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1365 found
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1 — 50 / 1365
  1. Swyneshed, Paradox and the Rule of Contradictory Pairs.Stephen Read - manuscript
    Roger Swyneshed, in his treatise on insolubles (logical paradoxes), dating from the early 1330s, drew three notorious corollaries of his solution. The third states that there is a contradictory pair of propositions both of which are false. This appears to contradict the Rule of Contradictory Pairs, which requires that in every such pair, one must be true and the other false. Looking back at Aristotle's treatise De Interpretatione, we find that Aristotle himself, immediately after defining the notion of a contradictory (...)
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  2. Via Antiqua Vs. Via Moderna Semantics: Two Ways of Constructing Semantic Theory.Gyula Klima - manuscript
    1st GPMR Workshop on Logic and Semantics: Medieval Logic and Modern Applied Logic, Reinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universität Bonn, Germany, 2007.
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  3. Twelfth Asian Logic Conference.Rod Downey - forthcoming - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic.
  4. Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy.Robert Pasnau (ed.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  5. A Hegelian Among Germanists-the Medieval Studies of Rosenkranz, Karl.U. Rautenberg - forthcoming - Hegel-Studien.
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  6. Thomas Aquinas, Magister Ludi: The Relation of Medieval Logic and Theology.Joshua P. Hochschild - 2020 - Hungarian Philosophical Review 64 (4):43-62.
    This paper seeks to articulate the relationship between medieval logic and theology. Reviewing modern scholarship, we find that the purpose of medieval logic, when it is even inquired about, has proven difficult to articulate without reference to theology. This prompts reflection on the metaphors of logic as a “tool” and a “game”: a tool is not merely instrumental, insofar as it can have its own intrinsic goods and can shape and be shaped by that which it serves; likewise a game, (...)
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  7. Robert Kilwardby’s Science of Logic: A Thirteenth-Century Intensional Logic: P. Thom, Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2019. Xviii+310 Pp. $146. ISBN 978-90-04-40846-3.S. C. Johnston - 2020 - History and Philosophy of Logic 41 (3):301-303.
    Robert Kilwardby occupies an important place in the history of logic, and the history of western thought more generally. Perhaps best known to scholars for his Oxford condemnations of 1277...
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  8. Swyneshed, Aristotle and the Rule of Contradictory Pairs.Stephen Read - 2020 - Logica Universalis 14 (1):27-50.
    Roger Swyneshed, in his treatise on insolubles, dating from the early 1330s, drew three notorious corollaries from his solution. The third states that there is a contradictory pair of propositions both of which are false. This appears to contradict what Whitaker, in his iconoclastic reading of Aristotle’s De Interpretatione, dubbed “The Rule of Contradictory Pairs”, which requires that in every such pair, one must be true and the other false. Whitaker argued that, immediately after defining the notion of a contradictory (...)
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  9. Wyclif's Logica and the Logica Oxoniensis.Mark Thakkar - 2020 - In Luigi Campi & Stefano Simonetta (eds.), Before and After Wyclif: Sources and Textual Influences. Basel, Switzerland: pp. 1-31.
    John Wyclif’s logical works have lain under a kind of fog since they were first published in the 1890s. My first aim is to clear up some long-standing confusions by dispelling this fog once and for all. A partial identification of Wyclif’s source material then allows me to make a more dramatic claim about persistent misunderstandings of what is thought to be his earliest work.
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  10. On the Historical Transformations of the Square of Opposition as Semiotic Object.Ioannis M. Vandoulakis & Tatiana Yu Denisova - 2020 - Logica Universalis 14 (1):7-26.
    In this paper, we would show how the logical object “square of opposition”, viewed as semiotic object, has been historically transformed since its appearance in Aristotle’s texts until the works of Vasiliev. These transformations were accompanied each time with a new understanding and interpretation of Aristotle’s original text and, in the last case, with a transformation of its geometric configuration. The initial textual codification of the theory of opposition in Aristotle’s works is transformed into a diagrammatic one, based on a (...)
