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  1. added 2020-05-20
    Navigating Conflicts of Justice in the Use of Race and Ethnicity in Precision Medicine.G. Owen Schaefer, Tai E. Shyong & Shirley Hsiao-Li Sun - forthcoming - Bioethics (Early View).
    Given the sordid history of injustices linking genetics to race and ethnicity, considerations of justice are central to ensuring the responsible development of precision medicine programmes around the world. While considerations of justice may be in tension with other areas of concern, such as scientific value or privacy, there are also be tensions between different aspects of justice. This paper focuses on three particular aspects of justice relevant to this context: social justice, distributive justice and human rights. The implications of (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-18
    Taking Seriously Victims of Unethical Experiments: Susan Brison's Conception of the Self and Its Rel.Carol Quinn - 2000 - Journal of Social Philosophy 31 (3):316-325.
  3. added 2020-05-16
    Ethical Research Practice and Journal Publication.Stephen J. Humphreys - 2016 - Ethics and Social Welfare 10 (1):71-74.
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  4. added 2020-05-13
    Coronavirus Pandemic: Philosophers in Lockdown جائحة كورونا ... فلاسفة في العُزلة.Salah Osman - manuscript
    كان يمشي في الأرض مرحًا، مُصعرًا خده للطبيعة، ومُنتشيًا برفاهيات حضاراته؛ أو يخطو فوق أديمها مهمومًا بضنك العيش، يعتصره ألم البحث عن قوت يومه، قبل أن يُفاجئه الفيروس التاجي ليقلب حياته رأسًا على عقب. إنه الإنسان، ذلك المجهول لنفسه، الجاهل بعلمه، المغرور بعقله، الضعيف بقوته، المتناقض مع ذاته، الفقير بثرواته الضخمة! فجأة باتت تعتمل بداخله مشاعر الحيرة والخوف والقلق، تؤرقه تساؤلات تسخر من عجزه الصارخ عن الإجابة عنها: ما أصل هذا الفيروس؟ هل هو نبتٌ طبيعي أم مؤامرة من بني جلدته؟ (...)
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  5. added 2020-05-13
    Relational Autonomy as a Way to Recognise and Enhance Children’s Capacity and Agency to Be Participatory Research Actors.Janice McLaughlin - 2020 - Ethics and Social Welfare 14 (2):204-219.
  6. added 2020-05-10
    Researching Social Work Practice Ethically and Developing Ethical Researchers.Brian Stout, Ann Dadich, Susan Evans, Debbie Plath & Kenny Lawson - 2020 - Ethics and Social Welfare 14 (2):172-186.
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  7. added 2020-05-10
    Ethical Approval and Being a Virtuous Social Work Researcher. The Experience of Multi-Site Research in UK Health and Social Care: An Approved Mental Health Professional Case Study.Kevin Stone, Sarah Vicary, Charlotte Scott & Rosie Buckland - 2020 - Ethics and Social Welfare 14 (2):156-171.
  8. added 2020-05-08
    Government Policy Experiments and the Ethics of Randomization.Douglas MacKay - manuscript
    Governments are increasingly using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate policy interventions. Such studies are often understood to provide the highest quality evidence regarding the causal efficacy of an intervention. While randomization plays an essential epistemic role in the context of policy RCTs however, it also plays an important distributive role. By randomly assigning participants to either the intervention or control arm of an RCT, people are subjected to different policies and so, often, to different types and levels of benefits. (...)
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  9. added 2020-05-07
    Public Interest in Health Data Research: Laying Out the Conceptual Groundwork.Angela Ballantyne & G. Owen Schaefer - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106152.
    The future of health research will be characterised by three continuing trends: rising demand for health data; increasing impracticability of obtaining specific consent for secondary research; and decreasing capacity to effectively anonymise data. In this context, governments, clinicians and the research community must demonstrate that they can be responsible stewards of health data. IRBs and RECs sit at heart of this process because in many jurisdictions they have the capacity to grant consent waivers when research is judged to be of (...)
