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  1. added 2019-01-09
    Twierdzenie Bayesa w projektowaniu strategii diagnostycznych w medycynie.Tomasz Rzepiński - 2018 - Diametros 57:39-60.
    The paper will compare two methods used in the design of diagnostic strategies. The first one is a method that precises predictive value of diagnostic tests. The second one is based on the use of Bayes’ theorem. The main aim of this article is to identify the epistemological assumptions underlying both of these methods. For the purpose of this objective, example projects of one and multi-stage diagnostic strategy developed using both methods will be considered.
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  2. added 2018-12-31
    Reorganization of a Spinal Motoneuron Nucleus Following Autologous Nerve Graft in the Rat.Dieter M. Weinert - 2016 - Norderstedt, Deutschland: BoD.
    Autologous nerve grafts are steadily regarded as the method of choice for bridging the nerve gaps resulting after peripheral nerve lesions with substance defects. Microsurgical techniques and the perineurial suture of corresponding fascicles have improved the functional results following peripheral nerve graft. -/- However, regeneration success is often disappointing, despite the most thorough technique and expertise. The loss of spinal motoneurons associated with a nerve lesion and the growth of axon sprouts in inadequate endoneurial sheaths were held responsible as the (...)
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  3. added 2018-12-13
    Influences on Primary Care Provider Imaging for a Hypothetical Patient with Low Back Pain.Hh le, Matt DeCamp, Amanda Bertram, Minal Kale & Zackary Berger - 2018 - Southern Journal of Medicine 12 (111):758-762.
    OBJECTIVE: How outside factors affect physician decision making remains an open question of vital importance. We sought to investigate the importance of various influences on physician decision making when clinical guidelines differ from patient preference. -/- METHODS: An online survey asking 469 primary care providers (PCPs) across four practice sites whether they would order magnetic resonance imaging for a patient with uncomplicated back pain. Participants were randomized to one of four scenarios: a patient's preference for imaging (control), a patient's preference (...)
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  4. added 2018-12-09
    Multidrug Therapy for HIV Infection: Dynamics of Immune System.Deepmala Kamboj & M. D. Sharma - forthcoming - Acta Biotheoretica.
    A mathematical model of the dynamics of the immune system is considered to illustrate the effect of its response to HIV infection, i.e. on viral growth and on T-cell dynamics. The specific immune response is measured by the levels of cytotoxic lymphocytes in a human body. The existence and stability analyses are performed for infected steady state and uninfected steady state. In order to keep infection under control, roles of drug therapies are analyzed in the presence of efficient immune response. (...)
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  5. added 2018-11-11
    Mutations and Deletions of PRC2 in Prostate Cancer.Payal Jain & Luciano Di Croce - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (5):446-454.
    The Polycomb group of proteins (PcGs) are transcriptional repressor complexes that regulate important biological processes and play critical roles in cancer. Mutating or deleting EZH2 can have both oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions by increasing or decreasing H3K27me3. In contrast, mutations of SUZ12 and EED are reported to have tumor suppressive functions. EZH2 is overexpressed in many cancers, including prostate cancer, which can lead to silencing of tumor suppressors, genes regulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and interferon signaling. In some (...)
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  6. added 2018-11-10
    Reference Ontologies for Biomedical Ontology Integration and Natural Language Processing.Jonathan Simon, James Fielding, Mariana Dos Santos & Barry Smith - 2004 - In Proceedings of the International Joint Meeting EuroMISE 2004. pp. 62-72.
    The central hypothesis of the collaboration between Language and Computing (L&C) and the Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Science (IFOMIS) is that the methodology and conceptual rigor of a philosophically inspired formal ontology greatly benefits application ontologies.[1] To this end LinKBase®, L&C’s ontology, which is designed to integrate and reason across various external databases simultaneously, has been submitted to the conceptual demands of IFOMIS’s Basic Formal Ontology (BFO).[2] With this project we aim to move beyond the level of (...)
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  7. added 2018-11-02
    Enhancer Deregulation in Cancer and Other Diseases.Hans-Martin Herz - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (10):1003-1015.
