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  1. added 2018-09-06
    Revealed Preference, Belief, and Game Theory.Daniel M. Hausman - 2000 - Economics and Philosophy 16 (1):99-115.
    The notion of ‘revealed preference’ is unclear and should be abandoned. Defenders of the theory of revealed preference have misinterpreted legitimate concerns about the testability of economics as the demand that economists eschew reference to (unobservable) subjective states. As attempts to apply revealed-preference theory to game theory illustrate with particular vividness, this demand is mistaken.
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  2. added 2018-07-06
    Which Values Should Be Built Into Economic Measures?S. Andrew Schroeder - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    Many economic measures are structured to reflect ethical values. I describe three attitudes towards this: maximalism, according to which we should aim to build all relevant values into measures; minimalism, according to which we should aim to keep values out of measures; and an intermediate view. I argue the intermediate view is likely correct, but existing versions are inadequate. In particular, economists have strong reason to structure measures to reflect fixed, as opposed to user-assessable, values. I conclude by arguing that, (...)
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  3. added 2018-06-20
    Does Poverty Wear a Woman's Face? Some Moral Dimensions of a Transnational Feminist Research Project.Alison M. Jaggar - 2013 - Hypatia 28 (2):240-256.
    This article explains some moral dimensions of a transnational feminist research project designed to provide a better standard or metric for measuring poverty across the world. The author is an investigator on this project. Poverty metrics incorporate moral judgments about what is necessary for a decent life, so justifying metrics requires moral argumentation. The article clarifies the moral aspects of poverty valuation, indicates some moral flaws in existing global poverty metrics, and outlines some conditions for a better global metric. It (...)
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  4. added 2018-06-20
    Feminist Methodology in Practice: Lessons From a Research Program.Alison M. Jaggar & Scott Wisor - 2013 - In Alison Jaggar (ed.), Just Methods: An Interdisciplinary Reader. Paradigm.
    This article reflects critically on the methodology of one feminist research project which is ongoing as we write. The project is titled “Assessing Development: Designing Better Indices of Poverty and Gender Equity” and its aim is to develop a better standard or metric for measuring poverty across the world. The authors of this article are among several philosophers on the research team, which also includes scholars from the disciplines of anthropology, sociology and economics. This article begin by explaining why a (...)
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  5. added 2018-05-30
    We Fight for Roses Too: Time-Use and Global Gender Justice.Alison M. Jaggar - 2013 - Journal of Global Ethics 9 (2):115 - 129.
    The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development has recently confirmed the widely held belief that women across the world tend to perform different work from men who otherwise are situated similarly. Women also work longer hours than similarly situated men. In analyzing the justice of these gendered disparities in time-use, WDR 2012 uses a moral framework that is largely distributive. Although this framework illuminates some aspects of the injustice of the situation, I contend that it obscures other crucial (...)
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  6. added 2018-03-05
    Is Consistency Overrated?S. Andrew Schroeder - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):199-200.
    In their insightful article, ‘The Disvalue of Death in the Global Burden of Disease’, Solberg et al argue that there is a potential incoherence in the way disability-adjusted life years are calculated. Morbidity is measured in years lived with disability in a way quite unlike the way mortality is measured in years of life lost. This potentially renders them incommensurable, like apples and oranges, and makes their aggregate—DALYs—conceptually unsound. The authors say that it is ‘vital’ to address this problem, that (...)
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  7. added 2017-04-05
    The Architect and the Ditch Digger.Cruz Cora - manuscript
    “You have an architect and a ditch-digger working together on a construction project. Who gets paid more, and why?” Does a tendency toward abstraction and quantification, a pretense of objectivity, obscure the character, situation and bias from which all economic and political theorems stem? Following the principle that arguments neither arise nor persist in a vacuum, that they live and die by their context and character, we can describe two sorts of response corresponding to two rather timeless worldviews, along with (...)
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  8. added 2017-03-11
    The Moral Justification of Benefit/Cost Analysis: Donald C. Hubin.Donald C. Hubin - 1994 - Economics and Philosophy 10 (2):169-194.
