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  1. added 2020-04-29
    The Legislation of Things.Ilana Löwy - 1997 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 28 (3):533-543.
  2. added 2020-04-27
    The French Revolution and the Dilemma of Medical Training.Alan B. Astrow - 1989 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 33 (3):444-456.
  3. added 2020-04-27
    Images and Emotion in Patient-Centered Clinical Teaching.W. C. Plauche & J. C. Edwards - 1988 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (4):602.
  4. added 2020-04-26
    Experiential Knowledge in Clinical Medicine: Use and Justification.Mark R. Tonelli & Devora Shapiro - forthcoming - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics:1-16.
    Within the evidence-based medicine construct, clinical expertise is acknowledged to be both derived from primary experience and necessary for optimal medical practice. Primary experience in medical practice, however, remains undervalued. Clinicians’ primary experience tends to be dismissed by EBM as unsystematic or anecdotal, a source of bias rather than knowledge, never serving as the “best” evidence to support a clinical decision. The position that clinical expertise is necessary but that primary experience is untrustworthy in clinical decision-making is epistemically incoherent. Here (...)
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  5. added 2020-04-26
    Humanism and Theism in Biomedical Ethics.Joseph Fletcher - 1986 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (1):106-116.
  6. added 2020-04-26
    Medical Research Within the European Economic Communities.B. Sørensen - 1986 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 29 (3 Pt 2):S70.
  7. added 2020-04-24
    The Development of the Principles of Medical Malpractice in the United States.Louis B. Harrison, Melvin H. Worth Jr & M. A. Carlucci - 1985 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 29 (1):41.
  8. added 2020-04-20
    Making Evidential Claims in Epidemiology: Three Strategies for the Study of the Exposome.Stefano Canali - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences:101248.
    How is scientific data used to represent phenomena and as evidence for claims about phenomena? In this paper, I propose that a specific type of claims – evidential claims – is involved in data practices to define and restrict the representational and evidential content of a dataset. I present an account of data practices in the epidemiology of the exposome based on the notion of evidential claims, which helps unpack the approaches, assumptions and warrants that connect different stages of research. (...)
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  9. added 2020-04-18
    Commentary: The Randomized Clinical Trial: For Whose Benefit?Arthur Schafer - forthcoming - IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
  10. added 2020-04-18
    The Continuing Relevance of 19th-Century Philosophy of Psychology: Brentano and the Autonomy of Psychological Methods.Uljana Feest - 2014 - In M. C. Galavotti & F. Stadler (eds.), New Directions in the Philosophy of Science, The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective 5. Springer. Springer. pp. 693-709.
    This paper provides an analysis of Franz Brentano’s thesis that psychology employs a distinctive method, which sets it apart from physiology. The aim of the paper is two-fold: First, I situate Brentano’s thesis (and the broader metaphysical system that underwrites it) within the context of specific debates about the nature and status of psychology, arguing that we regard him as engaging in a form of boundary work. Second, I explore the relevance of Brentano’s considerations to more recent debates about autonomy (...)
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  11. added 2020-04-18
    Compromise United-States Pharmaceutical Legislation Enacted.Pb Hutt - 1984 - Bioessays 1 (6):276-278.
  12. added 2020-03-10
    Clinical Equipoise and Adaptive Clinical Trials.Nicolas Fillion - 2019 - Topoi 38 (2):457-467.
    Ethically permissible clinical trials must not expose subjects to risks that are unreasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. In the research ethics literature, this moral requirement is typically understood in one of two different ways: as requiring the existence of a state of clinical equipoise, meaning a state of honest, professional disagreement among the community of experts about the preferred treatment; or as requiring an equilibrium between individual and collective ethics. It has been maintained that this second interpretation makes it (...)
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  13. added 2020-02-24
    Robust and Discordant Evidence: Methodological Lessons From Clinical Research.Spencer Phillips Hey - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (1):55-75.
