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  1. Should Causal Models Always Be Markovian? The Case of Multi-Causal Forks in Medicine.Donald Gillies & Aidan Sudbury - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (3):275-308.
    The development of causal modelling since the 1950s has been accompanied by a number of controversies, the most striking of which concerns the Markov condition. Reichenbach's conjunctive forks did satisfy the Markov condition, while Salmon's interactive forks did not. Subsequently some experts in the field have argued that adequate causal models should always satisfy the Markov condition, while others have claimed that non-Markovian causal models are needed in some cases. This paper argues for the second position by considering the multi-causal (...)
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  2. Handbook of Concepts in Philosophy of Medicine.S. Edwards & T. Schramme (eds.) - forthcoming - Springer.
  3. Reliability of Molecular Imaging Diagnostics.Elisabetta Lalumera, Stefano Fanti & Giovanni Boniolo - forthcoming - Synthese:1-17.
    Advanced medical imaging, such as CT, fMRI and PET, has undergone enormous progress in recent years, both in accuracy and utilization. Such techniques often bring with them an illusion of immediacy, the idea that the body and its diseases can be directly inspected. In this paper we target this illusion and address the issue of the reliability of advanced imaging tests as knowledge procedures, taking positron emission tomography in oncology as paradigmatic case study. After individuating a suitable notion of reliability, (...)
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  4. The Limits of Conventional Justification: Inductive Risk and Industry Bias Beyond Conventionalism.Miguel Ohnesorge - forthcoming - Frontiers in Research Metric and Analytics.
    This article develops a constructive criticism of methodological conventionalism. Methodological conventionalism asserts that standards of inductive risk ought to be justified in virtue of their ability to facilitate coordination in a research community. On that view, industry bias occurs when conventional methodological standards are violated to foster industry preferences. The underlying account of scientific conventionality, however, is problematically incomplete. Conventions may be justified in virtue of their coordinative functions, but often qualify for posterior empirical criticism as research advances. Accordingly, industry (...)
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  5. Medicine, Science and Society in Ferrara from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century.Rossano Pancaldi - forthcoming - Medicina Nei Secoli.
    MALARIA, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY IN FERRARA FROM THE MIDDLE AGES TO THE NINETEENTH CENTURY -/- In this paper it is outlined the history of malaria in Ferrara and its suburbs, from ancient times up to the nineteenth century. It is considered the issue of malaria in Roman times, during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the discovery of quinine, the first scientific studies made at the University of Ferrara, the first analysis about the causes and the spread of the disease. (...)
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  6. Sanità, Scienza E Società a Ferrara Dal Medioevo all'Ottocento.Rossano Pancaldi - forthcoming - Medicina Nei Secoli.
    MALARIA, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY IN FERRARA FROM THE MIDDLE AGES TO THE NINETEENTH CENTURY -/- In this paper it is outlined the history of malaria in Ferrara and its suburbs, from ancient times up to the nineteenth century. It is considered the issue of malaria in Roman times, during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the discovery of quinine, the first scientific studies made at the University of Ferrara, the first analysis about the causes and the spread of the disease. (...)
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  7. Herding QATs: Quality Assessment Tools for Evidence in Medicine.Jacob Stegenga - forthcoming - In Huneman, Silberstein & Lambert (eds.), Herding QATs: Quality Assessment Tools for Evidence in Medicine.
    Medical scientists employ ‘quality assessment tools’ (QATs) to measure the quality of evidence from clinical studies, especially randomized controlled trials (RCTs). These tools are designed to take into account various methodological details of clinical studies, including randomization, blinding, and other features of studies deemed relevant to minimizing bias and error. There are now dozens available. The various QATs on offer differ widely from each other, and second-order empirical studies show that QATs have low inter-rater reliability and low inter-tool reliability. This (...)
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  8. New Directions in Philosophy of Medicine.Jacob Stegenga, Ashley Kennedy, Serife Tekin, Saana Jukola & Robyn Bluhm - forthcoming - In James Marcum (ed.), Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 343-367.
    The purpose of this chapter is to describe what we see as several important new directions for philosophy of medicine. This recent work (i) takes existing discussions in important and promising new directions, (ii) identifies areas that have not received sufficient and deserved attention to date, and/or (iii) brings together philosophy of medicine with other areas of philosophy (including bioethics, philosophy of psychiatry, and social epistemology). To this end, the next part focuses on what we call the “epistemological turn” in (...)
