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  1. added 2020-05-09
    AGI and the Knight-Darwin Law: Why Idealized AGI Reproduction Requires Collaboration.Samuel Alexander - forthcoming - In International Conference on Artificial General Intelligence. Springer.
    Can an AGI create a more intelligent AGI? Under idealized assumptions, for a certain theoretical type of intelligence, our answer is: “Not without outside help”. This is a paper on the mathematical structure of AGI populations when parent AGIs create child AGIs. We argue that such populations satisfy a certain biological law. Motivated by observations of sexual reproduction in seemingly-asexual species, the Knight-Darwin Law states that it is impossible for one organism to asexually produce another, which asexually produces another, and (...)
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  2. added 2020-01-14
    Ecological Scaffolding and the Evolution of Individuality.Andrew Black, Pierrick Bourrat & Paul Rainey - forthcoming - Nature Ecology and Evolution 4.
  3. added 2019-12-21
    No Entailing Laws, but Enablement in the Evolution of the Biosphere.G. Longo, M. Montévil & S. Kauffman - 2012 - In Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. New York, NY, USA,: Acm. pp. 1379 -1392.
    Biological evolution is a complex blend of ever changing structural stability, variability and emergence of new phe- notypes, niches, ecosystems. We wish to argue that the evo- lution of life marks the end of a physics world view of law entailed dynamics. Our considerations depend upon dis- cussing the variability of the very ”contexts of life”: the in- teractions between organisms, biological niches and ecosys- tems. These are ever changing, intrinsically indeterminate and even unprestatable: we do not know ahead of (...)
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  4. added 2019-10-16
    Origins of Self.Steve Brewer - 2014
    “I will show you fear in a handful of dust” (T. S. Eliot: The Wasteland) -/- How can dust and water become a conscious living person capable of fear? The way these elements are transformed into life is sketched out, but it's our conscious minds, our intensity of being in a flood of emotions; this is the big problem that science has so far failed to explain. Freya, a biologist, is dissatisfied with the way evolution has no explanation for her (...)
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  5. added 2019-09-09
    Reciprocal Causation and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis.Andrew Buskell - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (4):267-279.
    Kevin Laland and colleagues have put forward a number of arguments motivating an extended evolutionary synthesis. Here I examine Laland et al.'s central concept of reciprocal causation. Reciprocal causation features in many arguments supporting an expanded evolutionary framework, yet few of these arguments are clearly delineated. Here I clarify the concept and make explicit three arguments in which it features. I identify where skeptics can—and are—pushing back against these arguments, and highlight what I see as the empirical, explanatory, and methodological (...)
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  6. added 2019-07-08
    Evolutionary Theory in Seven Articles.Derek Philip Hough - unknown
    Neo-Darwinism is an outdated theory. It has never been updated for the computer age, despite the fact that the subject matter can only be investigated with the aid of computers. Come on biologists! Get programing!
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  7. added 2019-07-05
    Possibility Spaces and the Notion of Novelty: From Music to Biology.Maël Montévil - 2019 - Synthese 196 (11):4555-4581.
    We provide a new perspective on the relation between the space of description of an object and the appearance of novelties. One of the aims of this perspective is to facilitate the interaction between mathematics and historical sciences. The definition of novelties is paradoxical: if one can define in advance the possibles, then they are not genuinely new. By analyzing the situation in set theory, we show that defining generic (i.e., shared) and specific (i.e., individual) properties of elements of a (...)
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  8. added 2019-06-26
    The Trajectory of Evolution and its Implications for Humanity.John E. Stewart - 2019 - Journal of Big History (3):141-155.
    Does the Big History of life on Earth disclose a trajectory that has been driven by selection? If so, will the trajectory continue to apply into the future? This paper argues that such a trajectory exists, and examines some of its key implications. The most important consequence is that humanity can use the trajectory to guide how it evolves and adapts into the future. This is because the trajectory identifies a sequence of adaptations that will be favoured by selection. If (...)
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  9. added 2019-06-12
    How Microbes "Jeopardize" the Modern Synthesis.Aaron Novick & W. Ford Doolittle - 2019 - PLOS Genetics 5 (15):e1008166.
    This editorial introduces a series of review articles concerning the ways in which recent work on microbial evolution has both deepened and challenged the modern synthesis. The authors develop a framework for thinking about theory change in biology.