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  10. added 2020-05-06
    Ethical Perspectives on Advances in Biogerontology.Jean Woo, David Archard, Derrick Au, Sara Bergstresser, Alexandre Erler, Timothy Kwok, John Newman, Raymond Tong & Tom Walker - 2019 - Aging Medicine 2 (2):99-103.
    Worldwide populations are aging with economic development as a result of public health initiatives and advances in therapeutic discoveries. Since 1850, life expectancy has advanced by 1 year for every four. Accompanying this change is the rapid development of anti‐aging science. There are three schools of thought in the field of aging science. One perspective is the life course approach, which considers that aging is a good and natural process to be embraced as a necessary and positive aspect of life, (...)
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  11. added 2020-04-30
    Emergency Care Research Ethics in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.Joseph Millum, Blythe Beecroft, Timothy C. Hardcastle, Jon Mark Hirshon, Adnan A. Hyder, Jennifer A. Newberry & Carla Saenz - 2019 - BMJ Global Health 4:e001260.
    A large proportion of the total global burden of disease is caused by emergency medical conditions. Emergency care research is essential to improving emergency medicine but this research can raise some distinctive ethical challenges, especially with regard to (1) standard of care and risk–benefit assessment; (2) blurring of the roles of clinician and researcher; (3) enrolment of populations with intersecting vulnerabilities; (4) fair participant selection; (5) quality of consent; and (6) community engagement. Despite the importance of research to improve emergency (...)
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  12. added 2020-04-27
    Can Children Be Enrolled in a Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial of Synthetic Growth Hormone?Ernest D. Prentice, L. Antonson, Andrew Jameton, Benjamin Graber & Thomas Sears - forthcoming - IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
  13. added 2020-04-27
    Images and Emotion in Patient-Centered Clinical Teaching.W. C. Plauche & J. C. Edwards - 1988 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (4):602.
  14. added 2020-04-27
    Resolving Problems at the Intensive Care Unit/Oncology Unit Interface.S. J. Youngner, M. Allen, H. Montenegro, J. Hreha & H. Lazarus - 1988 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (2):299.
  15. added 2020-04-27
    Refusing Medical Treatment.L. M. Peterson - 1988 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (3):454.
  16. added 2020-04-27
    For Clinical Research: A Formula for Improved Prognosis.K. A. Gruber - 1988 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (4):612.
  17. added 2020-04-26
    [The Vaccine Metaphor. From Inoculation to Vaccination].A. M. Moulin - 1991 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 14 (2):271-297.
    The episodes of cowpox inoculation (1798) and rabies preventive treatment (1885) are celebrated as the landmark of modern medicine. Paradoxically, these two advances have been accomplished without any theoretical breakthrough in the understanding of immunity. Going further, they were made possible by a long past of empirical procedures among which smallpox inoculation played an outstanding role. The paper explores the paradox of 'Immunization without Immunology' and Pasteur's reconstruction of the past, through his successful use of a metaphor. 'Vaccine', originally linked (...)
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  18. added 2020-04-26
    [History of the Research on Differentiating Hepatitis A and B].J. L. Meyer - 1991 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 14 (1):93-111.
    The numerous researches devoted to 'jaundice' during the Second World War have brought to light the existence of an infectious type of hepatic jaundice or 'homologous serum jaundice' following parenteral injection of vaccines containing human serum and blood transfusions, which were carried out on a large scale at the time. This type of serum jaundice was then gradually differentiated from 'catarrhal', contagious or epidemic jaundice by clinical trials along with large series of animal studies. Finally, the epidemiological, clinical and biological (...)
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  19. added 2020-04-26
    Should I Enroll in a Randomized Clinical Trial? A Critical Commentary.Robert M. Veatch - 1988 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 10 (5):7.
  20. added 2020-04-26
    On the Do Not Resuscitate Policy.H. Muslin & S. Schade - 1987 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (2):285-290.
  21. added 2020-04-26
    Therapeutic Strategies to Combat Pneumococcal Disease: Repeated Failure of Physicians to Adopt Pneumococcal Vaccine, 1900-1945. [REVIEW]Peter C. English - 1987 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 30 (2):170.