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  9. Medical Ontology.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Due to the intricate nature of its subject matter, medicine is always threatened by speculations and disagreements about which among its entities exist, e.g., any specific biological structures, substructures or substances, pathogenic agents, pathophysiological processes, diseases, psychosomatic relationships, therapeutic effects, and other possible and impossible things. To avoid confusion, and to determine what entities an item of medical knowledge presupposes to exist if it is to be true, we need medical ontology. The term “medical ontology” we understand to mean the (...)
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  10. Philosophy of Advanced Medical Imaging.Elisabetta Lalumera & Stefano Fanti - 2021 - Springer International.
    This is the first book to explore the epistemology and ethics of advanced imaging tests, in order to improve the critical understanding of the nature of knowledge they provide and the practical consequences of their utilization in healthcare. Advanced medical imaging tests, such as PET and MRI, have gained center stage in medical research and in patients’ care. They also increasingly raise questions that pertain to philosophy: What is required to be an expert in reading images? How are standards for (...)
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  11. Misalignment Between Research Hypotheses and Statistical Hypotheses: A Threat to Evidence-Based Medicine?Insa Lawler & Georg Zimmermann - 2021 - Topoi 40 (2):307-318.
    Evidence-based medicine frequently uses statistical hypothesis testing. In this paradigm, data can only disconfirm a research hypothesis’ competitors: One tests the negation of a statistical hypothesis that is supposed to correspond to the research hypothesis. In practice, these hypotheses are often misaligned. For instance, directional research hypotheses are often paired with non-directional statistical hypotheses. Prima facie, one cannot gain proper evidence for one’s research hypothesis employing a misaligned statistical hypothesis. This paper sheds lights on the nature of and the reasons (...)
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  12. Making Evidential Claims in Epidemiology: Three Strategies for the Study of the Exposome.Stefano Canali - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 82:101248.
    How is scientific data used to represent phenomena and as evidence for claims about phenomena? In this paper, I propose that a specific type of claims – evidential claims – is involved in data practices to define and restrict the representational and evidential content of a dataset. I present an account of data practices in the epidemiology of the exposome based on the notion of evidential claims, which helps unpack the approaches, assumptions and warrants that connect different stages of research. (...)
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  13. Medical Nihilism by Jacob Stegenga: What is the Right Dose? [REVIEW]Jonathan Fuller - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 81.
  14. A Moral Obligation to Proper Experimentation: Research Ethics as Epistemic Filter in the Aftermath of World War II.Noortje Jacobs - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):759-780.
  15. COVID-19 and Control: An Essay From a Pragmatic Perspective on Science.Tuomas K. Pernu - 2020 - Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the COVID-19 Pandemic.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated how different (even conflicting) interventions on nature can be scientifically justified: interventions can be deemed "effective" only in relation to specific target variables - in relation to variables the values of which we seek to control. Choosing the "right" target variables, in turn, depends on our values and pragmatic aims. This essay is based on a presentation given at the symposium "Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the COVID-19 Pandemic", organised at the Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies on (...)
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  16. How Many Have Died?S. Andrew Schroeder - 2020 - Issues in Science and Technology.
    I look at the two main approaches used to count COVID-19 deaths and show how each of those approaches can appear to both overcount COVID deaths (including deaths it should exclude) and undercount COVID deaths (excluding deaths it should include). I trace this to the fact - well-known to philosophers - that causal attribution is interest-relative. Which deaths we should attribute to COVID (as opposed to other causes) will depend on our particular interests and values. Contrary to what many journalists (...)
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  17. Experiential Knowledge in Clinical Medicine: Use and Justification.Mark R. Tonelli & Devora Shapiro - 2020 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 41 (2):67-82.
    Within the evidence-based medicine construct, clinical expertise is acknowledged to be both derived from primary experience and necessary for optimal medical practice. Primary experience in medical practice, however, remains undervalued. Clinicians’ primary experience tends to be dismissed by EBM as unsystematic or anecdotal, a source of bias rather than knowledge, never serving as the “best” evidence to support a clinical decision. The position that clinical expertise is necessary but that primary experience is untrustworthy in clinical decision-making is epistemically incoherent. Here (...)
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  18. Shared Decision‐Making in Maternity Care: Acknowledging and Overcoming Epistemic Defeaters.Keith Begley, Deirdre Daly, Sunita Panda & Cecily Begley - 2019 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 25 (6):1113-1120.