    Mutations in enhancer‐associated chromatin‐modifying components and genomic alterations in non‐coding regions of the genome occur frequently in cancer, and other diseases pointing to the importance of enhancer fidelity to ensure proper tissue homeostasis. In this review, I will use specific examples to discuss how mutations in chromatin‐modifying factors might affect enhancer activity of disease‐relevant genes. I will then consider direct evidence from single nucleotide polymorphisms, small insertions, or deletions but also larger genomic rearrangements such as duplications, deletions, translocations, and inversions (...)
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  8. added 2018-10-29
    Conflicts Over Host Manipulation Between Different Parasites and Pathogens: Investigating the Ecological and Medical Consequences.Nina Hafer - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (10):1027-1037.
    When parasites have different interests in regard to how their host should behave this can result in a conflict over host manipulation, i.e. parasite induced changes in host behaviour that enhance parasite fitness. Such a conflict can result in the alteration, or even complete suppression, of one parasite's host manipulation. Many parasites, and probably also symbionts and commensals, have the ability to manipulate the behaviour of their host. Non‐manipulating parasites should also have an interest in host behaviour. Given the frequency (...)
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  9. added 2018-10-21
    The Evolution of HIV (Review).John Flaherty - 2000 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43 (4):624-625.
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  10. added 2018-10-13
    Solving Donor Organ Shortage with Insights From Freeze Tolerance in Nature.Bryan E. Luu & Kenneth B. Storey - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (10):1800092.
    The North American wood frog, Rana sylvatica, endures seasonal whole‐body freezing during the winter and thawing during the spring without sustaining any apparent damage from ice or oxidative stress. Strategies from these frogs may solve the shortage of human donor organs, which is a multidisciplinary problem that can be alleviated by eliminating geographical boundaries. Rana sylvatica deploys an array of molecular and physiological responses, such as glucose production and microRNA regulation, to help it survive the cold. These strategies have been (...)
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  11. added 2018-10-07
    Synthetic Essentiality: Targeting Tumor Suppressor Deficiencies in Cancer.Ronald A. di ZhaoDePinho - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (8):1700076.
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  12. added 2018-10-01
    Significant Social Events and Increasing Use of Life-Sustaining Treatment: Trend Analysis Using Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as an Example.Yen-Yuan Chen, Likwang Chen, Tien-Shang Huang, Wen-Je Ko, Tzong-Shinn Chu, Yen-Hsuan Ni & Shan-Chwen Chang - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):21.
    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan.
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  13. added 2018-09-17
    Exercise Prescription and The Doctor's Duty of Non-Maleficence.Jonathan Pugh, Christopher Pugh & Julian Savulesu - 2017 - British Journal of Sports Medicine 51 (21):1555-1556.
    An abundance of data unequivocally shows that exercise can be an effective tool in the fight against obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Indeed, physical activity can be more effective than widely-used pharmaceutical interventions. Whilst metformin reduces the incidence of diabetes by 31% (as compared with a placebo) in both men and women across different racial and ethnic groups, lifestyle intervention (including exercise) reduces the incidence by 58%. In this context, it is notable that a group of prominent medics and exercise (...)
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  14. added 2018-07-28
    Let Them Eat Prozac: The Unhealthy Relationship Between the Pharmaceutical Industry and Depression by David Healy. [REVIEW]Leemon B. McHenry - 2007 - Mens Sana Monographs 5 (1):228-232.
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  15. added 2018-07-23
    Industry-Corrupted Psychiatric Trials.Leemon McHenry, Jon Jureidini & Jay Amsterdam - 2017 - Psychiatria Polska 51 (6):993-1008.
    The goal of this paper is to expose the research misconduct of pharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials via three short case studies of corrupted psychiatric trials that were conducted in the United States. We discuss the common elements that enable the misrepresentation of clinical trial results including ghostwriting for medical journals, the role of key opinion leaders as co-conspirators with the pharmaceutical industry and the complicity of top medical journals in failing to uphold standards of science and peer review. We conclude (...)
