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  1. added 2019-01-15
    Renewing Medicine’s Basic Concepts: On Ambiguity.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2018 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 13 (1):8.
    I argue that the concept of normality in medical research and practice is inextricable from that of ambiguity. I do so in the context of Edmund Pellegrino's call for a renewed reflection on medicine’s basic concepts and by drawing on work in critical disability studies concerning Deafness and body integrity identity disorder. If medical practitioners and philosophers of medicine wish to improve their understanding of the meaning of medicine as well as its concrete practice, they should take seriously the import (...)
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  2. added 2019-01-09
    Twierdzenie Bayesa w projektowaniu strategii diagnostycznych w medycynie.Tomasz Rzepiński - 2018 - Diametros 57:39-60.
    The paper will compare two methods used in the design of diagnostic strategies. The first one is a method that precises predictive value of diagnostic tests. The second one is based on the use of Bayes’ theorem. The main aim of this article is to identify the epistemological assumptions underlying both of these methods. For the purpose of this objective, example projects of one and multi-stage diagnostic strategy developed using both methods will be considered.
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  3. added 2018-12-21
    Uproszczone Systemy Dekodowania Sygnałów W Mechanistycznej Koncepcji Wyjaśniania Zjawiska Wtórnej Odpowiedzi Immunologicznej.Tomasz Rzepiński - 2016 - Diametros 50:43-62.
    The paper deals with the procedure of explaining the secondary immune response. First, the basic concepts of the mechanistic account of explanation developed by Machamer, Darden and Craver will be considered. Subsequently, I will focus on the concepts describing the activation of the elements of the immunological system viewed as a signal decoding process. The analysis will make it possible to argue for the thesis that the explanations of the secondary immune response, formulated in immunology, aim to describe the possible (...)
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  4. added 2018-09-18
    Philosophy of Population Health: Philosophy for a New Public Health Era.Sean A. Valles - 2018 - Abingdon OX14, UK: Routledge.
    Population health has recently grown from a series of loosely connected critiques of twentieth-century public health and medicine into a theoretical framework with a corresponding field of research—population health science. Its approach is to promote the public’s health through improving everyday human life: affordable nutritious food, clean air, safe places where children can play, living wages, etc. It recognizes that addressing contemporary health challenges such as the prevalence of type 2 diabetes will take much more than good hospitals and public (...)
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  5. added 2018-05-30
    Cochrane Review as a “Warranting Device” for Reasoning About Health.Sally Jackson & Jodi Schneider - 2018 - Argumentation 32 (2):241-272.
    Contemporary reasoning about health is infused with the work products of experts, and expert reasoning about health itself is an active site for invention and design. Building on Toulmin’s largely undeveloped ideas on field-dependence, we argue that expert fields can develop new inference rules that, together with the backing they require, become accepted ways of drawing and defending conclusions. The new inference rules themselves function as warrants, and we introduce the term “warranting device” to refer to an assembly of the (...)
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  6. added 2018-05-02
    A Concise Guide to Clinical Reasoning.Patrick Daly - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):966-972.
    What constitutes clinical reasoning is a disputed subject regarding the processes underlying accurate diagnosis, the importance of patient‐specific versus population‐based data, and the relation between virtue and expertise in clinical practice. In this paper, I present a model of clinical reasoning that identifies and integrates the processes of diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic decision making. The model is based on the generalized empirical method of Bernard Lonergan, which approaches inquiry with equal attention to the subject who investigates and the object under (...)
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  7. added 2018-02-17
    General Practice and Ethics: Uncertainty and Responsibility.Christopher Dowrick & Lucy Frith (eds.) - 1999 - Routledge.
    Explores the ethical issues faced by GPs in their everyday practice, addressing two central themes; the uncertainty of outcomes and effectiveness in general practice and the changing pattern of general practitioners' responsibilities.
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  8. added 2018-02-16
    Epistemic Injustice and Illness.Ian James Kidd & Havi Carel - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (2):172-190.
    This article analyses the phenomenon of epistemic injustice within contemporary healthcare. We begin by detailing the persistent complaints patients make about their testimonial frustration and hermeneutical marginalization, and the negative impact this has on their care. We offer an epistemic analysis of this problem using Miranda Fricker's account of epistemic injustice. We detail two types of epistemic injustice, testimonial and hermeneutical, and identify the negative stereotypes and structural features of modern healthcare practices that generate them. We claim that these stereotypes (...)