    Shared decision‐making involves health professionals and patients/clients working together to achieve true person‐centred health care. However, this goal is infrequently realized, and most barriers are unknown. Discussion between philosophers, clinicians, and researchers can assist in confronting the epistemic and moral basis of health care, with benefits to all. The aim of this paper is to describe what shared decision‐making is, discuss its necessary conditions, and develop a definition that can be used in practice to support excellence in maternity care. Discussion (...)
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  19. Moral Normative Force and Clinical Ethics Expertise.Parker Crutchfield - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (11):89-91.
    Brummett and Salter propose a useful and timely taxonomy of clinical ethics expertise (2019). As the field becomes further “professionalized” this taxonomy is important, and the core of it is right. It needs some refinement around the edges, however. In their conclusion, Brummett and Salter rightly point out that there is a significant difference between the ethicist whose recommendations are procedure- and process-heavy, consensus-driven, and dialogical and the authoritarian ethicist whose recommendations flow from “private moral views” (Brummett and Salter, 2019). (...)
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  20. Fanti, S., Oyen, W., & Lalumera, E. (2019). Consensus Procedures in Oncological Imaging: The Case of Prostate Cancer.Stefano Fanti, Wim Oyen & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2019 - Cancers 11:1178-1190.
    Recently, there has been increasing interest in methodological aspects of advanced imaging, including the role of guidelines, recommendations, and experts’ consensus, the practice of self-referral, and the risk of diagnostic procedure overuse. In a recent Delphi study of the European Association for Nuclear Medicine (EANM), panelists were asked to give their opinion on 47 scientific questions about imaging in prostate cancer. Nine additional questions exploring the experts’ attitudes and opinions relating to the procedure of consensus building itself were also included. (...)
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  21. Clinical Equipoise and Adaptive Clinical Trials.Nicolas Fillion - 2019 - Topoi 38 (2):457-467.
    Ethically permissible clinical trials must not expose subjects to risks that are unreasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. In the research ethics literature, this moral requirement is typically understood in one of two different ways: as requiring the existence of a state of clinical equipoise, meaning a state of honest, professional disagreement among the community of experts about the preferred treatment; or as requiring an equilibrium between individual and collective ethics. It has been maintained that this second interpretation makes it (...)
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  22. The Book That Touched Millions: The Immortal Fly.Rituparna Ray Chaudhuri (ed.) - 2019 - Bloomington,USA: Partridge International In Association with Penguin Random House.
    THE IMMORTAL FLY: ETERNAL WHISPERS. WHO IS SHE? Author: Rituparna Ray Chaudhuri. Hello, Recently my book named, ‘The Immortal Fly: Eternal Whispers : Based On True Events of a Family' been published from Partridge (USA) In Association with Penguin Random House (UK) and achieved a separate Google identity. -/- As being # the author of the book, I thought to define self in the book what is definition of 'Depression'. I wanted to explain self in many ways, but the best (...)
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  23. A Concise Guide to Clinical Reasoning.Patrick Daly - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):966-972.
    What constitutes clinical reasoning is a disputed subject regarding the processes underlying accurate diagnosis, the importance of patient‐specific versus population‐based data, and the relation between virtue and expertise in clinical practice. In this paper, I present a model of clinical reasoning that identifies and integrates the processes of diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic decision making. The model is based on the generalized empirical method of Bernard Lonergan, which approaches inquiry with equal attention to the subject who investigates and the object under (...)
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  24. Ethical and Moral Concerns Regarding Artificial Intelligence in Law and Medicine.Soaad Hossain - 2018 - Journal of Undergraduate Life Sciences 12 (1):10.
    This paper summarizes the seminar AI in Medicine in Context: Hopes? Nightmares? that was held at the Centre for Ethics at the University of Toronto on October 17, 2017, with special guest assistant professor and neurosurgeon Dr. Sunit Das. The paper discusses the key points from Dr. Das' talk. Specifically, it discusses about Dr. Das' perspective on the ethical and moral issues that was experienced from applying artificial intelligence (AI) in law and how such issues can also arise when applying (...)
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  25. Mechanisms in Practice: A Methodological Approach.Stavros Ioannidis & Stathis Psillos - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):1177-1183.
    In this paper we offer a minimal characterisation of the concept of mechanism in biomedicine, according to which a mechanism is a theoretically described causal pathway. We argue that this conceptionan be drawn from scientific practice, as illustrated by how a central biological and biomedical mechanism, the mechanism of apoptosis, was first identified and characterised. We will use the example of cytological and biochemical theoretical descriptions of the mechanism of apoptosis to draw lessons about the meaning of the concept of (...)