  22. added 2020-04-26
    Medical Research Within the European Economic Communities.B. Sørensen - 1986 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 29 (3 Pt 2):S70.
  23. added 2020-04-24
    Collaboration and Mobility in Biomedical Research: Role of the European Medical Research Councils.H. Danielsson - 1985 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 29 (3 Pt 2):S47 - 56.
  24. added 2020-04-22
    New Medical Technologies and the Ethical Challenges for Minors From the Perspective of Human Dignity.David Kirchhoffer & Kris Dierickx - 2011 - In Jan C. Joerden, Eric Hilgendorf, Natalia Petrillo & Felix Thiele (eds.), Menschenwürde und moderne Medizintechnik. Baden Baden:
    Summary This volume undertakes to determine the fundamentals and limits of an ethical assessment of the methods of modern medical technology with regard to the concepts of human dignity and human image, which are particularly important for this purpose. It shows that the philosophical-legal foundation of the term human dignity has not yet been clearly clarified; one even has to ask whether the term is (still) suitable for assessing ethical problems in medical technology. The term human image also needs clarification (...)
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  25. added 2020-04-18
    Commentary: The Randomized Clinical Trial: For Whose Benefit?Arthur Schafer - forthcoming - IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
  26. added 2020-04-18
    Compromise United-States Pharmaceutical Legislation Enacted.Pb Hutt - 1984 - Bioessays 1 (6):276-278.
  27. added 2020-04-16
    Introduction: The Limits of Respect for Autonomy.David G. Kirchhoffer - 2019 - In D. Kirchhoffer & B. Richards (eds.), Beyond Autonomy: Limits and Alternatives to Informed Consent in Research Ethics and Law. Cambridge:
    This book makes an important contribution to ongoing efforts in the fields of medical law and bioethics to answer the challenges posed by the limitations of the principle of respect for autonomy, especially as these pertain to human research ethics. The principle of respect for autonomy seems to have become firmly embedded in human research ethics since its inclusion in the 1947 Nuremberg Code, which was a response to atrocities committed by Nazi doctors. Nonetheless, there is an increasing awareness of (...)
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  28. added 2020-04-16
    Beneficence in Research Ethics.David G. Kirchhoffer, C. Favor & C. Cordner - 2019 - In D. Kirchhoffer & B. Richards (eds.), Beyond Autonomy: Limits and Alternatives to Informed Consent in Research Ethics and Law. Cambridge:
    This chapter examines the explicit and implicit roles that the concept of beneficence plays in the guidelines that govern biomedical research involving humans. We suggest that the role beneficence is actually playing in the guidelines is more comprehensive than is commonly assumed. The broader conceptualisation of beneficence proposed here clarifies the relationship of beneficence to respect for autonomy. It does this by showing how respect for autonomy is at the service of beneficence rather than in tension with it.
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  29. added 2020-04-15
    Introduction: The Limits of Respect for Autonomy.David Kirchhoffer - 2019 - In David G. Kirchhoffer & Bernadette J. Richards (eds.), Beyond Autonomy: Limits and Alternatives to Informed Consent in Research Ethics and Law. Cambridge: pp. 1-14.
    This book makes an important contribution to ongoing efforts in the fields of medical law and bioethics to answer the challenges posed by the limitations of the principle of respect for autonomy, especially as these pertain to human research ethics. The principle of respect for autonomy seems to have become firmly embedded in human research ethics since its inclusion in the 1947 Nuremberg Code, which was a response to atrocities committed by Nazi doctors. Nonetheless, there is an increasing awareness of (...)
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  30. added 2020-04-15
    Dignity, Being and Becoming in Research Ethics.David G. Kirchhoffer - 2019 - In D. Kirchhoffer & B. Richards (eds.), Beyond Autonomy: Limits and Alternatives to Informed Consent in Research Ethics and Law. Cambridge:
    Since the end of World War II, most guidelines governing human research seem to have relied on the principle of respect for autonomy as a key, though not sole, criterion in assessing the moral validity of research involving human participants.1 One explanation for this apparent reliance on respect for autonomy may be that respect for autonomy, made effective through the practice of obtaining informed consent, functions as a useful proxy when dealing with competent adults for the more complex principle of (...)