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  9. added 2017-09-23
    Medicine Without Cure?: A Cluster Analysis of the Nature of Medicine.Thaddeus Metz - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (3):306-312.
    Part of a symposium devoted to ‘Prediction, Understanding, and Medicine’, in which Alex Broadbent argues that the nature of medicine is determined by its competences, i.e., which things it can do well. He argues that, although medicine cannot cure well, it can do a good job of enabling people not only to understand states of the human organism and of what has caused them, but also to predict future states of it. From this Broadbent concludes that medicine is (at least (...)
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  10. added 2017-09-23
    Advancing the Philosophy of Medicine: Towards New Topics and Sources.Thaddeus Metz & Chadwin Harris - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (3):281-288.
    The first part of a symposium devoted to Alex Broadbent's essay titled ‘Prediction, Understanding and Medicine’, this article notes the under-development of a variety of issues in the philosophy of medicine that transcend bioethics and the long-standing debates about the nature of health/illness and of evidence-based medicine. It also indicates the importance of drawing on non-Western, and particularly African, traditions in addressing these largely metaphysical and epistemological matters.
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  11. added 2017-02-11
    Knowledge and Attitudes of Trainee Physicians Regarding Evidence‐Based Medicine: A Questionnaire Survey in Tehran, Iran.Sara Ahmadi‐Abhari, Akbar Soltani & Farhad Hosseinpanah - 2008 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):775-779.
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  12. added 2017-01-17
    Research Gaps in the Philosophy of Evidence‐Based Medicine.Alexander Mebius, Ashley Graham Kennedy & Jeremy Howick - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (11):757-771.
    Increasing philosophical attention is being directed to the rapidly growing discipline of evidence-based medicine. Philosophical discussions of EBM, however, remain narrowly focused on randomization, mechanisms, and the sociology of EBM. Other aspects of EBM have been all but ignored, including the nature of clinical reasoning and the question of whether it can be standardized; the application of EBM principles to the logic, value, and ethics of diagnosis and prognosis; evidence synthesis ; and the nature and ethics of placebo controls. Philosophical (...)
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  13. added 2017-01-16
    Notes on the Use of Randomised Controlled Trials to Evaluate Complex Interventions: Community Treatment Orders as an Illustrative Case.Feras Ali Mustafa - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (1):185-192.
    Over the past seven decades, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have revolutionised clinical research and achieved a gold standard status. However, extending their use to evaluate complex interventions is problematic. In this paper we will demonstrate that complex intervention RCTs violate the necessary premises that govern the RCTs logic and underpin their rigour. The lack of blinding, heterogeneity of participants, as well as poor treatment standardisation and difficulty of controlling for confounders, which characterise complex intervention RCTs, can potentially be profoundly detrimental (...)
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  14. added 2016-12-08
    Epistemic Injustice in Medicine and Healthcare.Ian James Kidd & Havi Carel - 2017 - In Ian James Kidd, Gaile Pohlhaus & José Medina (eds.), The Routledge Handbook to Epistemic Injustice. New York: Routledge. pp. 336-346.
    We survey several ways in which the structures and norms of medicine and healthcare can generate epistemic injustice.
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  15. added 2016-12-08
    R. A. Fisher and His Advocacy of Randomization.Nancy S. Hall - 2007 - Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2):295-325.
    The requirement of randomization in experimental design was first stated by R. A. Fisher, statistician and geneticist, in 1925 in his book Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Earlier designs were systematic and involved the judgment of the experimenter; this led to possible bias and inaccurate interpretation of the data. Fisher's dictum was that randomization eliminates bias and permits a valid test of significance. Randomization in experimenting had been used by Charles Sanders Peirce in 1885 but the practice was not continued. (...)
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  16. added 2016-12-08
    Neuro-Ethics or Neuro-Values? Delusion and Religious Experience as a Case Study in Values-Based Medicine.Kwm Fulford - 2004 - Poiesis and Praxis 2 (4):297-313.
    Values-Based Medicine (VBM) is the theory and practice of clinical decision-making for situations in which legitimately different values are in play. VBM is thus to values what Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is to facts. The theoretical basis of VBM is a branch of analytic philosophy called philosophical value theory. As a set of practical tools, VBM has been developed to meet the challenges of value diversity as they arise particularly in psychiatry. These challenges are illustrated in this paper by a case (...)