    The concordance of results that are “robust” across multiple scientific modalities is widely considered to play a critical role in the epistemology of science. But what should we make of those cases where such multimodal evidence is discordant? Jacob Stegenga has recently argued that robustness is “worse than useless” in these cases, suggesting that “different kinds of evidence cannot be combined in a coherent way.” In this article I respond to this critique and illustrate the critical methodological role that robustness (...)
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  14. added 2020-02-24
    Madness Cracked.Mick Power - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    The recent publication of DSM-5 highlighted the two opposing views that exist within psychology and psychiatry as to how we deal with mental disorders. This book provides an introduction to the history of psychiatry and clinical psychology, looking at how people have attempted to classify the various problems and disorders they face.
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  15. added 2020-02-17
    Evidence, Errors, and Ethics.Franklin G. Miller, Steven Joffe & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (3):299-307.
    Novel therapeutics enter human testing after they show promise in animal and in vitro studies. They then begin a life cycle that extends from early phase trials without control groups, to randomized trials, to approval by regulatory authorities, to coverage by payers, to use in clinical practice. At each stage, scientific evidence is critical to determining whether to progress to the next step in this life cycle. Each of these decisions also implicitly involves issues of value and ethical norms based (...)
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  16. added 2020-02-17
    Comparative Effectiveness Research: Decision-Based Evidence.Charles Joseph Kowalski & Adam Joel Mrdjenovich - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (2):224-248.
    Survival of the fittest in evolutionary biology has a counterpart in the evolution of research paradigms. It’s called survival of the funded, and there is a sense in which paradigms are even more adaptable than species. Whereas species may become extinct if their fitness declines below a critical threshold, paradigms can rise again, perhaps with a new name, following fiscal collapse, provided only that funding is once again made available.A current example is the born-again concept of comparative effectiveness research , (...)
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  17. added 2020-02-17
    Religion and Medicine in the Middle Ages. [REVIEW]Luke Demaitre - 2002 - The Medieval Review 8.
  18. added 2020-02-17
    How to Resolve an Ethical Dilemma Concerning Randomized Clinical Trials.Don Marquis - unknown
    An apparent ethical dilemma arises when physicians consider enrolling their patients in randomized clinical trials. Suppose that a randomized clinical trial comparing two treatments is in progress, and a physician has an opinion about which treatment is better. The physician has a duty to promote the patient's best medical interests and therefore seems to be obliged to advise the patient to receive the treatment that the physician prefers. This duty creates a barrier to the enrollment of patients in randomized clinical (...)
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  19. added 2020-02-17
    Alchemy and Medicine in the Middle Ages. Recent Studies and Projects for Research.C. Crisciani - 1996 - Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale 38:9-21.
  20. added 2020-02-14
    The Relevance of Modern Clinical Trial Methodology to the Practice of Medicine.Jacob E. Bearman & Byron Wm Brown - 1967 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 10 (2):259-268.
  21. added 2020-02-13
    Philosophy for Medicine Applications in a Clinical Context.Martyn Evans, Pekka Louhiala & Raimo Puustinen - 2004
  22. added 2020-02-13
    Framing and Imagining Disease in Cultural History.G. S. Rousseau, Miranda Gill, David Boyd Haycock & Malte Christian Walter Herwig - 2003
  23. added 2020-02-13
    Knowledge and the Scholarly Medical Traditions.Donald G. Bates - 1995
    However much the three great traditions of medicine - Galenic, Chinese and Ayurvedic - differed from each other, they had one thing in common: scholarship. The foundational knowledge of each could only be acquired by careful study under teachers relying on ancient texts. Such medical knowledge is special, operating as it does in the realm of the most fundamental human experiences - health, disease, suffering, birth and death - and the credibility of healers is of crucial importance. Because of this, (...)
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  24. added 2020-02-13
    The Guide to Gcp in the Usa.Vincent J. Benn & Arnold Yeadon - 1994 - Pjb Publications.
  25. added 2020-02-13
    Good Clinical Practice in Europe Investigator's Handbook.Michael E. Allen - 1991
  26. added 2020-02-13
    Illustrations of the Inductive Method in Medicine.William Murray - 1891 - H.K. Lewis.