    Benefit/cost analysis is a technique for evaluating programs, procedures, and actions; it is not a moral theory. There is significant controversy over the moral justification of benefit/cost analysis. When a procedure for evaluating social policy is challenged on moral grounds, defenders frequently seek a justification by construing the procedure as the practical embodiment of a correct moral theory. This has the apparent advantage of avoiding difficult empirical questions concerning such matters as the consequences of using the procedure. So, for example, (...)
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  9. added 2016-08-04
    Value Choices in Summary Measures of Population Health.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2017 - Public Health Ethics 10 (2):176-187.
    Summary measures of health, such as the quality-adjusted life year and disability-adjusted life year, have long been known to incorporate a number of value choices. In this paper, though, I show that the value choices in the construction of such measures extend far beyond what is generally recognized. In showing this, I hope both to improve the understanding of those measures by epidemiologists, health economists and policy-makers, and also to contribute to the general debate about the extent to which such (...)
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  10. added 2016-02-29
    Can an Evidential Account Justify Relying on Preferences for Well-Being Policy?Gil Hersch - 2015 - Journal of Economic Methodology 22 (3):280-291.
    Policy-makers sometimes aim to improve well-being as a policy goal, but to do this they need some way to measure well-being. Instead of relying on potentially problematic theories of well-being to justify their choice of well-being measure, Daniel Hausman proposes that policy-makers can sometimes rely on preference-based measures as evidence for well-being. I claim that Hausman’s evidential account does not justify the use of any one measure more than it justifies the use of any other measure. This leaves us at (...)
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  11. added 2015-10-20
    Can Graphical Causal Inference Be Extended to Nonlinear Settings?Nadine Chlaß & Alessio Moneta - 2010 - In M. Dorato M. Suàrez (ed.), Epsa Epistemology and Methodology of Science. Springer. pp. 63--72.
  12. added 2015-08-26
    Measures of Freedom of Choice.Karin Enflo - 2012 - Dissertation, Uppsala University
    The thesis studies the problem of measuring freedom of choice. It analyzes the concept of freedom of choice, discusses conditions that a measure should satisfy, and introduces a new class of measures that uniquely satisfy ten proposed conditions.
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  13. added 2015-08-26
    Measuring Opportunity.Karin Enflo - 2011 - In Rysiek Sliwinski & Frans Svensson (eds.), Neither/Nor. Uppsala university. pp. 53-68.
    This essay presents a new measure of opportunity, understood as the freedom to choose whatever one may reasonably prefer to choose.
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  14. added 2015-07-11
    Freedom of Choice and Expected Compromise.Johan E. Gustafsson - 2010 - Social Choice and Welfare 35 (1):65-79.
    This article develops a new measure of freedom of choice based on the proposal that a set offers more freedom of choice than another if, and only if, the expected degree of dissimilarity between a random alternative from the set of possible alternatives and the most similar offered alternative in the set is smaller. Furthermore, a version of this measure is developed, which is able to take into account the values of the possible options.
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  15. added 2015-03-22
    Foundations of Rational Choice Under Risk.Paul Anand - 1993 - Oxford University Press.
  16. added 2015-01-06
    Review of Karin Enflo, Measures of Freedom of Choice. [REVIEW]Johan E. Gustafsson - 2015 - Theoria 81 (1):87-92.
  17. added 2014-09-30
    The Concept of Well-Being.Mozaffar Qizilbash - 1998 - Economics and Philosophy 14 (1):51.
    The concept of well-being is central to the subject matter of moral philosophy as well as economics. According to some moral theorists morality is about the maximization of social well-being. According to others, notably John Rawls we ought to give particular priority to the worst off members in society. Both these and other moral positions, whatever the priority they attach to different members of society in arriving at moral judgements, require an account of well-being or advantage. The concern with well-being (...)
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  18. added 2014-09-25
    Incommensurability, Incomparability, and Practical Reason, Ruth Chang (Ed.), Harvard University Press, 1998, 303 Pages. [REVIEW]Adam Morton - 2000 - Economics and Philosophy 16 (1):147-174.
    review of Ruth Chang's collection in which I argue that the apparent agreements between the authors disguise underlying important differences.
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  19. added 2014-09-25
    Interpersonal Comparisons of Well-Being, Jon Elster and John E. Roemer . Cambridge University Press, 1991, X + 400 Pages and The Quality of Life, Martha C. Nussbaum and Amartya Sen . Oxford University Press, 1993, Xi + 453 Pages. [REVIEW]Adam Morton - 1996 - Economics and Philosophy 12 (1):101.