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  16. added 2018-07-23
    The Citalopram CIT-MD-18 Pediatric Depression Trial: A Deconstruction of Medical Ghostwriting, Data Manipulation and Academic Malfeasance.Leemon McHenry, Jon Jureidini & Jay Amsterdam - 2016 - International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine 28:33-43.
    This paper is a deconstruction of a ghostwritten report of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety trial of citalopram in depressed children and adolescents conducted in the United States. Court documents revealed that protocol-specified outcome measures showed no statistically significant difference between citalopram and placebo. However, the published article concluded that citalopram was safe and significantly more efficacious than placebo for children and adolescents, with possible adverse effects on patient safety.
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  17. added 2018-07-23
    Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as New Model Systems in Oncology.Lucie Laplane, Allan Beke, William Vainchenker & Eric Solary - 2015 - Stem Cells 33:2887-2892.
    The demonstration that pluripotent stem cells could be generated by somatic cell reprogramming led to wonder if these so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells would extend our investigation capabilities in the cancer research field. The first iPS cells derived from cancer cells have now revealed the benefits and potential pitfalls of this new model. iPS cells appear to be an innovative approach to decipher the steps of cell transformation as well as to screen the activity and toxicity of anticancer drugs. (...)
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  18. added 2018-07-20
    Clinical Trials and Drug Promotion.Jon Jureidini, Leemon McHenry & Peter Mansfield - 2008 - International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine 20:73-81.
    Selective reporting is prevalent in the medical literature, particularly in industry-sponsored research. In this paper, we expose selective reporting that is not evident without access to internal company documents. The published report of study 329 of paroxetine in adolescents sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline claims that “paroxetine is generally well tolerated and effective for major depression in adolescents”. By contrast, documents obtained during litigation reveal that study 329 was negative for efficacy on all 8 protocol specified outcomes and positive for harm.
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  19. added 2018-07-20
    Let Them Eat Prozac: The Unhealthy Relationship Between the Pharmaceutical Industry and Depression. [REVIEW]Leemon B. McHenry - 2007 - Mens Sana Monographs 5 (1):228-232.
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  20. added 2018-07-11
    Alexia pura causada por toxoplasma en un paciente con SIDA.V. Rodríguez-Salvador, E. España, J. A. Aviño & M. Díaz-Llopis - unknown
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  21. added 2018-07-03
    Evaluation Synergistic Effect of TiO2, ZnO Nanoparticles and Amphiphilic Peptides (Mastoparan-B, Indolicidin) Against Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Klebsiella Pneumoniae and Acinetobacter Baumannii.Shalaleh Masoumi & Mohammad Reza Shakibaie - 2018 - Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases 6 (2):1-8.
    Backgound: The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial properties and synergistic effects of nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2), nano- zinc oxide (ZnO) and two synthetic peptides (mastoparan-B, indolicidin) against drug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. -/- Methods: From March to August 2015, a total of 30 (10 each) isolates of the above bacteria were recovered from patients in the ICU of two referral hospitals in Kerman, Iran. The sizes and purities of nano-TiO2, nano-ZnO were determined (...)
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  22. added 2018-07-03
    Historical Perspectives in Medical Ethics.Tom O'Shea - 2018 - In Andreas Müller & Peter Schaber (eds.), Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Consent. London: Routledge. pp. 261-271.
    This chapter provides an outline of consent in the history of medical ethics. In doing so, it ranges over attitudes towards consent in medicine in ancient Greece, medieval Europe and the Middle East, as well as the history of Western law and medical ethics from the early modern period onwards. It considers the relationship between consent and both the disclosure of information to patients and the need to indemnify physicians, while attempting to avoid an anachronistic projection of concern with patient (...)
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  23. added 2018-07-03
    Bacterial Biofilm and its Clinical Implications. [REVIEW]Mohammad Reza Shakibaie - 2018 - Annals of Microbiology and Research 2:45-50.