  27. added 2020-02-13
    Organopathy or, Medical Progress, an Essay.William Sharp - 1867 - H. Turner & Co.
  28. added 2020-02-12
    A Consumer Approach to Community Psychology.James K. Morrison - 1979
  29. added 2020-02-12
    Introduction À l'Étude de la Médecine Expérimentale.Claude Bernard - 1865 - Librairie Joseph Gilbert.
  30. added 2020-02-12
    Van Helmont's Works Containing His Most Excellent Philosophy, Physick, Chirurgery, Anatomy : Wherein the Philosophy of the Schools is Examined, Their Errors Refuted, and the Whole Body of Physick Reformed and Rectified : Being a New Rise and Progresse of Philosophy and Medicine, for the Cure of Diseases, and Lengthening of Life.Jean Baptiste van Helmont, J. C. Franciscus Mercurius van & Helmont - 1664 - Printed for Lodowick Lloyd.
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  31. added 2020-02-11
    Proposed Guideline for Good Clinical Practice.Great Britain, European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products & International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceutic - 1995 - Mca Eurodirect.
  32. added 2020-02-11
    Mind and Medicine: Problems of Explanation and Evaluation in Psychiatry and the Biomedical Sciences.Michael Lavin - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (2):321-323.
  33. added 2020-02-09
    Review: An Introductory Philosophy of Medicine: Humanizing Modern Medicine. [REVIEW]Igor Eterović - 2011 - Synthesis Philosophica 26 (1):244-246.
    The review of James Marcum's book starts with the explanation of the introductory character of the book in the field of philosophy of medicine. Than, the quality-of-care crisis is presented as the central motivation of the book. The clash between prevalent biomedical model in medicine and desirable humanistic model is explored through the presentation of all three parts of the book. The first part deals with metaphysical boundaries of biomedical and humanistic models. The second part is concerned with the epistemology (...)
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  34. added 2020-02-09
    Justifying Research Risks in a Clinical Trial for Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis.Charles Heilig - 2011 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 33 (4):10-17.
    This article demonstrates a step-by-step component analysis of the LiMiT Study, a phase I–II randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate once-daily linezolid plus optimized background therapy versus placebo plus optimized background therapy for the first 16 weeks of study therapy for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. This study represents a fairly complex, early-stage trial that we, as investigators, wanted to ensure met criteria for appropriate justification of research risks. Our analytic framework helped to isolate and clarify a few subtle issues that arise from (...)
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  35. added 2020-02-09
    Ketamine Enhanced Psychotherapy: Preliminary Clinical Observations on its Effectiveness in Treating Death Anxiety.Eli Kolp, M. Young, Harris Friedman, Evgeny Krupitsky & Karl Jansen - 2007 - International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 26:1-17.
    Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic commonly used by US physicians, has recently been shown to be a powerful anti-depressant and is also capable of eliciting transpersonal experiences that can be transformative. Although currently approved in the US only for use as an anesthetic, physicians there can legally prescribe it off-label to treat various psychological/ psychiatric problems and it has been used for these non-anesthetic purposes in Argentina, Iran, Mexico, Russia, and the UK, as well as in the US. The literature on (...)
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  36. added 2020-02-09
    Retheorizing Psychiatry: Birth of a Postmodern Clinic.Bradley Eugene Lewis - 2001 - Dissertation, The George Washington University
    In this dissertation, I use recent theoretical approaches in the human sciences to reconsider fundamental organizing structures of psychiatric knowledge. Chapter 1 outlines how the tropes of "theory" and "a-theory" are used in the human sciences and in psychiatry, critiques psychiatry's a-theoretical approach, and explores the possibilities for a retheorized psychiatry along the lines of work in the human sciences. Chapter 2 and 3 concentrate respectively on two key aspects of "theory"---language and power---and considers their role in shaping and fixing (...)