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  26. Medizin als Wissenschaft - eine wissenschaftstheoretische Analyse.Holger Lyre - 2018 - In Daniela Ringkamp & Héctor Wittwer (eds.), Was ist Medizin? Der Begriff der Medizin und seine ethischen Implikationen. Alber.
    Gegenstand dieses Beitrags ist eine Auseinandersetzung mit der Wissenschaftlichkeit der Medizin. Den Leitfaden der Analyse bildet dabei ein jüngerer Ansatz in der analytischen Wissenschaftstheorie, wonach Systematizität als zentrales Kriterium von Wissenschaft anzusehen ist (Hoyningen-Huene 2013). Ich werde im Detail zeigen, dass die Medizin dieses mehrdimensionale Kriterium insgesamt erfüllt, dass aus der Wissenschaftlichkeit der Medizin aber gleichwohl normative Konsequenzen folgen, die beispielsweise zur Abgrenzung von der Homöopathie und einer kritischen Bewertung des biopsychosozialen Modells führen. Zudem resultieren der Anwendungscharakter der Medizin und (...)
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  27. Medicine Without Cure?: A Cluster Analysis of the Nature of Medicine.Thaddeus Metz - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (3):306-312.
    Part of a symposium devoted to ‘Prediction, Understanding, and Medicine’, in which Alex Broadbent argues that the nature of medicine is determined by its competences, i.e., which things it can do well. He argues that, although medicine cannot cure well, it can do a good job of enabling people not only to understand states of the human organism and of what has caused them, but also to predict future states of it. From this Broadbent concludes that medicine is (at least (...)
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  28. Advancing the Philosophy of Medicine: Towards New Topics and Sources.Thaddeus Metz & Chadwin Harris - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (3):281-288.
    The first part of a symposium devoted to Alex Broadbent's essay titled ‘Prediction, Understanding and Medicine’, this article notes the under-development of a variety of issues in the philosophy of medicine that transcend bioethics and the long-standing debates about the nature of health/illness and of evidence-based medicine. It also indicates the importance of drawing on non-Western, and particularly African, traditions in addressing these largely metaphysical and epistemological matters.
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  29. The Doctrine of Specific Etiology.Lauren N. Ross - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (5-6):37.
    Modern medicine is often said to have originated with nineteenth century germ theory, which attributed diseases to bacterial contagions. The success of this theory is often associated with an underlying principle referred to as the “doctrine of specific etiology”. This doctrine refers to specificity at the level of disease causation or etiology. While the importance of this doctrine is frequently emphasized in the philosophical, historical, and medical literature, these sources lack a clear account of the types of specificity that it (...)
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  30. Twierdzenie Bayesa w projektowaniu strategii diagnostycznych w medycynie.Tomasz Rzepiński - 2018 - Diametros 57:39-60.
    The paper will compare two methods used in the design of diagnostic strategies. The first one is a method that precises predictive value of diagnostic tests. The second one is based on the use of Bayes’ theorem. The main aim of this article is to identify the epistemological assumptions underlying both of these methods. For the purpose of this objective, example projects of one and multi-stage diagnostic strategy developed using both methods will be considered.
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  31. Patient Centred Diagnosis: Sharing Diagnostic Decisions with Patients in Clinical Practice.Zackary Berger, J. P. Brito, Ns Ospina, S. Kannan, Js Hinson, Ep Hess, H. Haskell, V. M. Montori & D. Newman-Toker - 2017 - British Medical Journal 359:j4218.
    Patient centred diagnosis is best practised through shared decision making; an iterative dialogue between doctor and patient, whichrespects a patient’s needs, values, preferences, and circumstances. -/- Shared decision making for diagnostic situations differs fundamentally from that for treatment decisions. This has important implications when considering its practical application. -/- The nature of dialogue should be tailored to the specific diagnostic decision; scenarios with higher stakes or uncertainty usually require more detailed conversations.
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  32. Pain Research: Where We Are and Why It Matters.Jennifer Corns - 2017 - In The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Pain. Routledge.
  33. The New Medical Model: A Renewed Challenge for Biomedicine.Jonathan Fuller - 2017 - Canadian Medical Association Journal 189:E640-1.
    Over the past 25 years, several new “medicines” have come screeching onto health care’s various platforms, including narrative medicine, personalized medicine, precision medicine and person-centred medicine. Philosopher Miriam Solomon calls the first three of these movements different “ways of knowing” or “methods,” and argues that they are each a response to shortcomings of methods that came before them. They should also be understood as reactions to the current dominant model of medicine. In this article, I will describe our dominant model, (...)