    Microbial biofilm created huge burden in treatment of both community and hospital infections. A biofilm is complex communities of bacteria attached to a surface or interface enclosed in an exopolysaccharide matrix and protected from unfavorable conditions such as presence of antibiotics, host defense or oxidative stresses. Biofilms are often considered hot spot for horizontal gene transfer among same or different bacterial species. Furthermore, bacteria with increased hydrophobicity facilitate biofilm formation by reducing repulsion between the extracellular matrix and the bacterium. There (...)
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  24. added 2018-07-03
    Peer Review System: A Systematic Review.Shamima Parvin Lasker - 2018 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 9 (1):13-23.
    Peer review process helps in evaluating and validating of research that is published in the journals. U.S. Office of Research Integrity reported that data fraudulence was found to be involved in 94% cases of misconduct from 228 identified articles between 1994–2012. If fraud in published article are significantly as high as reported, the question arise in mind, were these articles peer reviewed? Another report said that the reviewers failed to detect 16 cases of fabricated article of Jan Hendrick Schon. Superficial (...)
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  25. added 2018-06-20
    Healthcare Consumers’ Sensitivity to Costs: A Reflection on Behavioural Economics From an Emerging Market.Quan-Hoang Vuong, Tung-Manh Ho, Hong-Kong Nguyen & Thu-Trang Vuong - 2018 - Palgrave Communications 4:70.
    Decision-making regarding healthcare expenditure hinges heavily on an individual's health status and the certainty about the future. This study uses data on propensity of general health exam (GHE) spending to show that despite the debate on the necessity of GHE, its objective is clear—to obtain more information and certainty about one’s health so as to minimise future risks. Most studies on this topic, however, focus only on factors associated with GHE uptake and overlook the shifts in behaviours and attitudes regarding (...)
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  26. added 2018-06-17
    Diagnosing Breast Cancer Using Expert System.Suheir H. Almurshidi - 2018 - Dissertation, Al-Azhar University, Gaza
    The “Expert System for Diagnosing Breast Cancer" is used to assist medical students to improve their education on diagnosis and counseling the process of analyzing the biopsy image of the microscope, determining the type of tumor and the treatment method for each case and identifying the disease related questions. According to the Ministry of Health in its annual report in Gaza, between 2009 and 2014 there are 7069 cases of breast cancer, and in 2014 there are 1502 cases of breast (...)
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  27. added 2018-06-08
    Baseline Differences and Intervention Effects of the “Gesund Und Glücklich Aufwachsen ” Prevention Program for Children of Depressed Parents.Kornelija Starman - 2018 - Dissertation, LMU Munich
    Since children with a parent suffering from depression are at heightened risk of developing psychiatric disorders themselves, they are a target group for preventive interventions and as such a major public health priority. The cognitive-behavioural, family-, and group-based prevention program “Raising Healthy Children” has shown promising findings in reducing the prevalence of depression and general psychopathology in a sample of children of depressed parents in the United States of America. The overarching aim of the current thesis is the evaluation of (...)
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  28. added 2018-06-07
    Spirituality and Health.Arndt Büssing, Klaus Baumann, Niels Christian Hvidt, Harold G. Koenig, Christina M. Puchalski & John Swinton - 2014 - Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014.
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  29. added 2018-06-06
    Development of Theory-Based Knowledge Translation Interventions to Facilitate the Implementation of Evidence-Based Guidelines on the Early Management of Adults with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury.Mélanie Bérubé, Martin Albert, Jean-Marc Chauny, Damien Contandriopoulos, Anne DuSablon, Sébastien Lacroix, Annick Gagné, Élise Laflamme, Nathalie Boutin, Stéphane Delisle, Anne-Marie Pauzé & Jean-Marc MacThiong - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (6):1157-1168.
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  30. added 2018-06-06
    The Law of Orientation in Stereoscopy.E. A. Bott - 1925 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 8 (4):278.
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  31. added 2018-04-29
    Rationalism, Empiricism, and Evidence-Based Medicine: A Call for a New Galenic Synthesis.William Webb - 2018 - Medicines 5 (2).
