the hundreds of GeV region, nucleons are not expected to behave as point-like particles. Analyses of elastic pp and ¯pp scattering data in the relevant c. m. energy range show that the nucleon is a composite (...)
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  36. added 2014-03-26
    Bose Condensation Without Broken Symmetries.Andrei E. Ruckenstein - 2000 - Foundations of Physics 30 (12):2113-2124.
    This paper considers the issue of Bose–Einstein condensation in a weakly interacting Bose gas with a fixed total number of particles. We use an old current algebra formulation of non-relativistic many body systems due to Dashen and Sharp to show that, at sufficiently low temperatures, a gas of weakly interacting Bosons displays Off-diagonal Long Range Order in the sense introduced by Penrose and Onsager. Even though this formulation is somewhat cumbersome it may demystify many of the standard results in the (...)
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  37. added 2014-03-23
    Exclusion Principles as Restricted Permutation Symmetries.S. Tarzi - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (6):955-979.
    We give a derivation of exclusion principles for the elementary particles of the standard model, using simple mathematical principles arising from a set theory of identical particles. We apply the theory of permutation group actions, stating some theorems which are proven elsewhere, and interpreting the results as a heuristic derivation of Pauli's Exclusion Principle (PEP) which dictates the formation of elements in the periodic table and the stability of matter, and also a derivation of quark confinement. We arrive at these (...)
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  38. added 2014-03-20
    Wesson’s Induced Matter Theory with a Weylian Bulk.Mark Israelit - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (10):1725-1748.
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  39. added 2014-03-18
    On Math, Matter and Mind.Piet Hut, Mark Alford & Max Tegmark - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (6):765-794.
    We discuss the nature of reality in the ontological context of Penrose’s math-matter-mind triangle. The triangle suggests the circularity of the widespread view that math arises from the mind, the mind arises out of matter, and that matter can be explained in terms of math. Non-physicists should be wary of any claim that modern physics leads us to any particular resolution of this circularity, since even the sample of three theoretical physicists writing this paper hold three divergent views. Some physicists (...)
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  40. added 2014-03-17
    What's the Matter?: Readings in Physics.Donald Whitfield & Ashley L. Preston (eds.) - 2006 - Great Books Foundation.
  41. added 2014-03-09
    A Condensed Matter Interpretation of SM Fermions and Gauge Fields.I. Schmelzer - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (1):73-107.
    We present the bundle (Aff(3)⊗ℂ⊗Λ)(ℝ3), with a geometric Dirac equation on it, as a three-dimensional geometric interpretation of the SM fermions. Each (ℂ⊗Λ)(ℝ3) describes an electroweak doublet. The Dirac equation has a doubler-free staggered spatial discretization on the lattice space (Aff(3)⊗ℂ)(ℤ3). This space allows a simple physical interpretation as a phase space of a lattice of cells.We find the SM SU(3) c ×SU(2) L ×U(1) Y action on (Aff(3)⊗ℂ⊗Λ)(ℝ3) to be a maximal anomaly-free gauge action preserving E(3) symmetry and symplectic (...)
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  42. added 2014-03-07
    When Realism Made a Difference: The Constitution of Matter and its Conceptual Enigmas in Late 19th Century Physics.Torsten Wilholt - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 39 (1):1-16.
    The late 19th century debate among German-speaking physicists about theoretical entities is often regarded as foreshadowing the scientific realism debate. This paper brings out differences between them by concentrating on the part of the earlier debate that was concerned with the conceptual consistency of the competing conceptions of matter—mainly, but not exclusively, of atomism. Philosophical antinomies of atomism were taken up by Emil Du Bois-Reymond in an influential lecture in 1872. Such challenges to the consistency of atomism had repercussions within (...)
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  43. added 2013-12-11
    Stability of Matter.W. Thirring - 1990 - Foundations of Physics 20 (9):1103-1110.
    A Hamiltonian which is bounded from below by a multiple of the number of particles is called stable. We discuss which interactions are stable and which are not. Furthermore we show how this stability is related to other notions of stability.
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  44. added 2013-12-10
    Difficulties with the Partial Quantization of Systems.Howard Grotch & Emil Kazes - 1980 - Foundations of Physics 10 (7-8):655-659.