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  10. added 2019-04-17
    The Integral Jan Smuts.Guy Pierre Du Plessis & Robert Weathers - 2015 - Paper Presented at The Fourth International Integral Theory Conference, CA: San Francisco, 19 July 2015.
  11. added 2019-01-31
    Evolution: A View From the 21st Century James Shapiro Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press Science, 2011.Alexander Powell - 2011 - Genomics, Society and Policy 7 (1):1-9.
  12. added 2018-12-06
    Mehr Als Nur Analogien? Zur Beziehung von Kultureller Und Biologischer Evolution.Eckhart Arnold - 2005 - Erwägen Wissen Ethik 16 (3):372-374.
    This article is a commentary on another article by Burkhard Stephan in "Erwägen Wissen Ethik" (16/2005 Issue 3). The question is examined, whether there exist analogies between (Darwinian) biological evolution cultural development processes. The topics discussed are: 1. Analogies to biological evolution on the cultural level. 2. Analogies to cultural processes on the biological level. 3. Features of the biological evolution of human nature that have direct consequences on the cultural level. 4. Ethical questions raised by the previous three points.
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  13. added 2018-11-24
    Innovationstheorie und die Evolution menschlicher Fähigkeiten: Beispiel Empathie.Alfred Gierer - 1998 - Nova Acta Leopoldina 77 (304):85-98.
    A summarizing English version on “Theory of Innovation and the Evolution of General Human Capabilities, such as Cognition-based Empathy” is included in the download. Den biologisch modernen Menschentyp charakterisieren sehr allgemeine Fähigkeiten, wie begriffliche Sprache, strategisches Denken und kognitionsgestützte Empathie. Neurobiologisch kann Empathiefähigkeit als eine Verbindung von Repräsentationen von Mitmenschen mit dem je eigenen Gefühlszentren im Gehirn angesehen werden. In Grundzügen ist sie vor vielleicht 100 000 Jahren als Folge von Mutationen der Erbsubstanz DNA entstanden. Für solche genetische Innovationen spielten (...)
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  14. added 2018-11-18
    Power in Cultural Evolution and the Spread of Prosocial Norms.Nathan Cofnas - 2018 - Quarterly Review of Biology 93 (4):297–318.
    According to cultural evolutionary theory in the tradition of Boyd and Richerson, cultural evolution is driven by individuals' learning biases, natural selection, and random forces. Learning biases lead people to preferentially acquire cultural variants with certain contents or in certain contexts. Natural selection favors individuals or groups with fitness-promoting variants. Durham (1991) argued that Boyd and Richerson's approach is based on a "radical individualism" that fails to recognize that cultural variants are often "imposed" on people regardless of their individual decisions. (...)
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  15. added 2018-11-06
    Evolutionary Theory and Computerised Genetic Algorithms.Derek Philip Hough - manuscript
    Neo-Darwinism can be usefully studied with the help of a Computerised Genetic Algorithm. Only a mathematical approach can reveal the shortcomings of the current dogma and point the way to a revised definition of the theory of evolution.
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  16. added 2018-09-17
    Hierarchy Theory of Evolution and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis: Some Epistemic Bridges, Some Conceptual Rifts.Alejandro Fábregas-Tejeda & Francisco Vergara-Silva - 2018 - Evolutionary Biology 45 (2):127-139.
    Contemporary evolutionary biology comprises a plural landscape of multiple co-existent conceptual frameworks and strenuous voices that disagree on the nature and scope of evolutionary theory. Since the mid-eighties, some of these conceptual frameworks have denounced the ontologies of the Modern Synthesis and of the updated Standard Theory of Evolution as unfinished or even flawed. In this paper, we analyze and compare two of those conceptual frameworks, namely Niles Eldredge’s Hierarchy Theory of Evolution (with its extended ontology of evolutionary entities) and (...)
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  17. added 2018-09-17
    The Emerging Structure of the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis: Where Does Evo-Devo Fit In?Alejandro Fábregas-Tejeda & Francisco Vergara-Silva - 2018 - Theory in Biosciences 137.
    The Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES) debate is gaining ground in contemporary evolutionary biology. In parallel, a number of philosophical standpoints have emerged in an attempt to clarify what exactly is represented by the EES. For Massimo Pigliucci, we are in the wake of the newest instantiation of a persisting Kuhnian paradigm; in contrast, Telmo Pievani has contended that the transition to an EES could be best represented as a progressive reformation of a prior Lakatosian scientific research program, with the extension (...)