  20. added 2014-09-25
    Incomparable Worth, Steven E. Rhoads. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, 334 + Xi Pages.J. Donald Moon - 1994 - Economics and Philosophy 10 (1):133.
  21. added 2014-09-25
    Conceptual Anomalies in Economics and Statistics: Lessons From the Social Experiment, Leland Gerson Neuberg. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989, 365 Pages. [REVIEW]Mary S. Morgan - 1991 - Economics and Philosophy 7 (2):308.
  22. added 2014-09-17
    Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement, Nancy Cartwright. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989, X + 268 Pages. [REVIEW]Kevin D. Hoover - 1990 - Economics and Philosophy 6 (2):309.
  23. added 2014-09-16
    Counterfactual Success Again: Response to Carter and Kramer.Keith Dowding & Martin van Hees - 2008 - Economics and Philosophy 24 (1):97-103.
    We would like to thank Ian Carter and Matthew Kramer for their challenging reply to our recent article. Dowding and van Hees (2007) is one of a series of articles in which we try to address measurement issues with regard to individual freedom. Our aim is to provide a conception of freedom that will eventually yield a way of measuring the relative freedom of groups of people within a society and a relative measure of freedom across societies. In doing so, (...)
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  24. added 2014-09-16
    Reply to Putnam and Walsh.Partha Dasgupta - 2007 - Economics and Philosophy 23 (3):365-372.
    Social thinkers frequently remind us that people differ on what constitutes personal well-being, but that even when they don't differ, they disagree over the extent to which one person's well-being can be permitted to be traded off against another's. They tell us that political differences are to be traced to differences in people's conceptions of personal and social well-being. We are given to understand, in other words, that people's ethics differ.
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  25. added 2014-09-15
    Measuring Specific Freedom.Matthew Braham - 2006 - Economics and Philosophy 22 (3):317-333.
    This paper is about the measurement of specific freedoms freedom functionbeing free to performconditional probability of success.negative freedom is membership of powerful coalitions.”.
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  26. added 2014-09-15
    Risk, Fear, Blame, Shame and the Regulation of Public Safety.Jonathan Wolff - 2006 - Economics and Philosophy 22 (3):409-427.
    The question of when people may impose risks on each other is of fundamental moral importance. Forms of “quantified risk assessment,” especially risk cost-benefit analysis, provide one powerful approach to providing a systematic answer. It is also well known that such techniques can show that existing resources could be used more effectively to reduce risk overall. Thus it is often argued that some current practices are irrational. On the other hand critics of quantified risk assessment argue that it cannot adequately (...)
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  27. added 2014-09-15
    Counting the Poor: An Elementary Difficulty in the Measurement of Proverty.S. Subramanian - 2002 - Economics and Philosophy 18 (2):277-285.
    This note suggests that the exercise of measuring poverty in a society is greatly aided by clarity on precisely what one means by “the extent of poverty”. The latter concept may refer to the extent of poverty normalized for population size, or to the extent of poverty not so normalized. Absence of clarity on this distinction – which is both simple and non-trivial – could lead to rather straightforward problems of coherence and consistency in the measurement of poverty.
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  28. added 2014-09-12
    Valuing Processes.Martin E. Sandbu - 2007 - Economics and Philosophy 23 (2):205-235.
    Conventional economic theory assumes that people care only about ultimate outcomes and are indifferent to the decision and allocation processes by which outcomes are brought about. Building on Sen (1997), I relax this assumption, and investigate the formal and philosophical issues that arise. I extend the formal apparatus of preference theory to analyse how processes may enter preferences, and investigate whether traditional invariance requirements like the Weak Axiom of Revealed Preference are still satisfied in this new setting. I show that (...)
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  29. added 2014-09-12
    Models as Measuring Instruments: Measurement of Duration Dependence of Unemployment.Peter Rodenburg - 2005 - Journal of Economic Methodology 12 (3):407-431.
    Nancy Cartwright views models as blueprints for nomological machines? machines that, if properly shielded, generate law?like behaviour or regularities. Marcel Boumans has argued that we can look for devices inside models, which enable us to measure aspects of these regularities. Therefore, if models do produce regular behaviour, they might perhaps generate numbers about phenomena in the world, provided we can locate a good measuring device in the model. How do they do this? Models are often understood to consist of internal (...)