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  11. Counterpossibles and Normal Defaults in the Filioque Controversy.Jacob Archambault - 2019 - Logica Universalis 13 (4):443-455.
    A counterpossible conditional, or counterpossible for short, is a conditional proposition whose antecedent is impossible. The filioque doctrine is a dogma of western Christian Trinitarian theology according to which the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. The filioque doctrine was the principal theological reason for the Great Schism, the split between Eastern Orthodoxy and western Christianity, which continues today. In the paper, I review one of the earliest medieval defenses of the doctrine in Anselm of Canterbury, and (...)
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  12. A Nelsonian Response to ‘the Most Embarrassing of All Twelfth-Century Arguments’.Luis Estrada-González & Elisángela Ramírez-Cámara - 2019 - History and Philosophy of Logic 41 (2):101-113.
    Alberic of Paris put forward an argument, ‘the most embarrassing of all twelfth-century arguments’ according to Christopher Martin, which shows that the connexive principles contradict some other logical principles that have become deeply entrenched in our most widely accepted logical theories. Building upon some of Everett Nelson’s ideas, we will show that the steps in Alberic of Paris’ argument that should be rejected are precisely the ones that presuppose the validity of schemas that are nowadays taken as some of the (...)
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  13. Huaping Lu-Adler, "Kant and the Science of Logic: A Historical and Philosophical Reconstruction." Reviewed By. [REVIEW]Nathaniel Goldberg - 2019 - Philosophy in Review 39 (4):191-193.
  14. Aquinas's Two Concepts of Analogy and a Complex Semantics for Naming the Simple God.Joshua Hochschild - 2019 - The Thomist 83 (2):155-184.
    This paper makes two main arguments. First, that to understand analogy in St. Thomas Aquinas, one must distinguish two logically distinct concepts he inherited from Aristotle: one a kind of likeness between things, the other a kind of relation between linguistic functions. Second, that analogy (in both of these senses) plays a relatively small role in Aquinas's treatment of divine naming, compared to the realist semantic framework in which questions about divine naming are formulated and resolved, and on which the (...)
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  15. Remark on Al-Fārābī's Missing Modal Logic and its Effect on Ibn Sīnā.Wilfrid Hodges - 2019 - Eshare: An Iranian Journal of Philosophy 1 (3):39-73.
    We reconstruct as much as we can the part of al-Fārābī's treatment of modal logic that is missing from the surviving pages of his Long Commentary on the Prior Analytics. We use as a basis the quotations from this work in Ibn Sīnā, Ibn Rushd and Maimonides, together with relevant material from al-Fārābī's other writings. We present a case that al-Fārābī's treatment of the dictum de omni had a decisive effect on the development and presentation of Ibn Sīnā's modal logic. (...)
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  16. Mathematics and Theology in the Thought of Nicholas of Cusa.Roman Murawski - 2019 - Logica Universalis 13 (4):477-485.
    Nicholas of Cusa was first of all a theologian but he was interested also in mathematic and natural sciences. In fact philosophico-theological and mathematical ideas were intertwined by him, theological and philosophical ideas influenced his mathematical considerations, in particular when he considered philosophical problems connected with mathematics and vice versa, mathematical ideas and examples were used by him to explain some ideas from theology. In this paper we attempt to indicate this mutual influence. We shall concentrate on the following problems: (...)
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  17. Walter Chatton on Future Contingents: Between Formalism and Ontology, Written by Jon Bornholdt. [REVIEW]Mark Thakkar - 2019 - Vivarium 57 (1-2):210-221.
    This light revision of Bornholdt's doctoral thesis (Würzburg, 2015) is effectively a medievally-oriented follow-up to Richard Gaskin’s 'The Sea Battle and the Master Argument' (1995). The book is stimulating from a philosophical point of view, but the exegesis is disappointingly unreliable.