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  18. added 2018-03-08
    A Unifying Theory of Biological Function.J. H. van Hateren - 2017 - Biological Theory 12 (2):112-126.
    A new theory that naturalizes biological function is explained and compared with earlier etiological and causal role theories. Etiological theories explain functions from how they are caused over their evolutionary history. Causal role theories analyze how functional mechanisms serve the current capacities of their containing system. The new proposal unifies the key notions of both kinds of theories, but goes beyond them by explaining how functions in an organism can exist as factors with autonomous causal efficacy. The goal-directedness and normativity (...)
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  19. added 2018-02-20
    Anthropocene: The philosophy of Biotechnology.Valentin Cheshko, Glazko Valery & Ivanitskaya Lida - 2018 - Moscow, Russia: Kurs INFRA-M.
    The theory of evolution of complex, including the humans system and algorithm for its constructing are a synthesis of evolutionary epistemology, philosophical anthropology and concrete scientific empirical basis in modern science,. In other words, natural philosophy is regaining the status bar element theoretical science in the era of technology-driven evolution. The co-evolutionary concept of 3-modal stable evolutionary strategy of Homo sapiens is developed. The concept based on the principle of evolutionary complementarity of anthropogenesis: value of evolutionary risk and evolutionary path (...)
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  20. added 2018-01-04
    Concept Progress.Leo Indman - 2017 - New York, USA: Leo Indman.
    Concept Progress is a fusion of science fiction and philosophy. It is a thesis on metaphysics that stretches beyond the scope of modern science and scratches many of our curious itches. The thesis is complemented by short and loosely tied sci-fi stories that make its conceptualizations come to life. ​ The central theme throughout is that progress is a driving force in human evolution. This recurring viewpoint has previously stirred much debate. However, as we escalate through the twenty-first century, the (...)
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  21. added 2017-11-15
    Developmental Mechanisms.Alan Love - 2018 - In S. Glennan & P. Illari (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Mechanisms. New York: Routledge.
    The Routledge Handbook of Mechanisms and Mechanical Philosophy is an outstanding reference source to the key topics, problems, and debates in this exciting subject and is the first collection of its kind. Comprising over thirty chapters by a team of international contributors, the Handbook is divided into four Parts: -/- Historical perspectives on mechanisms The nature of mechanisms Mechanisms and the philosophy of science Disciplinary perspectives on mechanisms. -/- Within these Parts central topics and problems are examined, including the rise (...)
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  22. added 2017-11-15
    Perspectives on Integrating Genetic and Physical Explanations of Evolution and Development.Alan Love, Thomas Stewart, Gunter Wagner & Stuart Newman - 2017 - Integrative and Comparative Biology:icx121.
    In the 20th century, genetic explanatory approaches became dominant in both developmental and evolutionary biological research. By contrast, physical approaches, which appeal to properties such as mechanical forces, were largely relegated to the margins, despite important advances in modeling. Recently, there have been renewed attempts to find balanced viewpoints that integrate both biological physics and molecular genetics into explanations of developmental and evolutionary phenomena. Here we introduce the 2017 SICB symposium “Physical and Genetic Mechanisms for Evolutionary Novelty” that was dedicated (...)
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  23. added 2017-10-19
    Embedded Mechanisms and Phylogenetics.Lucas J. Matthews - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):1116-1126.
    A strong case has been made for the role and value of mechanistic explanation in neuroscience and molecular biology. A similar demonstration in other domains of scientific investigation, however, remains an important challenge of scope for the new mechanists. This article helps answer that challenge by demonstrating one valuable role mechanisms play in phylogenetics. Using the transition/transversion rate parameter as a case example, this article argues that models embedded with mechanisms produce stronger phylogenetic tree hypotheses, as measured by maximum likelihood (...)
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  24. added 2017-09-25
    Population Dynamics and Evolution.P. Allen - 1976 - In Erich Jantsch (ed.), Evolution and Consciousness: Human Systems in Transition. Reading Ma: Addison-Wesley. pp. 127--130.