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  17. added 2016-07-21
    New Directions in Philosophy of Medicine.Jacob Stegenga, Ashley Kennedy, Serife Tekin, Saana Jukola & Robyn Bluhm - forthcoming - In James Marcum (ed.), Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 343-367.
    The purpose of this chapter is to describe what we see as several important new directions for philosophy of medicine. This recent work (i) takes existing discussions in important and promising new directions, (ii) identifies areas that have not received sufficient and deserved attention to date, and/or (iii) brings together philosophy of medicine with other areas of philosophy (including bioethics, philosophy of psychiatry, and social epistemology). To this end, the next part focuses on what we call the “epistemological turn” in (...)
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  18. added 2016-07-21
    Hollow Hunt for Harms.Jacob Stegenga - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (5):481-504.
    Harms of medical interventions are systematically underestimated in clinical research. Numerous factors—conceptual, methodological, and social—contribute to this underestimation. I articulate the depth of such underestimation by describing these factors at the various stages of clinical research. Before any evidence is gathered, the ways harms are operationalized in clinical research contributes to their underestimation. Medical interventions are first tested in phase 1 ‘first in human’ trials, but evidence from these trials is rarely published, despite the fact that such trials provide the (...)
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  19. added 2016-07-21
    Measuring Effectiveness.Jacob Stegenga - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54:62-71.
    Measuring the effectiveness of medical interventions faces three epistemological challenges: the choice of good measuring instruments, the use of appropriate analytic measures, and the use of a reliable method of extrapolating measures from an experimental context to a more general context. In practice each of these challenges contributes to overestimating the effectiveness of medical interventions. These challenges suggest the need for corrective normative principles. The instruments employed in clinical research should measure patient-relevant and disease-specific parameters, and should not be sensitive (...)
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  20. added 2016-07-21
    Effectiveness of Medical Interventions.Jacob Stegenga - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54:34-44.
    To be effective, a medical intervention must improve one's health by targeting a disease. The concept of disease, though, is controversial. Among the leading accounts of disease-naturalism, normativism, hybridism, and eliminativism-I defend a version of hybridism. A hybrid account of disease holds that for a state to be a disease that state must both (i) have a constitutive causal basis and (ii) cause harm. The dual requirement of hybridism entails that a medical intervention, to be deemed effective, must target either (...)
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  21. added 2016-07-21
    Down with the Hierarchies.Jacob Stegenga - 2014 - Topoi 33 (2):313-322.
    Evidence hierarchies are widely used to assess evidence in systematic reviews of medical studies. I give several arguments against the use of evidence hierarchies. The problems with evidence hierarchies are numerous, and include methodological shortcomings, philosophical problems, and formal constraints. I argue that medical science should not employ evidence hierarchies, including even the latest and most-sophisticated of such hierarchies.
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  22. added 2016-07-17
    Perspectives on Clinical Possibility: Elements of Analysis.Daniele Chiffi & Renzo Zanotti - 2016 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 4 (22):509-14.
  23. added 2016-07-15
    Metabolic Theories of Whipple Disease.Oscar Morice, Mathew Elameer, Mina Arsanious, Helen Stephens, Eleanor Soutter, Thomas Hughes & Brendan Clarke - manuscript
    Whipple disease is a rare, infectious, disease first described from a single case by Whipple in 1907. As well as characterising the clinical and pathological features of the condition, Whipple made two suggestions regarding its aetiology. These were either than the disease was caused by an infectious agent, or that it was of metabolic origin. As the disease is now thought to be caused by infection with the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei, historical reviews of the history of the disease typically mention (...)
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  24. added 2016-05-13
    Heuristics and Meta-Heuristics in Scientific Judgement.Spencer Phillips Hey - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (2):471-495.
    Despite the increasing recognition that heuristics may be involved in myriad scientific activities, much about how to use them prudently remains obscure. As typically defined, heuristics are efficient rules or procedures for converting complex problems into simpler ones. But this increased efficiency and problem-solving power comes at the cost of a systematic bias. As Wimsatt showed, biased modelling heuristics can conceal errors, leading to poor decisions or inaccurate models. This liability to produce errors presents a fundamental challenge to the philosophical (...)