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  30. added 2014-09-12
    Natural Economic Quantities and Their Measurement.Julian Reiss - 2001 - Journal of Economic Methodology 8 (2):287-311.
    This paper discusses and develops an important distinction drawn by Jevons, viz . that between natural and fictitious quantities. This distinction provides a basis for a theory of economic concept formation that aims at picking out families of models that are phenomenally adequate, explanatory and exact simultaneously. Essentially, the theory demands of an economic quantity to be natural that (1) it is explained by a causal model, (2) it is measurable and (3) the measurement procedure is justified. The proposed theory (...)
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  31. added 2014-09-12
    Trust in Numbers, T. M. Porter. Princeton University Press, 1995, Xiv + 310 Pages. [REVIEW]Salim Rashid - 1997 - Economics and Philosophy 13 (2):345.
  32. added 2014-09-12
    Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility: Positive, Normative or Value-Laden?Eckehard F. Rosenbaum - 1995 - Journal of Economic Methodology 2 (2):239-258.
    The paper examines whether interpersonal comparisons of utility have to be interpreted as positive, normative or value-laden. It suggests first that recent arguments advanced by John Davis which appeal to the functional role of utility comparisons neither suffice to characterise utility comparisons as value-laden nor warrant the derivation of specific normative conclusions. An alternative approach is then developed which focuses on the extent to which value judgements are necessary in the course of making utility-comparisons. This approach is then applied to (...)
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  33. added 2014-09-11
    The Parity View and Intuitions of Neutrality.Mozaffar Qizilbash - 2007 - Economics and Philosophy 23 (1):107-114.
    One response to Derek Parfit's invokes the relation of . Since parity is a form of in John Broome's terms, three doubts which Broome raises about accounts involving incommensurateness in Weighing Lives pose a challenge for this response. I discuss two of these. They emerge from a discussion of various intuitions about . I argue that an account based on parity may be no less consistent with Broome's intuitions than is his own vagueness view.
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  34. added 2014-09-11
    Vague Language and Precise Measurement: The Case of Poverty.Mozaffar Qizilbash - 2003 - Journal of Economic Methodology 10 (1):41-58.
    Economists have often attempted precise measurement of phenomena which involve vague predicates. Difficulties emerge in such attempts if vagueness is not explicitly acknowledged at the methodological level. In this paper, various accounts of vague concepts are used to think about the economics of poverty measurement. Approaches to dealing with vagueness in this context tend to involve 'epistemic' and 'fuzzy set theoretic' approaches. Indeed, only the fuzzy set theoretic literature takes on vagueness explicitly. It is argued that both these approaches encounter (...)
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  35. added 2014-09-11
    Rationality, Comparability and Maximization.Mozaffar Qizilbash - 2002 - Economics and Philosophy 18 (1):141-156.
    James Griffin (1986, 1997, 2000) and Ruth Chang (1997) have argued that alternatives (and values) can be comparable when it is neither true that one is better than the other, nor true that they are exactly equal in value. The relation which holds between them has gone under various names: the alternatives are (Griffin) or (Chang). In this paper, I give a formal analysis of this relation. This analysis allows us to distinguish between two slightly different notions of . It (...)
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  36. added 2014-09-09
    On the Centrality of Human Value.Teresa Carla Oliveira & Stuart Holland - 2012 - Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (2):121 - 141.
    The financial crash of 2008 following the selling of fictitious derivatives was a crisis of both rationality and values whose aftermath has thrown the legitimation of deregulated markets, and governments, into question. This paper critiques the Becker metaphor of human capital and submits that human value is central to and the fulcrum of both economic and social values. It illustrates that Hume and Adam Smith directly countered the Hobbesian hypothesis that human nature is based only on self-interest, distinguishes market values (...)
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  37. added 2014-09-09
    A Qualitative Analysis of the Lottery Equivalents Method.Adam Oliver - 2007 - Economics and Philosophy 23 (2):185-204.
    Numerous instruments have been developed to elicit numerical values that represent the strength of preference for different health states. However, relatively few studies have attempted to analyse the reasoning processes that people employ when they are asked to answer questions based on these elicitation methods. The lottery equivalents method is a preference elicitation instrument that has recently received some attention in the literature. This study attempts a qualitative analysis of the use of this instrument on a group of 25 relatively (...)