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  25. added 2017-09-22
    Rethinking the Structure of Evolutionary Theory for an Extended Synthesis.A. C. Love - 2010 - In M. Pigliucci & G. Müller (eds.), Evolution—The Extended Synthesis. MIT Press. pp. 403–441.
    This chapter describes the theoretical implications of Extended Synthesis and addresses the methodological options available for determining aspects of theoretical structure. It uses a “bottom-up” approach focused on evolutionary theory in particular, as opposed to a “top-down” strategy that attempts to characterize the structure of all scientific theories. The chapter shows that there are multiple stable components contained within a broad representation of evolutionary theory. It suggests that the philosophical analysis offered in the chapter regarding the structure of evolutionary theory (...)
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  26. added 2017-08-30
    Darwin’s Explanation of Races by Means of Sexual Selection.Roberta L. Millstein - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (3):627-633.
    In Darwin’s Sacred Cause, Adrian Desmond and James Moore contend that “Darwin would put his utmost into sexual selection because the subject intrigued him, no doubt, but also for a deeper reason: the theory vindicated his lifelong commitment to human brotherhood”. Without questioning Desmond and Moore’s evidence, I will raise some puzzles for their view. I will show that attention to the structure of Darwin’s arguments in the Descent of Man shows that they are far from straightforward. As Desmond and (...)
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  27. added 2017-01-25
    EvoDevo: die molekulare Entwicklungsbiologie als Schlüssel zum Verständnis der Evolutionstheorie.Paul Gottlob Layer - 2009 - Zeitschrift Für Pädagogik Und Theologie 61 (4):322-333.
    Darwin´s Erkenntnis über die Abstammung der Arten durch Mutation und Selektion sind in aller Munde, dass aber darüber im Detail noch viel Unklarheit herrscht, ist weniger bekannt. Es sind Fortschritte der Entwicklungsbiologie, die erst seit wenigen Jahren uns molekulare Erklärungsmuster an die Hand geben, mit denen die Entstehung neuer Arten besser verständlich wird. Es handelt sich um die Aufklärung der Wirkungsweise von Genen und ihren molekularen Produkten, die während der embryonalen Entwicklung von Tier und Mensch dafür sorgen, daß der Organismus (...)
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  28. added 2017-01-23
    Drift and Evolutionary Forces: Scrutinizing the Newtonian Analogy.Víctor J. Luque - 2016 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 31 (3):397-410.
    This article analyzes the view of evolutionary theory as a theory of forces. The analogy with Newtonian mechanics has been challenged due to the alleged mismatch between drift and the other evolutionary forces. Since genetic drift has no direction several authors tried to protect its status as a force: denying its lack of directionality, extending the notion of force and looking for a force in physics which also lacks of direction. I analyse these approaches, and although this strategy finally succeeds, (...)
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  29. added 2017-01-16
    "Life" Shaped by Genes That Depend on Their Surrounds.Paul Gottlob Layer - 2011 - Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 16:153-170.
    Never was dogmatic reductionism helpful in conceiving the phenomenon of life. The post-genomic era has made it clear that genes alone cannot explain the functioning of whole organisms. Already each cell represents a unique, non-recurring individual. Recent progress in developmental biology has conveyed new perspectives both on the makings of individual organisms (ontogeny), as on evolutionary change (Evo-Devo). The genome (the entirety of all genes) of an animal remains constant from fertilization onwards in each cell. The realization of genes requires (...)
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  30. added 2017-01-12
    "La métaphysique de Raymond Ruyer dans son rapport à la théologie naturelle" [The Metaphysics of Raymond Ruyer in Relation to Natural Theology].Gagnon Philippe - 2016 - In Bertrand Souchard & Fabien Revol (eds.), Controverses sur la création : Science, philosophie, théologie. Paris/Lyon: Vrin/Institut interdisciplinaire d'études épistémologiques. pp. 11-53.
  31. added 2017-01-06
    Application of the Eco-Field and General Theory of Resources to Bark Beetles: Beyond the Niche Construction Theory.F. J. Sánchez-García, V. Machado, J. Galián & D. Gallego - 2017 - Biosemiotics 10 (1):57-73.
    A new approach to landscape ecology involves the application of the eco-field hypothesis and the General Theory of Resources. In this study, we describe the putative eco-field of bark beetles as a spatial configuration with a specific meaning-carrier for every organism-resource interaction. Bark beetles are insects with key roles in matter and energy cycles in coniferous forests, which cause significant changes to forestry landscapes when outbreaks occur. Bark beetles are guided towards host trees by the recognition of semiotic signals using (...)