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  25. added 2016-05-06
    Translating Trial Results in Clinical Practice: The Risk GP Model.Jonathan Fuller & Luis J. Flores - 2016 - Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 9:167-168.
  26. added 2016-05-02
    Hierarchies of Evidence in Evidence-Based Medicine.Christopher J. Blunt - 2015 - Dissertation, London School of Economics
    Hierarchies of evidence are an important and influential tool for appraising evidence in medicine. In recent years, hierarchies have been formally adopted by organizations including the Cochrane Collaboration [1], NICE [2,3], the WHO [4], the US Preventive Services Task Force [5], and the Australian NHMRC [6,7]. The development of such hierarchies has been regarded as a central part of Evidence-Based Medicine, a movement within healthcare which prioritises the use of epidemiological evidence such as that provided by Randomised Controlled Trials. Philosophical (...)
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  27. added 2016-04-29
    Causal Hypotheses Are Useful in Medicine, Also More Limited Ones – a Response to Robyn Bluhm on 'Capacities in Psychiatry'.Dieneke Hubbeling - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):562-563.
    This is a response to the response by Robyn Bluhm to my paper, and I am again arguing for a limited role of capacities in psychiatry, given the current scientific uncertainties.
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  28. added 2016-04-29
    The Application of Cartwright's Concept of Capacities to Complex Interventions in Psychiatry.Dieneke Hubbeling - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1013-1018.
    Cartwright and Munro argued that extrapolation of findings from randomized controlled trials to other settings can be difficult because information about the underlying causal structure and subgroups is often not available. They advocated the use of ‘capacities’ – that is fixed causal contributions – in predicting effects of interventions. In psychiatry, it is often not possible to determine what the fixed causal contributions are and one can only establish ‘approximate capacities’. However, using ‘approximate capacities’ does imply a different way of (...)
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  29. added 2016-01-24
    Medicine, Science and Society in Ferrara from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century.Rossano Pancaldi - forthcoming - Xxx.
  30. added 2016-01-15
    Sanità, Scienza E Società a Ferrara Dal Medioevo all'Ottocento.Rossano Pancaldi - forthcoming - Medicina Nei Secoli.
    MALARIA, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY IN FERRARA FROM THE MIDDLE AGES TO THE NINETEENTH CENTURY -/- In this paper it is outlined the history of malaria in Ferrara and its suburbs, from ancient times up to the nineteenth century. It is considered the issue of malaria in Roman times, during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the discovery of quinine, the first scientific studies made at the University of Ferrara, the first analysis about the causes and the spread of the disease. (...)
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  31. added 2015-11-15
    La désunité de la médecine.Maël Lemoine - 2011 - Hermann.
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  32. added 2015-10-02
    Reasoning in Medicine an Introduction to Clinical Inference.Daniel A. Albert, Ronald Munson & Michael D. Resnik - 1988
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  33. added 2015-10-02
    Case Exercises in Clinical Reasoning.Paul Beck, Richard L. Byyny & Kirk S. Adams - 1981
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  34. added 2015-09-18
    The Limits of Piecemeal Causal Inference.Conor Mayo-Wilson - 2014 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (2):213-249.
    In medicine and the social sciences, researchers must frequently integrate the findings of many observational studies, which measure overlapping collections of variables. For instance, learning how to prevent obesity requires combining studies that investigate obesity and diet with others that investigate obesity and exercise. Recently developed causal discovery algorithms provide techniques for integrating many studies, but little is known about what can be learned from such algorithms. This article argues that there are causal facts that one could learn by conducting (...)
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  35. added 2015-08-21
    Objectivity, Scientificity, and the Dualist Epistemology of Medicine.Thomas V. Cunningham - 2015 - In P. Huneman (ed.), Classification, Disease, and Evidence. Springer Science + Business. pp. 01-17.
    This paper considers the view that medicine is both “science” and “art.” It is argued that on this view certain clinical knowledge – of patients’ histories, values, and preferences, and how to integrate them in decision-making – cannot be scientific knowledge. However, by drawing on recent work in philosophy of science it is argued that progress in gaining such knowledge has been achieved by the accumulation of what should be understood as “scientific” knowledge. I claim there are varying degrees of (...)
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  36. added 2015-08-19
    Prediction in Epidemiology and Medicine.Jonathan Fuller, Alex Broadbent & Luis J. Flores - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C.