    Proposals of quantizing matter without also quantizing fields are assessed. In one of these the principle of superposition is given up and an estimate of its violation is suggested. Another proposal, which retains the principle of superposition, is shown to be inconsistent with the equations of motion.
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  45. added 2013-12-02
    On the Bose-Einstein Condensation of Free Relativistic Bosons with or Without Mass.S. Fujita, T. Kimura & Y. Zheng - 1991 - Foundations of Physics 21 (9):1117-1130.
    The Bose-Einstein condensation of free relativistic particles [ε=(M 2 c 4 +c 2 p 2 ) 1/2 −Mc 2 ] is studied rigorously. For massless bosons (ε=cp), the condensation transition of third (second) order occurs in2 (3) dimensions (D). The molar heat capacity follows the T 2 (T 3 ) law below the condensation temperature Tc [k B Tc=(2πħ 2 c 2 n/1.645) 1/2 [(π 2 ħ 3 c 3 n/1.202) 1/3 ], reaches4.38 (10.8) R at T=Tc, and approaches the (...)
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  46. added 2013-12-02
    Theories of Gravitation with Nonminimal Coupling of Matter and the Gravitational Field.H. F. M. Goenner - 1984 - Foundations of Physics 14 (9):865-881.
    The foundations of a theory of nonminimal coupling of matter and the gravitational field in the framework of Riemannian (or Riemann-Cartan) geometry are presented. In the absence of matter, the Einstein vacuum field equations hold. In order to allow for a Newtonian limit, the theory contains a new parameter l0 of dimension length. For systems with finite total mass, l0 is set equal to the Schwarzschild radius.
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  47. added 2013-12-02
    A Unified Theory of Matter. I. The Fundamental Idea.Edmund A. DiMarzio - 1977 - Foundations of Physics 7 (7-8):511-528.
    The Lorentz transformation is derived without assuming that the velocity of light is a constant. This suggests that the constantc which appears in the transformation has a deeper significance than heretofore commonly assumed. It is hypothesized that there exists, in all of physical reality, velocities of only one magnitude. The magnitude isc, the speed of light in vacuum. This hypothesis forces us to view a fundamental particle as an extended object and matter in general as a field ρ(t, r, θ), (...)
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  48. added 2013-12-02
    Some Preliminary Formulations Toward a New Theory of Matter.V. Shekhawat - 1976 - Foundations of Physics 6 (2):221-235.
    Matter is pictured as a primitive fluid substratum having the fundamental property of fluctuating at a constant frequency. From this are derived the discrete properties of space and time, and it follows that, at the microlevel, talk of pure space and pure time involves us in ambiguities. A new interpretation of Planck's constant emerges according to which it is a quantum of matter-time combination. Thus, a quantum of matter-space combination should exist. On pursuing further the hydrodynamic model, such a constant (...)
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  49. added 2013-12-02
    Structure of Hadron Matter: Hierarchy, Democracy, or Potentiality? [REVIEW]Aharon Kantorovich - 1973 - Foundations of Physics 3 (3):335-349.
    An attempt is made to give a methodological and physical characterization to the concept of the structure of matter. The methodological status of theories describing the structure of hadrons is discussed. A parallelism is drawn between the quark model as a theory of the mathematical composite structure of hadrons and Plato's theory of matter. The merger of the bootstrap idea with a quark substructure of hadrons is discussed. A third approach to the structure of hadron matter is presented. It resembles (...)
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  50. added 2013-11-28
    A Unified Theory of Matter. II. Derivation of the Fundamental Physical Law.Edmund A. DiMarzio - 1977 - Foundations of Physics 7 (11-12):885-905.
    The equation for the fundamental field quantity ϱ is obtained. It is Div $\rho ^\mu (\Omega _1 ) = \operatorname{h} \int {[\rho _\mu (\Omega _1 ),\rho ^\mu (\Omega _2 )]_ - \operatorname{d} \Omega _2 } $ ,where h is an arbitrary function oft andr, and [,]− is the commutator. The derivation requires the following hypotheses:(1) All of physical reality is completely described by the field ϱ.(2) Relativistic covariance of the equations governing ϱ.(3) Principle of continguous action.(4) Conservation of total amount (...)
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