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  32. added 2016-12-08
    Landscapes, Surfaces, and Morphospaces: What Are They Good For?Massimo Pigliucci - 2012 - In E. Svensson & R. Calsbeek (eds.), The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford University Press. pp. 26.
    Few metaphors in biology are more enduring than the idea of Adaptive Landscapes, originally proposed by Sewall Wright (1932) as a way to visually present to an audience of typically non- mathematically savvy biologists his ideas about the relative role of natural selection and genetic drift in the course of evolution. The metaphor, how- ever, was born troubled, not the least reason for which is the fact that Wright presented different diagrams in his original paper that simply can- not refer (...)
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  33. added 2016-12-08
    Pre-Theoretical Assumptions in Evolutionary Explanations of Female Sexuality.Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 1993 - Philosophical Studies 69 (2-3):139-153.
    My contribution to this Symposium focuses on the links between sexuality and reproduction from the evolutionary point of view.' The relation between women's sexuality and reproduction is particularly importantb ecause of a vital intersectionb etweenp olitics and biology feminists have noticed, for more than a century, that women's identity is often defined in terms of her reproductive capacity. More recently, in the second wave of the feminist movement in the United States, debates about women'si dentityh ave explicitlyi ncludeds exuality;m uch (...)
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  34. added 2016-10-21
    Review of Are We Hardwired by Clark and Grunstein (2000).Michael Starks - 2017 - Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization Michael Starks 3rd Ed. (2017).
    This is an excellent review of gene/environment interactions on behavior and, in spite of being a bit dated, is an easy and worthwhile read. They start with twin studies which show the overwhelming impact of genetics on behavior. They note the increasingly well known studies of Judith Harris which extend and summarize the facts that shared home environment has almost no effect on behavior and that adopted children grow up to be as different from their stepbrothers and sisters as people (...)
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  35. added 2016-09-29
    Entwicklung und Evolution.Bernd Lahno & Hartmut Kliemt - 2004 - In Christoph Lütge (ed.), Kaltblütig. Philosophie von einem rationalen Standpunkt.Festschrift für Gerhard Vollmer. Hirzel. pp. 447-470.
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  36. added 2016-09-13
    Evolution: From Copying Errors to Evolvability.Derek Hough - 2007 - Book Guild.
    Neo-Darwinism is simply incorrect and it is an indictment of modern biology that the Theory of Evolution has not been updated in the light of research that can easily be conducted by anyone with a programmable computer.
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  37. added 2016-09-08
    The Evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity: Genealogy of a Debate in Genetics.Antonine Nicoglou - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 50:67-76.
    The paper describes the context and the origin of a particular debate that concerns the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. In 1965, British biologist A. D. Bradshaw proposed a widely cited model intended to explain the evolution of norms of reaction, based on his studies of plant populations. Bradshaw’s model went beyond the notion of the “adaptive norm of reaction” discussed before him by Dobzhansky and Schmalhausen by suggesting that “plasticity” the ability of a phenotype to be modified by the environment (...)
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  38. added 2016-09-01
    Puzzles for ZFEL, McShea and Brandon’s Zero Force Evolutionary Law.Martin Barrett, Hayley Clatterbuck, Michael Goldsby, Casey Helgeson, Brian McLoone, Trevor Pearce, Elliott Sober, Reuben Stern & Naftali Weinberger - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (5):723-735.
    In their 2010 book, Biology’s First Law, D. McShea and R. Brandon present a principle that they call ‘‘ZFEL,’’ the zero force evolutionary law. ZFEL says (roughly) that when there are no evolutionary forces acting on a population, the population’s complexity (i.e., how diverse its member organisms are) will increase. Here we develop criticisms of ZFEL and describe a different law of evolution; it says that diversity and complexity do not change when there are no evolutionary causes.
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  39. added 2016-09-01
    Evolution and Constraints on Variation: Variant Specification and Range of Assessment.Trevor Pearce - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):739-751.
    There is still a great deal of debate over what counts as a constraint and about how to assess experimentally the relative importance of constraints and selection in evolutionary history. I will argue that the notion of a constraint on variation, and thus the selection-constraint distinction, depends on two specifications: (1) what counts as a variant -- constraints limit or bias the production of what? and (2) range of assessment -- over what range of times or conditions is the variation (...)