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  38. added 2014-08-16
    Is Incomparability a Problem for Anyone?Nien-hê Hsieh - 2007 - Economics and Philosophy 23 (1):65-80.
    The incomparability of alternatives is thought to pose a problem for justified choice, particularly for proponents of comparativism better than,worse than,equally good,roughly equalon a par. namely, rejection of the transitivity of the relation In this paper, I argue that proponents of comparativism need not incur this cost. I defend the possibility of justified choice between incomparable alternatives on grounds that comparativists can accept. The possibility of incomparability has been met with resistance, in part because of the intuitive appeal of comparativism. (...)
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  39. added 2014-08-16
    Three Attitudes Towards Data Mining.Kevin D. Hoover & Stephen J. Perez - 2000 - Journal of Economic Methodology 7 (2):195-210.
    'Data mining' refers to a broad class of activities that have in common, a search over different ways to process or package data statistically or econometrically with the purpose of making the final presentation meet certain design criteria. We characterize three attitudes toward data mining: first, that it is to be avoided and, if it is engaged in, that statistical inferences must be adjusted to account for it; second, that it is inevitable and that the only results of any interest (...)
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  40. added 2014-08-14
    The Futile Search for True Utility.Roberto Fumagalli - 2013 - Economics and Philosophy 29 (3):325-347.
    In traditional decision theory, utility is regarded as a mathematical representation of preferences to be inferred from agents hedonic experiences. Some go as far as to contend that utility is literally computed by specific neural areas and urge economists to complement or substitute their notion of utility with some neuro-psychological construct. In this paper, I distinguish three notions of utility that are frequently mentioned in debates about decision theory and examine some critical issues regarding their definition and measurability. Moreover, I (...)
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  41. added 2014-08-14
    Mismeasuring the Value of Statistical Life.Till Grüne-Yanoff - 2009 - Journal of Economic Methodology 16 (2):109-123.
    The value of a statistical life (VSL) is an important tool for cost?benefit analysis of regulatory policies that concern fatality risks. Its proponents claim that it measures people's risk preferences, and that VSL therefore is a tool of vicarious governance. This paper criticizes the revealed preference method for measuring VSL. It specifies three minimal conditions for vicarious governance: sensitivity, fairness and hypothetical compromise, and shows that the VSL measure, in its common application in policy formation and analysis, violates these conditions. (...)
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  42. added 2014-08-14
    Measuring Inequality by Counting ‘Complaints’: Theory and Empirics.Kurt Devooght - 2003 - Economics and Philosophy 19 (2):241-263.
    This paper examines how people assess inequality of income distribution and how inequality could be measured. We start from the philosophical analysis of Temkin, who distinguishes nine plausible aspects of inequality. His approach is based on the concept of ‘complaints’ or distances between incomes. We examine the Temkin approach by means of the questionnaire-experimental method pioneered by Amiel and Cowell to find out whether the aspects of equality have any plausibility for student respondents and, if so, whether there are aspects (...)
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  43. added 2014-08-13
    Measuring Group Fitness in a Biological Hierarchy: An Axiomatic Social Choice Approach.Walter Bossert, Chloe X. Qi & John A. Weymark - 2013 - Economics and Philosophy 29 (3):301-323.
    This article illustrates how axiomatic social choice theory can be used in the evaluation of measures of group fitness for a biological hierarchy, thereby contributing to the dialogue between the philosophy of biology and social choice theory. It provides an axiomatic characterization of the ordering underlying the MichodSolariNedelcu index of group fitness for a multicellular organism. The MVSHN index has been used to analyse the germ-soma specialization and the fitness decoupling between the cell and organism levels that takes place during (...)
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  44. added 2013-07-01
    The History of the Use of Self-Reports and the Methodology of Economics.José M. Edwards - 2012 - Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (4):357-374.
    The main arguments currently held for and against the use of self-reports in economics are presented in their relation to well-known events in the history of the discipline: the ?measurement without theory?, the ?full-cost?, and the ?economic expectations? controversies. Doing so, the paper highlights the so far neglected role of George Katona's behavioral economics in these methodological discussions.
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