    Thirty years after the rise of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement, formal training in philosophy remains poorly represented among medical students and their educators. In this paper, I argue that EBM’s reception in this context has resulted in a privileging of empiricism over rationalism in clinical reasoning with unintended consequences for medical practice. After a limited review of the history of medical epistemology, I argue that a solution to this problem can be found in the method of the 2nd-century Roman (...)
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  32. added 2018-03-19
    Pathocentric Epistemic Injustice and Conceptions of Health.Ian James Kidd & Havi Carel - manuscript
    In this paper, we argue that certain theoretical conceptions of health, particularly those described as ‘biomedical’ or ‘naturalistic’, are viciously epistemically unjust. Drawing on some recent work in vice epistemology, we identity three ways that abstract objects (such as theoretical conceptions, doctrines, or stances) can be legitimately described as epistemically vicious. If this is right, then robust reform of individuals, social systems, and institutions would not be enough to secure epistemic justice: we must reform the deeper conceptions of health that (...)
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  33. added 2018-03-18
    Vantagens e limitações das ontologias formais na área biomédica.Stefan Schulz, Holger Stenzhorn, Martin Boeker & Barry Smith - 2009 - RECIIS: Revista Electronica de Comunicacao Informacao, Inovacao Em Saude 3 (1).
    Propomos uma tipologia dos artefatos de representação para as áreas de saúde e ciências biológicas, e a associação dessa tipologia com diferentes tipos de ontologia formal e lógica, chegando a conclusões quanto aos pontos fortes e limitações da ontologia de diferentes tipos de recursos lógicos, enquanto mantemos o foco na lógica descritiva. Consideramos quatro tipos de representação de área: (i) representação léxico-semântica, (ii) representação de tipos de entidades, (iii) representação de conhecimento prévio, e (iv) representação de indivíduos. Defendemos uma clara (...)
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  34. added 2018-03-08
    The Paradox of Questions and Answers: Possibilities for a Doctor-Patient Relationship.N. Quist - 2003 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 14 (1-2):79.
    Questions that arise in the doctor-patient relationship may be transforming. The discussion begins with a compelling example: When parents ask, “Doctor, if this were your child, what would you do?” it is always a “high-stakes” question. What the question means and how it is understood depends on how we understand, and how sensitive we are, to the context and the complexity of several different relationships, and what each uniquely asks or requires. -/- Working from the parents’ question, “What would you (...)
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  35. added 2018-02-27
    The MANBRIC-Technologies in the Forthcoming Technological Revolution.Leonid Grinin, Anton Grinin & Andrey Korotayev - 2017 - Industry 4.0 - Entrepreneurship and Structural Change in the New Digital Landscape: What is Coming on Along with the Fourth Industrial Revolution:243-261.
    In this chapter, we analyze the relationship between Kondratieff waves and major technological revolutions on the basis of the theory of production principles and production revolutions, and offer some forecasts about the features of the Sixth Kondratieff Wave/the Fourth Industrial Revolution. We show that the technological breakthrough of the Sixth Kondratieff Wave may be interpreted as both the Fourth Industrial Revolution and as the final phase of the Cybernetic Revolution. We assume that the sixth K-wave in the 2030s and 2040s (...)
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  36. added 2018-02-17
    Molecular Analysis and Expression of Bap Gene in Biofilm-Forming Multi-Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii.Omid Azizi, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie & Fereshteh Shahcherghi - 2016 - Reports of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 5 (1):1-8.
    Acinetobacter baumannii is commonly resistant to nearly all antibiotics due to presence of antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. In this study we determined the presence of certain antibiotic-resistance genes associated with biofilm production and the influence of low iron concentration on expression of the biofilm-associated protein gene (bap) in development of biofilm among multi-drug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB). Sixty-five MDRAB isolates from clinical samples were collected. Molecular typing was carried out by random amplified polymorphism DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Biofilm (...)
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  37. added 2018-02-17
    The Current State of Medical School Education in Bioethics, Health Law, and Health Economics.Govind C. Persad, Linden Elder, Laura Sedig, Leonardo Flores & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (1):89-94.