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  18. Non-Monotonic Logic and the Compatibility of Science and Religion.Marcin Trepczyński - 2019 - Logica Universalis 13 (4):457-466.
    The article aims to show how the acceptance of non-monotonic logic enables arguments to be held between science and religion in a way that does not exclude either of these two spheres. The starting point of the analyses is the idea of the 13th century Danish philosopher, Boethius of Dacia, who states that it is both acceptable that: a natural scientist negates that the world had a beginning, and a Christian theologian asserts that the world had a beginning, because each (...)
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  19. Thomas Manlevelt: God in Logic.Alfred van der Helm - 2019 - Logica Universalis 13 (4):467-476.
    This paper was presented at the Second World Congress on Logic and Religion on the sub-topic of logics vis-à-vis illogicalities in religion. It deals with fourteenth-century-logician Thomas Manlevelt’s Ockhamist approach to logic and its ontological outcome: rejection of the existence of substance. Although God, the Trinity, the Blessed Virgin, the Antichrist and the consecrated host keep popping up within the domain of logic, it is argued that Manlevelt kept clear water between logic and theology. Things divine, and especially the transubstantiation (...)
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  20. Consequence and Formality in the Logic of Walter Burley.Jacob Archambault - 2018 - Vivarium 56 (3-4):292-319.
    _ Source: _Volume 56, Issue 3-4, pp 292 - 319 With William of Ockham and John Buridan, Walter Burley is often listed as one of the most significant logicians of the medieval period. Nevertheless, Burley’s contributions to medieval logic have received notably less attention than those of either Ockham or Buridan. To help rectify this situation, the author here provides a comprehensive examination of Burley’s account of consequences, first recounting Burley’s enumeration, organization, and division of consequences, with particular attention to (...)
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  21. Introduction: Consequences in Medieval Logic.Jacob Archambault - 2018 - Vivarium 56 (3-4):201-221.
    _ Source: _Volume 56, Issue 3-4, pp 201 - 221 This paper summarizes medieval definitions and divisions of consequences and explains the import of the medieval development of the theory of consequence for logic today. It then introduces the various contributions to this special issue of _Vivarium_ on consequences in medieval logic.
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  22. Boolean Considerations on John Buridan's Octagons of Opposition.Lorenz Demey - 2018 - History and Philosophy of Logic 40 (2):116-134.
    This paper studies John Buridan's octagons of opposition for the de re modal propositions and the propositions of unusual construction. Both Buridan himself and the secondary literature have emphasized the strong similarities between these two octagons (as well as a third one, for propositions with oblique terms). In this paper, I argue that the interconnection between both octagons is more subtle than has previously been thought: if we move beyond the Aristotelian relations, and also take Boolean considerations into account, then (...)
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  23. THE FORMALITY OF PETER OF SPAIN's THEORY OF SUPPOSITION.Vlad Ile - 2018 - Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai-Philosophia 3 (63):11-30.
    Relatively recent literature on supposition theory seems to use different modern logical tools of interpretation that can be generally described as formalizations. Since the act of formalizing may be understood as a process of changing its object in the sense of making it more formal, an assessment of this kind of approaches is necessary. Accordingly, our main goal in this paper is to analyze the formality of Peter of Spain’s theory of supposition and to evaluate its interpretation as a quantification (...)
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  24. Medieval Vs Contemporary Metaphysics and Logic of Intentionality.Andrzej Bułeczka - 2017 - Dissertation,
    This thesis addresses three challenges posed by intentionality - the ability of our mental states and language to be about something - to a logician: an apparent reference to non-existent objects, intentional indeterminacy and the failure of substitutivity of coextensive terms in an intentional context. Since intentionality plays an important role in our everyday reasoning, a proper formal account of it is highly desirable, yet it requires a departure from classical logic. One can modify classical logic and adapt the formal (...)