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  40. added 2016-08-26
    What Would Have Happened If Darwin Had Known Mendel (or Mendel's Work)?Pablo Lorenzano - 2011 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (1):3-48.
    The question posed by the title is usually answered by saying that the “synthesis” between the theory of evolution by natural selection and classical genetics, which took place in 1930s-40s, would have taken place much earlier if Darwin had been aware of Mendel and his work. What is more, it nearly happened: it would have been enough if Darwin had cut the pages of the offprint of Mendel’s work that was in his library and read them! Or, if Mendel had (...)
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  41. added 2016-04-26
    Interpretations of the Concepts of Resilience and Evolution in the Philosophy of Leibniz.Vincenzo De Florio - manuscript
    In this article I interpret resilience and evolution in view of the philosophy of Leibniz. First, I discuss resilience as a substance’s or a monad’s “quantity of essence” — its “degree of perfection” — which I express as the quality of the Whole with respect to the sum of the qualities of the Parts. Then I discuss evolution, which I interpret here as the autopoietic Principle that sets Itself in motion and creates all reality, including Itself. This Principle may be (...)
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  42. added 2016-03-04
    Adaptationism and the Logic of Research Questions: How to Think Clearly About Evolutionary Causes.Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 2015 - Biological Theory 10 (4):DOI: 10.1007/s13752-015-0214-2.
    This article discusses various dangers that accompany the supposedly benign methods in behavioral evoltutionary biology and evolutionary psychology that fall under the framework of "methodological adaptationism." A "Logic of Research Questions" is proposed that aids in clarifying the reasoning problems that arise due to the framework under critique. The live, and widely practiced, " evolutionary factors" framework is offered as the key comparison and alternative. The article goes beyond the traditional critique of Stephen Jay Gould and Richard C. Lewontin, to (...)
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  43. added 2016-03-04
    Sometimes an Orgasm is Just an Orgasm.Erika Lorraine Milam, Gillian R. Brown, Stefan Linquist, Steve Fuller & Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 2006 - Metascience 15 (3):399-435.
    I should like to offer my greatest thanks to Paul Griffiths for providing the opportunity for this exchange, and to commentators Gillian Brown, Steven Fuller, Stefan Linquist, and Erika Milam for their generous and thought-provoking comments. I shall do my best in this space to respond to some of their concerns.
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  44. added 2016-03-01
    Human Brain Evolution, Theories of Innovation, and Lessons From the History of Technology.Alfred Gierer - 2004 - J. Biosci 29 (3):235-244.
    Biological evolution and technological innovation, while differing in many respects, also share common features. In particular, implementation of a new technology in the market is analogous to the spreading of a new genetic trait in a population. Technological innovation may occur either through the accumulation of quantitative changes, as in the development of the ocean clipper, or it may be initiated by a new combination of features or subsystems, as in the case of steamships. Other examples of the latter type (...)
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  45. added 2016-02-29
    Convergence and Parallelism in Evolution: A Neo-Gouldian Account.Trevor Pearce - 2012 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (2):429-448.
    Determining whether a homoplastic trait is the result of convergence or parallelism is central to many of the most important contemporary discussions in biology and philosophy: the relation between evolution and development, the importance of constraints on variation, and the role of contingency in evolution. In this article, I show that two recent attempts to draw a black-or-white distinction between convergence and parallelism fail, albeit for different reasons. Nevertheless, I argue that we should not be afraid of gray areas: a (...)
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  46. added 2016-02-16
    Biology's First Law: The Tendency for Diversity and Complexity to Increase in Evolutionary Systems.Daniel W. McShea & Robert N. Brandon - 2010 - University of Chicago Press.
  47. added 2016-02-10
    Complexity and the Arrow of Time.Charles H. Lineweaver, Paul C. W. Davies & Michael Ruse (eds.) - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
  48. added 2016-02-09
    L'evoluzione.Giuseppe Montalenti - 1965-1982 - Einaudi.
  49. added 2016-02-03
    L'origine delle specie.Charles Darwin - 1967 - Boringhieri.
  50. added 2016-02-03
    Introduzione a Charles Darwin, L'origine delle specie.Giuseppe Montalenti - 1967 - Boringhieri.
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