    Current challenges in medical practice, research, and administration demand physicians who are familiar with bioethics, health law, and health economics. Curriculum directors at American Association of Medical Colleges-affiliated medical schools were sent confidential surveys requesting the number of required hours of the above subjects and the years in which they were taught, as well as instructor names. The number of relevant publications since 1990 for each named instructor was assessed by a PubMed search.In sum, teaching in all three subjects combined (...)
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  38. added 2017-12-11
    The HL7 Approach to Semantic Interoperability.Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith - 2011 - In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Ontology. CEUR, vol. 833. pp. 139-146.
    Health Level 7 (HL7) is an international standards development organisation in the domain of healthcare information technology. Initially the mission of HL7 was to enable data exchange via the creation of syntactic standards which supported point-to-point messaging. Currently HL7 sees its mission as one of creating standards for semantic interoperability in healthcare IT on the basis of its flagship “version 3” (v3). Unfortunately, v3 has been plagued by quality and consistency issues, and it has not been able to keep pace (...)
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  39. added 2017-12-11
    Malaria Diagnosis and the Plasmodium Life Cycle: The BFO Perspective.Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2010 - In Interdisciplinary Ontology. Proceedings of the Third Interdisciplinary Ontology Meeting. Tokyo: Keio University Press. pp. 25-34.
    Definitive diagnosis of malaria requires the demonstration through laboratory tests of the presence within the patient of malaria parasites or their components. Since malaria parasites can be present even in the absence of malaria manifestations, and since symptoms of malaria can be manifested even in the absence of malaria parasites, malaria diagnosis raises important issues for the adequate understanding of disease, etiology and diagnosis. One approach to the resolution of these issues adopts a realist view, according to which the needed (...)
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  40. added 2017-12-11
    Towards New Information Resources for Public Health: From WordNet to MedicalWordNet.Christane Fellbaum, Udo Hahn & Barry Smith - 2006 - Journal of Biomedical Informatics 39 (3):321-332.
    In the last two decades, WORDNET has evolved as the most comprehensive computational lexicon of general English. In this article, we discuss its potential for supporting the creation of an entirely new kind of information resource for public health, viz. MEDICAL WORDNET. This resource is not to be conceived merely as a lexical extension of the original WORDNET to medical terminology; indeed, there is already a considerable degree of overlap between WORDNET and the vocabulary of medicine. Instead, we propose a (...)
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  41. added 2017-12-09
    Enhancing GO for the Sake of Clinical Bioinformatics.Anand Kumar & Barry Smith - 2004 - Proceedings of the Bio-Ontologies Workshop , Glasgow 133.
    Recent work on the quality assurance of the Gene Ontology (GO, Gene Ontology Consortium 2004) from the perspective of both linguistic and ontological organization has made it clear that GO lacks the kind of formalism needed to support logic-based reasoning. At the same time it is no less clear that GO has proven itself to be an excellent terminological resource that can serve to combine together a variety of biomedical database and information systems. Given the strengths of GO, it is (...)
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  42. added 2017-12-09
    Implementing Clinical Guidelines in an Organizational Setup.Anand Kumar, Barry Smith, Mario Stefanelli, Silvana Quaglini & Matteo Piazza - 2003 - In Proceedings of the Workshop on Model-Based and Qualitative Reasoning in Biomedicine, AIME . pp. 39-44.
    Outcomes research in healthcare has been a topic much addressed in recent years. Efforts in this direction have been supplemented by work in the areas of guidelines for clinical practice and computer-interpretable workflow and careflow models.In what follows we present the outlines of a framework for understanding the relations between organizations, guidelines, individual patients and patient-related functions. The derived framework provides a means to extract the knowledge contained in the guideline text at different granularities, in ways that can help us (...)
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  43. added 2017-12-08
    A General Framework for Implementation of Clinical Guidelines by Healthcare Organizations.A. Kumar, Barry Smith, D. M. Pisanelli, A. Gangemi & M. Stefanelli - 2003 - In D. M. Pisanelli (ed.), Ontologies in Medicine: Proceedings of the Workshop on Medical Ontologies (Rome October 2003). Amsterdam: IOS Press. pp. 95-107.