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  31. added 2020-04-15
    Beyond Autonomy: Limits and Alternatives to Informed Consent in Research Ethics and Law.David Kirchhoffer & Bernadette J. Richards (eds.) - 2019 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Respect for autonomy has become a fundamental principle in human research ethics. Nonetheless, this principle and the associated process of obtaining informed consent do have limitations. This can lead to some groups, many of them vulnerable, being left understudied. This book considers these limitations and contributes through legal and philosophical analyses to the search for viable approaches to human research ethics. It explores the limitations of respect for autonomy and informed consent both in law and through the examination of cases (...)
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  32. added 2020-04-01
    Clarifying How to Deploy the Public Interest Criterion in Consent Waivers for Health Data and Tissue Research.G. Owen Schaefer, Graeme Laurie, Sumytra Menon, Alastair V. Campbell & Teck Chuan Voo - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-10.
    BackgroundSeveral jurisdictions, including Singapore, Australia, New Zealand and most recently Ireland, have a public interest or public good criterion for granting waivers of consent in biomedical research using secondary health data or tissue. However, the concept of the public interest is not well defined in this context, which creates difficulties for institutions, institutional review boards and regulators trying to implement the criterion.Main textThis paper clarifies how the public interest criterion can be defensibly deployed. We first explain the ethical basis for (...)
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  33. added 2020-03-25
    Ethical Arguments Concerning Human-Animal Chimera Research: A Systematic Review.Koko Kwisda, Lucie White & Dietmar Hübner - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21:1-14.
    The burgeoning field of biomedical research involving the mixture of human and animal materials has attracted significant ethical controversy. Due to the many dimensions of potential ethical conflict involved in this type of research, and the wide variety of research projects under discussion, it is difficult to obtain an overview of the ethical debate. This paper attempts to remedy this by providing a systematic review of ethical reasons in academic publications on human-animal chimera research. We conducted a systematic review of (...)
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  34. added 2020-03-10
    An Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research.Vicki Xafis, G. Owen Schaefer, Markus K. Labude, Iain Brassington, Angela Ballantyne, Hannah Yeefen Lim, Wendy Lipworth, Tamra Lysaght, Cameron Stewart, Shirley Sun, Graeme T. Laurie & E. Shyong Tai - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (3):227-254.
    Ethical decision-making frameworks assist in identifying the issues at stake in a particular setting and thinking through, in a methodical manner, the ethical issues that require consideration as well as the values that need to be considered and promoted. Decisions made about the use, sharing, and re-use of big data are complex and laden with values. This paper sets out an Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research developed by a working group convened by the Science, Health and (...)
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  35. added 2020-03-10
    Ethics in the Era of Big Data.G. Owen Schaefer - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (2):169-171.
  36. added 2020-03-10
    Clinical Equipoise and Adaptive Clinical Trials.Nicolas Fillion - 2019 - Topoi 38 (2):457-467.
    Ethically permissible clinical trials must not expose subjects to risks that are unreasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. In the research ethics literature, this moral requirement is typically understood in one of two different ways: as requiring the existence of a state of clinical equipoise, meaning a state of honest, professional disagreement among the community of experts about the preferred treatment; or as requiring an equilibrium between individual and collective ethics. It has been maintained that this second interpretation makes it (...)
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  37. added 2020-02-25
    The Fifth Face of Fair Subject Selection: Population Grouping.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (2):41-43.
    The article by MacKay and Saylor (2020) claims that the principle of fair subject selection yields conflicting imperatives (e.g. in the case of pregnant women) and should be understood as “a bundle of four distinct sub-principles” (i.e. fair inclusion, burden sharing, opportunity, distribution of third-party risks), each having conflicting normative recommendations (MacKay and Saylor 2020). The authors also offer guidance as to how we should navigate between subprinciples that may conflict with each other. The problem is a crucial one since (...)
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  38. added 2020-02-24
    Robust and Discordant Evidence: Methodological Lessons From Clinical Research.Spencer Phillips Hey - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (1):55-75.