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  37. added 2020-02-09
    Wisdom as Defined and Perceived by Counseling Psychologists.Ann Young No - 1993 - Dissertation, University of Kentucky
    This study investigated wisdom as defined and perceived by counseling psychologists. Three consistent studies and two methodological approaches were used. Study 1 was based on in-depth interviews with seven professors in counseling psychology. Study 2 was based on a survey with forty college students. Study 3 was based on a survey with 202 counseling psychologists. ;In Study 1, the results showed that counseling psychologists define wisdom based on their unique personal experience, their philosophical and theoretical orientation in counseling, and their (...)
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  38. added 2020-02-09
    Cell Death During Normal Development of the Brain: What is its Significance?Günter Rager - 1988 - Epistemologia 11:133.
  39. added 2020-02-09
    Randomization in Experimental Design.Zeno Gerhard Swijtink - 1982 - Dissertation, Stanford University
    Experimental randomization is defended as a procedure to select an allocation of treatments in comparative experiments. To be convincing, a comparative experiment should allow many alternative allocations of treatments over experimental units, that look equally informative "on paper," but may have underlying differences. Randomization prevents these underlying differences to be causally influential when an allocation is chosen for implementation. Randomization helps prevent bias. ;Both Bayesian criticisms of randomization and what seems to be the opinion of the early Fisher are rejected. (...)
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  40. added 2020-02-09
    Claude Bernard's Revised Edition of His "Introduction a l'Etude de la Medecine Experimentale".Claude Bernard & Paul Cranefield - 1979 - Journal of the History of Biology 12 (1):210-210.
  41. added 2020-02-09
    Psychiatry and Philosophy.Maurice Natanson - 1971 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 4 (1):62-63.
  42. added 2020-02-09
    The Notion of Normal in Psychiatry.Hanz Binder - 1957 - Philosophy Today 1 (2):132.
  43. added 2020-02-08
    Kenneth A. Richman: Ethics and the Metaphysics of Medicine: Reflections on Health and Beneficence. [REVIEW]William Stempsey - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (1):125-127.
  44. added 2020-02-08
    Kenneth W. Goodman: Ethics and Evidence-Based Medicine: Fallibility and Responsibility in Clinical Science. [REVIEW]Jason Grossman - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (3):421-423.
  45. added 2020-02-08
    The Philosophical Basis of Ethics Standards in Psychiatry Opening Up the Russian Doll.K. W. M. Fulford - 1998 - University of Central Lancashire, the Centre for Professional Ethics.
  46. added 2020-02-08
    ENGLHARDT, H. T. And SPICKER, S. F. : "Evaluation and Explanation in the Biomedical Sciences" and "Philosophical Dimensions of the Neuro-Medical Sciences". [REVIEW]Caroline Whitbeck - 1978 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29:399.
  47. added 2020-02-08
    Psychotherapy Versus Iatrogeny a Confrontation for Physicians.Nikola Shipkovenski - 1977
  48. added 2020-02-07
    Medical Ontology.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Due to the intricate nature of its subject matter, medicine is always threatened by speculations and disagreements about which among its entities exist, e.g., any specific biological structures, substructures or substances, pathogenic agents, pathophysiological processes, diseases, psychosomatic relationships, therapeutic effects, and other possible and impossible things. To avoid confusion, and to determine what entities an item of medical knowledge presupposes to exist if it is to be true, we need medical ontology. The term “medical ontology” we understand to mean the (...)
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  49. added 2020-02-07
    Targeted Chemotherapy, the Medical Ecosystem, and the Future of American Health Care.Muriel R. Gillick - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (2):268-284.
    In light of the central role that medications play in medical progress, the declining rate of new drug development over the past decade is cause for concern . Without important breakthroughs in drug discovery, the future will not be auspicious for the many people suffering from chronic and incurable illnesses. The sluggish pace of pharmaceutical innovation has been particularly characteristic of the largest drug manufacturers, which have generally focused their energies on potential blockbuster medications, those that can generate over $1 (...)
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  50. added 2020-02-07
    Symptoms of Unknown Origin a Medical Odyssey.Clifton K. Meador - 2005
    Symptoms of Unknown Origin: A Medical Odyssey details exceptions to the prevailing viewpoint of doctors, which is that the best way to diagnose and treat patients is by using the biomolecular model of disease.
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