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  34. The Relativity of ‘Placebos’: Defending a Modified Version of Grünbaum’s Definition.Jeremy Howick - 2017 - Synthese 194 (4):1363-1396.
    Debates about the ethics and effects of placebos and whether ‘placebos’ in clinical trials of complex treatments such as acupuncture are adequate rage. Yet there is currently no widely accepted definition of the ‘placebo’. A definition of the placebo is likely to inform these controversies. Grünbaum’s characterization of placebos and placebo effects has been touted by some authors as the best attempt thus far, but has not won widespread acceptance largely because Grünbaum failed to specify what he means by a (...)
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  35. A Challenge for Evidence-Based Policy.Adam La Caze & Mark Colyvan - 2017 - Axiomathes 27 (1):1-13.
    Evidence-based policy has support in many areas of government and in public affairs more generally. In this paper we outline what evidence-based policy is, then we discuss its strengths and weaknesses. In particular, we argue that it faces a serious challenge to provide a plausible, over-arching account of evidence. We contrast evidence-based policy with evidence-based medicine, especially the role of evidence in assessing the effectiveness of medicines. The evidence required for policy decisions does not easily lend itself to randomized controlled (...)
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  36. Neither From Words, nor From Visions: Understanding P-Medicine From Innovative Treatments.Maël Lemoine - 2017 - Lato Sensu, Revue de la Société de Philosophie des Sciences 4 (2).
    Despite its vagueness Personalized, Precision, P4, P5, individualized, stratified medicine—or p-medicine in short—has become an increasingly popular term in biomedical literature. Philosophers have attempted to analyze what these various terms involve and have discussed consequences for medical practices. In this article, I argue that an important question remains unaddressed: what has made this project of p-medicine convincing to so many? My argument is that without real achievements, it would never have been. I also make the case that these achievements stem (...)
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  37. Notes on the Use of Randomised Controlled Trials to Evaluate Complex Interventions: Community Treatment Orders as an Illustrative Case.Feras Ali Mustafa - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (1):185-192.
    Over the past seven decades, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have revolutionised clinical research and achieved a gold standard status. However, extending their use to evaluate complex interventions is problematic. In this paper we will demonstrate that complex intervention RCTs violate the necessary premises that govern the RCTs logic and underpin their rigour. The lack of blinding, heterogeneity of participants, as well as poor treatment standardisation and difficulty of controlling for confounders, which characterise complex intervention RCTs, can potentially be profoundly detrimental (...)
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  38. ¿Es la medicalización un fenómeno negativo? Un análisis de las consecuencias que suelen atribuirse a la medicalización?Alberto Oya - 2017 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía (71):7-18.
    En este artículo expondré un análisis de la valoración negativa de las consecuencias que suelen atribuirse al fenómeno de la medicalización y, partiendo de aquí, mi objetivo básico será mostrar que la medicalización no es en sí mismo un fenómeno negativo. Sólo lo será cuando se obtenga un valor negativo del cálculo entre, por un lado, la efectividad de la propuesta médica para solucionar el problema y, por otro lado, el balance entre los beneficios de dicha propuesta médica y sus (...)
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  39. Pesticides, Neurodevelopmental Disagreement, and Bradford Hill’s Guidelines.Kristin Shrader-Frechette & Christopher ChoGlueck - 2017 - Accountability in Research 1 (24):30-42.
    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism affect one-eighth of all U.S. newborns. Yet scientists, accessing the same data and using Bradford-Hill guidelines, draw different conclusions about the causes of these disorders. They disagree about the pesticide-harm hypothesis, that typical United States prenatal pesticide exposure can cause neurodevelopmental damage. This article aims to discover whether apparent scientific disagreement about this hypothesis might be partly attributable to questionable interpretations of the Bradford-Hill causal guidelines. Key scientists, who claim to employ Bradford-Hill causal guidelines, yet (...)
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  40. Marcum, James A. : The Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine: Bloomsbury Academic, London, 2017. 424 Pp, $172.00 , ISBN: 9781474233002. [REVIEW]Mary Walker - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (6):501-506.
  41. Reasonableness, Credibility, and Clinical Disagreement.Mary Jean Walker & Wendy A. Rogers - 2017 - AMA Journal of Ethics 19 (2):176-182.
    Evidence in medicine can come from more or less trustworthy sources and be produced by more or less reliable methods, and its interpretation can be disputed. As such, it can be unclear when disagreements in medicine result from different, but reasonable, interpretations of the available evidence and when they result from unreasonable refusals to consider legitimate evidence. In this article, we seek to show how assessments of the relevance and implications of evidence are typically affected by factors beyond that evidence (...)