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  25. Marsilius of Inghen on Incipit and Desinit in Consequentiae II, Chapters 4-5.Graziana Ciola - 2017 - Vivarium 55 (1-3):170-198.
    In this paper, the author offers an introduction to Marsilius of Inghen’s treatment of expositiones of sentences de incipit and de desinit in his treatise on Consequentiae, with an analysis of the various modi exponendi presented by Marsilius and an edition of the text. The author argues that, in the split between physical and logical approaches to the issues arising in analyses of incipit and desinit, Marsilius’ theory presents some hybrid features, but tends towards the logical end of the spectrum.
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  26. De Logische Geometrie van Johannes Buridanus' Modale Achthoek.Lorenz Demey & Philipp Steinkrüger - 2017 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 79 (2):217-238.
    In order to elucidate his logical analysis of modal quantified propositions (e.g. ‘all men are necessarily mortal’), the 14th century philosopher John Buridan constructed a modal octagon of oppositions. In the present paper we study this modal octagon from the perspective of contemporary logical geometry. We argue that the modal octagon contains precisely six squares of opposition as subdiagrams, and classify these squares based on their logical properties. On a more abstract level, we show that Buridan’s modal octagon precisely captures (...)
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  27. Embracing the Lusitanian Legacy.Christophe Geudens - 2017 - Vivarium 55 (4):307-339.
    _ Source: _Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 307 - 339 This article puts forward an analysis of the theory of signs contained in the _Prodidagmata ad logicam Aristotelis_, a compendium on logic written by the Flemish philosopher and Louvain professor Laurentius Ghiffene. Focusing on Ghiffene’s definition and division of a sign and his account of the problem of self-reference, the author argues that Ghiffene positioned himself in the tradition of the Conimbricenses and relied extensively on their influential commentary on Aristotle’s (...)
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  28. Thomas van Aquino, Niet-Normale Modale Logica's En Het Probleem van Toekomstige Contingenties.Luca Gili & Lorenz Demey - 2017 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 79 (2):259-276.
    Thomas Aquinas maintained that God foreknows future contingent events and that his foreknowledge does not entail that they are necessarily the case. More specifically, he stated that if God knows a future contingent event, this future contingent event will be necessarily the case de sensu composito, but not de sensu diviso. After emphasizing the unified nature of Aquinas’ notion of necessity, we propose an interpretation of his theses by restating them within the framework of non-normal modal logics. In this framework, (...)
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  29. Jan Dullaert of Ghent on the Foundations of Propositional Logic.Miroslav Hanke - 2017 - Vivarium 55 (4):273-306.
    _ Source: _Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 273 - 306 Jan Dullaert was a direct student of John Mair and a teacher of Gaspar Lax, Juan de Celaya, and Juan Luis Vives. His commentary on Aristotle’s _Peri Hermeneias_ addresses the foundations of propositional logic, including a detailed analysis of conditionals and the semantics of logical connectives. Dullaert’s propositional logic is limited to the immediate implications of the semantics of these connectives, i.e., their introduction and elimination rules. In the same context, (...)
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  30. The Modal Octagon and John Buridan's Modal Ontology.Spencer Johnston - 2017 - In J. Béziau & G. Basti (eds.), The Square of Opposition: A Cornerstone of Thought. Springer. pp. 35-52.
    In this paper we will argue that the ontology implicit in John Buridan’s modal octagon commits him to a form of contingentism. In particular, we will argue that Buridan is committed to denying the validity of the Barcan and converse Barcan formulae.
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  31. Which Essence Is Brought Into Being by the Existential Act?Thomas M. Osborne - 2017 - The Thomist 81 (4):471-505.
    I argue that the essence that is actualized by existence is the essence that is a determinate nature in an individual and not the essence absolutely considered. This essence in individuals has a potential being that is actualized by existence. This thesis has important consequences for the essence/existence distinction in Thomas Aquinas.
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  32. Thomas Aquinas, “the Greatest Advocate of Dispositional Modality”.Ben Page - 2017 - Studia Neoaristotelica 14 (2):167-188.