  37. added 2015-08-03
    The Risk GP Model: The Standard Model of Prediction in Medicine.Jonathan Fuller & Luis J. Flores - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 54:49-61.
  38. added 2015-05-03
    Diseases, Patients and the Epistemology of Practice: Mapping the Borders of Health, Medicine and Care.Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Jonathan Fuller, Stephen Buetow, Benjamin R. Lewis & Brent M. Kious - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):357-364.
  39. added 2015-03-17
    Evidence‐Based Practice Among Primary Care Physicians in Kuwait.Abeer Sh Ahmad, Nouf Be Al‐Mutar, Fahad As Al‐Hulabi, Eman Sl Al‐Rashidee & Lukman Thalib - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1125-1130.
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  40. added 2015-03-17
    The Limits of Boardroom Thinking at the Bedside.David A. Asch & John C. Hershey - 1997 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (1):1-2.
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  41. added 2015-03-17
    Points East and West: Acupuncture and Comparative Philosophy of Science.Douglas Allchin - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (3):115.
    Acupuncture, the traditional Chinese practice of needling to alleviate pain, offers a striking case where scientific accounts in two cultures, East and West, diverge sharply. Yet the Chinese comfortably embrace the apparent ontological incommensurability. Their pragmatic posture resonates with the New Experimentalism in the West--but with some provocative differences. The development of acupuncture in China (and not in the West) further suggests general research strategies in the context of discovery. My analysis also exemplifies how one might fruitfully pursue a comparative (...)
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  42. added 2015-03-17
    The Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Infants and Children: The Role of Viruses.J. S. Abramson - 1987 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 32 (1):63-72.
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  43. added 2015-02-09
    An Introduction to the Medical Epistemology of Georges Canguilhem: Moving Beyond Michel Foucault.Stuart F. Spicker - 1987 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 12 (4):397-411.
    Although American philosophers and physicians are generally familiar with the writings of Claude Bernard (1813–1878), especially his Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865), the medicial epistemology of Georges Canguilhem, born in 1904, is virtually unknown in English speaking nations. Although indebted to Bernard for his conception of the methods to be employed in the acquisition of medical knowledge, Canguilhem radically reformulates Bernard's concepts of ‘disease’, ‘health’, ‘illness’, and ‘pathology’. Contemporary exhortations to medical professionals and medical students that they (...)
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  44. added 2015-02-08
    On Evidence, Medical & Legal - Letter & Authors' Reply.Clifford Miller - 2005 - Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons 10 (4):98-99..
    This exchange of correspondence with a critic provides helpful explanations of aspects of the paper "On Evidence, Medical and Legal" by the same authors.
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  45. added 2014-04-17
    Unifying Diseases From a Genetic Point of View: The Example of the Genetic Theory of Infectious Diseases.Marie Darrason - 2013 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (4):327-344.
    In the contemporary biomedical literature, every disease is considered genetic. This extension of the concept of genetic disease is usually interpreted either in a trivial or genocentrist sense, but it is never taken seriously as the expression of a genetic theory of disease. However, a group of French researchers defend the idea of a genetic theory of infectious diseases. By identifying four common genetic mechanisms (Mendelian predisposition to multiple infections, Mendelian predisposition to one infection, and major gene and polygenic predispositions), (...)
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  46. added 2014-04-02
    Evidence Based Medicine and Ethics.T. Hope - 1995 - Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (5):259-260.
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  47. added 2014-04-01
    Evidence Based Medicine and Ethics.J. C. Hughes - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (1):55-56.
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  48. added 2014-03-28
    Uncertainly in Clinical Medicine.Benjamin Djulbegovic, Iztok Hozo & Sander Greenland - 2011 - In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier. pp. 16--299.
    It is often said that clinical research and the practice of medicine are fraught with uncertainties. But what do we mean by uncertainty? Where does uncertainty come from? How do we measure uncertainty? Is there a single theory of uncertainty that applies across all scientific domains, including the science and practice of medicine? To answer these questions, we first review the existing theories of uncertainties. We then attempt to bring the enormous literature to bear from other disciplines to address the (...)
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  49. added 2014-03-28
    Evidence-Based Medicine.Robyn Bluhm & Kirstin Borgerson - 2011 - In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier.
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  50. added 2014-03-28
    The Logic of Diagnosis.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2011 - In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier. pp. 16--357.
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1 — 50 / 213