    The paper presents the outlines of an ontology of plans and guidelines, which is then used as the basis for a framework for implementing guideline-based systems for the management of workflow in health care organizations. The framework has a number of special features, above all in that it enables us to represent in formal terms assignments of work-items both to individuals and to teams and to tailor guideline to specific contexts of application in health care organizations. It is designed also (...)
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  44. added 2017-12-06
    A Unified Framework for Building Ontological Theories with Application and Testing in the Field of Clinical Trials.Heller Barbara, Herre Heinrich & Barry Smith - 2001 - In IFOMIS Reports. Leipzig: University of Leipzig.
    The objective of this research programme is to contribute to the establishment of the emerging science of Formal Ontology in Information Systems via a collaborative project involving researchers from a range of disciplines including philosophy, logic, computer science, linguistics, and the medical sciences. The re­searchers will work together on the construction of a unified formal ontology, which means: a general framework for the construction of ontological theories in specific domains. The framework will be constructed using the axiomatic-deductive method of modern (...)
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  45. added 2017-11-18
    An Unusual Power: The Rise and Influence of Medical Doctors.Stanley Wilkin - 2013
    The history, critique and philosophy of the medical profession. What is real?
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  46. added 2017-11-09
    On the Proper Treatment of Pathologies in Biomedical Ontologies.Barry Smith & Anand Kumar - 2005 - In Proceedings of the Bio-Ontologies Workshop, Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB 2005). Detroit: pp. 22-23.
    In previous work on biomedical ontologies we showed how the provision of formal definitions for relations such as is_a and part_of can support new types of auto-mated reasoning about biomedical phenomena. We here extend this approach to the transformation_of characteristic of pathologies.
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  47. added 2017-11-08
    Medical WordNet: A New Methodology for the Construction and Validation of Information Resources for Consumer Health.Barry Smith & Christiane Fellbaum - 2004 - In Proceedings of Coling: The 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Geneva: pp. 371-382.
    A consumer health information system must be able to comprehend both expert and non-expert medical vocabulary and to map between the two. We describe an ongoing project to create a new lexical database called Medical WordNet (MWN), consisting of medically relevant terms used by and intelligible to non-expert subjects and supplemented by a corpus of natural-language sentences that is designed to provide medically validated contexts for MWN terms. The corpus derives primarily from online health information sources targeted to consumers, and (...)
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  48. added 2017-11-01
    Wüsteria.Barry Smith, Werner Ceusters & Rita Temmerman - 2005 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 116:647-652.
    The last two decades have seen considerable efforts directed towards making Electronic Health Records interoperable through improvements in medical ontologies, terminologies and coding systems. Unfortunately, these efforts have been hampered by a number of influential ideas inherited from the work of Eugen Wüster, the father of terminology standardization and the founder of ISO TC 37. We here survey Wüster’s ideas – which see terminology work as being focused on the classification of concepts in people’s minds – and we argue that (...)
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  49. added 2017-10-31
    Infectious Disease Ontology.Lindsay Grey Cowell & Barry Smith - 2009 - In Infectious Disease Informatics. New York: Springer New York. pp. 373-395.
    Technological developments have resulted in tremendous increases in the volume and diversity of the data and information that must be processed in the course of biomedical and clinical research and practice. Researchers are at the same time under ever greater pressure to share data and to take steps to ensure that data resources are interoperable. The use of ontologies to annotate data has proven successful in supporting these goals and in providing new possibilities for the automated processing of data and (...)
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  50. added 2017-10-30
    Ethical and Legal Implications of the Methodological Crisis in Neuroimaging.Philipp Kellmeyer - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (4):530-554.
    Currently, many scientific fields such as psychology or biomedicine face a methodological crisis concerning the reproducibility, replicability, and validity of their research. In neuroimaging, similar methodological concerns have taken hold of the field, and researchers are working frantically toward finding solutions for the methodological problems specific to neuroimaging. This article examines some ethical and legal implications of this methodological crisis in neuroimaging. With respect to ethical challenges, the article discusses the impact of flawed methods in neuroimaging research in cognitive and (...)
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