    Thomas Aquinas a quodam nostri temporis viro docto de potentiis inquirenti “dispositionalis modalitatis propugnator fortissimus” nominatus est. Huius tractationis scopus est, hanc assertionem criticae subicere analysi. Imprimis autem nonnulla Aquinatis de potentiis doctrinae elementa exponuntur, ea disceptationibus, quae nostro tempore aguntur, conferendo. Deinde duae de potentiarum modalitatis natura sententiae contrariae explicantur: scil. “modalitas dispositionalis” et “necessitas conditionata”. Quo exacto Aquinatis textus examinantur inquirendo, utram illarum sententiarum ille docuerit. Testimonia demum postremae faventia inveniuntur. Loco conclusionis auctor suadet, quomodo Aquinas exempla a (...)
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  33. Lambert of Auxerre, Logica or Summa Lamberti, with Notes and Introduction_ _, Written by Thomas S. Maloney. [REVIEW]Stephen Read - 2017 - Vivarium 55 (4):361-365.
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  34. Articulating Medieval Logic by Terence Parsons. [REVIEW]Mark Thakkar - 2017 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 55 (2):348-349.
    One of the founding myths of analytic philosophy is that the predicate logic that was developed in the late 19th century was far more powerful than its predecessors. This ambitious book argues on the contrary that medieval philosophers developed "a system of logic that is similar to the predicate calculus in richness and power" – or that, as Parsons put it in his presidential address to the APA, "the core of medieval logic is as accurate and as expressive as the (...)
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  35. The Square of Opposition: A Cornerstone of Thought.Jean-Yves Beziau & Gianfranco Basti (eds.) - 2016 - Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser.
    This is a collection of new investigations and discoveries on the theory of opposition (square, hexagon, octagon, polyhedra of opposition) by the best specialists from all over the world. The papers range from historical considerations to new mathematical developments of the theory of opposition including applications to theology, theory of argumentation and metalogic.
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  36. Aristotle’s Categories in the Byzantine, Arabic and Latin Traditions_ _, Written by Sten Ebbesen, John Marenbon, and Paul Thom.Bert Bos - 2016 - Vivarium 54 (1):109-112.
  37. Gyula Klima and Alexander W. Hall, Ed., Metaphysical Themes, Medieval and Modern. Reviewed By.Stephen Boulter - 2016 - Philosophy in Review 36 (6):263-266.
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  38. The Motivations for Walter Burley’s Theory of the Proposition.Nathaniel Bulthuis - 2016 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (6):1057-1074.
    Walter Burley claims throughout his career that the mind can make a statement out of things. Since things include entities that exist outside of the mind, Burley appears to be claiming that the mind can form a statement out of things that exist outside of it. Most scholars of Burley offer a deflationary reading of this claim, arguing that it confuses two distinct but closely related philosophical issues: the nature of propositional content, on the one hand, and the role of (...)
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  39. Logica Vetus.Margaret Cameron - 2016 - In Stephen Read & Catarina Dutilh Novaes (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Logic. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 195-219.
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  40. The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Logic.Catarina Dutilh Novaes & Stephen Read (eds.) - 2016 - Cambridge University Press.
    This volume, the first dedicated and comprehensive companion to medieval logic, covers both the Latin and the Arabic traditions, and shows that they were in fact sister traditions, which both arose against the background of a Hellenistic heritage and which influenced one another over the centuries. A series of chapters by both established and younger scholars covers the whole period including early and late developments, and offers new insights into this extremely rich period in the history of logic. The volume (...)
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  41. Master Richard Sophista: Abstractiones.Sten Ebbesen & E. Jennifer Ashworth (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Theiones is a work in medieval logic from the second half of the 13th century. Clearly a product of the British university culture and much cited, quoted and imitated, it is attributed in two manuscripts to 'Master Richard the Sophist'. This Richard is referred to by other philosophers and logicians as 'The Master of Abstractions' - an honorific title which indicates that his work was a standard textbook. The Abstractiones is a collection of sophismata, or logical puzzles of increasing complexity (...)