    The concordance of results that are “robust” across multiple scientific modalities is widely considered to play a critical role in the epistemology of science. But what should we make of those cases where such multimodal evidence is discordant? Jacob Stegenga has recently argued that robustness is “worse than useless” in these cases, suggesting that “different kinds of evidence cannot be combined in a coherent way.” In this article I respond to this critique and illustrate the critical methodological role that robustness (...)
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  39. added 2020-02-23
    Evaluation of Clinical Biofeedback. [REVIEW]Michael Venturino - 1981 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 2 (1).
  40. added 2020-02-17
    Unethical Informed Consent Caused by Overlooking Poorly Measured Nocebo Effects.Jeremy Howick - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 16:00-03.
    Unlike its friendly cousin the placebo effect, the nocebo effect (the effect of expecting a negative outcome) has been almost ignored. Epistemic and ethical confusions related to its existence have gone all but unnoticed. Contrary to what is often asserted, adverse events following from taking placebo interventions are not necessarily nocebo effects; they could have arisen due to natural history. Meanwhile, ethical informed consent (in clinical trials and clinical practice) has centred almost exclusively on the need to inform patients about (...)
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  41. added 2020-02-17
    Evidence, Errors, and Ethics.Franklin G. Miller, Steven Joffe & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (3):299-307.
    Novel therapeutics enter human testing after they show promise in animal and in vitro studies. They then begin a life cycle that extends from early phase trials without control groups, to randomized trials, to approval by regulatory authorities, to coverage by payers, to use in clinical practice. At each stage, scientific evidence is critical to determining whether to progress to the next step in this life cycle. Each of these decisions also implicitly involves issues of value and ethical norms based (...)
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  42. added 2020-02-17
    Comparative Effectiveness Research: Decision-Based Evidence.Charles Joseph Kowalski & Adam Joel Mrdjenovich - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (2):224-248.
    Survival of the fittest in evolutionary biology has a counterpart in the evolution of research paradigms. It’s called survival of the funded, and there is a sense in which paradigms are even more adaptable than species. Whereas species may become extinct if their fitness declines below a critical threshold, paradigms can rise again, perhaps with a new name, following fiscal collapse, provided only that funding is once again made available.A current example is the born-again concept of comparative effectiveness research , (...)
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  43. added 2020-02-17
    How to Resolve an Ethical Dilemma Concerning Randomized Clinical Trials.Don Marquis - unknown
    An apparent ethical dilemma arises when physicians consider enrolling their patients in randomized clinical trials. Suppose that a randomized clinical trial comparing two treatments is in progress, and a physician has an opinion about which treatment is better. The physician has a duty to promote the patient's best medical interests and therefore seems to be obliged to advise the patient to receive the treatment that the physician prefers. This duty creates a barrier to the enrollment of patients in randomized clinical (...)
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  44. added 2020-02-17
    Alchemy and Medicine in the Middle Ages. Recent Studies and Projects for Research.C. Crisciani - 1996 - Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale 38:9-21.
  45. added 2020-02-17
    Two Methods of Doing Bioethics.Dieter Birnbacher - 1994 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 2:173-185.
    The subject matter of ethics is morality, and ethics deals with it in four different though closely related ways: by analysis, by criticism, by norm construction, and by moral pragmatics.
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  46. added 2020-02-14
    Different Context, Similar Motives: External Influences on Motivation.Aisha Y. Malik - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (11):26-28.
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  47. added 2020-02-14
    Making Sense of Illness Science, Society, and Disease.Robert A. Aronowitz - 1998
  48. added 2020-02-14
    The Relevance of Modern Clinical Trial Methodology to the Practice of Medicine.Jacob E. Bearman & Byron Wm Brown - 1967 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 10 (2):259-268.
  49. added 2020-02-13
    Philosophy for Medicine Applications in a Clinical Context.Martyn Evans, Pekka Louhiala & Raimo Puustinen - 2004
  50. added 2020-02-13
    Framing and Imagining Disease in Cultural History.G. S. Rousseau, Miranda Gill, David Boyd Haycock & Malte Christian Walter Herwig - 2003
1 — 50 / 672