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  42. Reduction in the Biomedical Sciences.Holly Andersen - 2016 - In Miriam Solomon, Jeremy Simon & Harold Kincaid (eds.), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine. Routledge.
    This chapter discusses several kinds of reduction that are often found in the biomedical sciences, in contrast to reduction in fields such as physics. This includes reduction as a methodological assumption for how to investigate phenomena like complex diseases, and reduction as a conceptual tool for relating distinct models of the same phenomenon. The case of Parkinson’s disease illustrates a wide variety of ways in which reductionism is an important tool in medicine.
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  43. Evidence Based or Person Centered? An Ontological Debate.Rani Lill Anjum - 2016 - European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare 4 (2):421-429.
    Evidence based medicine (EBM) is under critical debate, and person centered healthcare (PCH) has been proposed as an improvement. But is PCH offered as a supplement or as a replacement of EBM? Prima facie PCH only concerns the practice of medicine, while the contended features of EBM also include methods and medical model. I here argue that there are good philosophical reasons to see PCH as a radical alternative to the existing medical paradigm of EBM, since the two seem committed (...)
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  44. Henry Knowles Beecher, Jay Katz, and the Transformation of Research with Human Beings.Alexander Morgan Capron - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (1):55-77.
    The modern history of experimentation with human beings is notable for its ethical lacunae. In 1865, in his great work, An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, Dr. Claude Bernard, the French physician who first established the use of the scientific method in medicine, echoed the earlier injunctions of physician-moralist Moses Maimonides in counseling his fellow physicians not to treat their patients solely as a means of advancing knowledge. Yet such cautions had no apparent effect on the physicians who, (...)
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  45. Standardized Study Designs, Value Judgments, and Financial Conflicts of Interest in Research.Kevin C. Elliott - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (5):529-551.
    The potential for financial conflicts of interest to influence scientific research in problematic ways has recently become a significant topic of discussion across numerous fields. The chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, and tobacco industries have all been accused of suppressing evidence that their products are harmful, producing studies with questionable methodologies, generating questionable reinterpretations of studies that challenge their products, and working with public relations firms and front groups to mislead the public about relevant science. In an effort to address these influences, (...)
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  46. Translating Trial Results in Clinical Practice: The Risk GP Model.Jonathan Fuller & Luis J. Flores - 2016 - Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 9:167-168.
  47. The Role of the Virtuous Investigator in Protecting Human Research Subjects.Christine Grady & Anthony S. Fauci - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (1):122-131.
    Dr. Henry Beecher, a renowned Harvard Medical School anesthesiologist, sent shock waves through the medical research community and the lay press when he described 22 examples of “unethical or questionably ethical studies” by reputable researchers at major institutions in his now well-known 1966 New England Journal of Medicine article. Beecher concluded this exposé by noting: “The ethical approach to experimentation in man has several components: two are more important than the others, the first being informed consent.... Secondly, there is the (...)
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  48. Information Channels and Biomarkers of Disease.Phyllis Illari & Federica Russo - 2016 - Topoi 35 (1):175-190.
    Current research in molecular epidemiology uses biomarkers to model the different disease phases from environmental exposure, to early clinical changes, to development of disease. The hope is to get a better understanding of the causal impact of a number of pollutants and chemicals on several diseases, including cancer and allergies. In a recent paper Russo and Williamson address the question of what evidential elements enter the conceptualisation and modelling stages of this type of biomarkers research. Recent research in causality has (...)
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  49. Clinical Trials Without Consent?Scott Y. H. Kim - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (1):132-146.
    The routine practice of clinical research involving patient-subjects without informed consent prior to 1966 unquestionably was unethical. Does it follow that all clinical research involving competent adult patient-subjects is unethical without informed consent?In his landmark 1966 paper, Henry Beecher noted that of the 50 example studies he had originally compiled in preparation for that paper, only two even mentioned consent, and he observed further that mention of consent is “meaningless unless one knows how fully the patient was informed”. Some of (...)
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  50. Problems with Psychiatry, and Problems with Thinking About Psychiatry: Steeves Demazeux and Patrick Singy: The DSM-5 in Perspective: Philosophical Reflections on the Psychiatric Babel. New York and London: Springer, 2015, Xxiv+238pp. $129.00 HB.Brent Kious - 2016 - Metascience 25 (1):91-94.
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