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  42. John Buridan. Treatise on Consequences. [REVIEW]Elena Ficara - 2016 - History and Philosophy of Logic 37 (4):393-396.
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  43. Albert of Saxony's View of Complex Terms in Categorical Propositions and the ‘English-Rule’.Michael Joseph Fitzgerald - 2016 - History and Philosophy of Logic 37 (4):347-374.
    The essay first makes some observations on the general interrelationship between the logical writings of Albert and Buridan. Second, it gives an account of a ‘semantic logical model’ for analyzing complex subject terms in some basic categorical propositions which is defended by Albert of Saxony, and briefly recounts Buridan's criticisms of that model. Finally, the essay maintains that the Albertian model is typically compatible with, and a further development of, what is called by a late-fourteenth century anonymous scholar ‘the English-Rule’ (...)
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  44. The Question of the Plurality of Definitions in Two Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle’s Topics.Rodrigo Guerizoli - 2016 - In Valery V. Petroff (ed.), The Legacies of Aristotle as Constitutive Element of European Rationality (Proceedings of the Moscow International Conference on Aristotle). Moscow, Russia: RAS Institute of Philosophy. pp. 373-380.
  45. Cajetan of Thiene on the Logic of Paradox.Miroslav Hanke - 2016 - Studia Neoaristotelica 13 (1):71-95.
    In the first half of the fifteenth century, the Italian logician, natural philosopher, and doctor of medicine Cajetan of Thiene wrote a commentary on William Heytesbury’s Regulae solvendi sophismata, which later became a part of the printed edition of Heytesbury’s treatises. Several late fifteenth century reprints sustained its circulation and further influence. Following Heytesbury, Cajetan listed four alternative treatments of paradoxes, where the first three were formulated in general logico-semantic terms and the last one in terms of obligationes. The present (...)
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  46. The Invention of Relations: Early Twelfth-Century Discussions of Aristotle's Account of Relatives1.Christopher J. Martin - 2016 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (3):447-467.
    Aristotle's discussion of relatives in the Categories presented its eleventh- and twelfth-century readers with many puzzles. Their attempt to solve these puzzles and to develop a coherent account of the category led around the beginning of the twelfth century to the invention of relations as items which stand to relatives as qualities stand to qualified substances. In this paper, I first discuss the details of Aristotle's accounts of relatives and the related category of ‘situation’ and Boethius' commentary on them. I (...)
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  47. The Logic of Where and While in the 13th and 14th Centuries.Sara Uckelman - 2016 - In Lev Beklemishev, Stéphane Demri & András Máté (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic, Volume 11. CSLI Publications. pp. 535-550.
    Medieval analyses of molecular propositions include many non-truthfunctional connectives in addition to the standard modern binary connectives (conjunction, disjunction, and conditional). Two types of non-truthfunctional molecular propositions considered by a number of 13th- and 14th-century authors are temporal and local propositions, which combine atomic propositions with `while' and `where'. Despite modern interest in the historical roots of temporal and tense logic, medieval analyses of `while' propositions are rarely discussed in modern literature, and analyses of `where' propositions are almost completely overlooked. (...)
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  48. Book Review: Jean Buridan, Treatise on Consequences. [REVIEW]Sara Uckelman - 2016 - Studia Logica 104 (6):1319-1323.
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  49. Peter of Spain: Summaries of Logic: Text, Translation, Introduction, and Notes, Written by Brian P. Copenhaver, with Calvin G. Normore and Terence Parsons. [REVIEW]Sara L. Uckelman - 2016 - Vivarium 54 (1):113-116.
  50. Articulating Medieval Logic.Sara L. Uckelman - 2016 - Philosophical Quarterly 66 (263):432-435.
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