About this topic
Summary In addition to philosophical treatments of meditation and consciousness, this category also includes key works in the cognitive science of meditation, especially scientific articles oriented to the general methodological difficulties of empirical work on conscious experience. The philosophy and science of consciousness are of course broad and deeply contentious fields of current philosophical debate. Meditation is likewise a broad notion, applied to diverse practices derived from many different traditions of practice, and arguably lacking any unifying feature that would distinguish properly meditative practices from skill training and character development more generally. This category focuses in particular on those works that address the effects of attention training on consciousness experience, including self-consciousness, emotional awareness, and qualities of experience such as stability, clarity, and effortless awareness.
Key works Lutz et al 2006 offer a groundbreaking review and manifesto for research on meditation and consciousness in The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Lutz, Dunne, and Davidson are leading figures in the emerging field of contemplative neuroscience, and are also co-authors on an influential paper (Lutz et al 2008) proposing a distinction between Focused Attention and Open Monitoring forms of meditative practice. Travis & Shear 2010 propose that while these two categories may be adequate for understanding many meditative practices in Buddhist and other traditions, a third category "automatic self-transcending" more adequately describes certain meditative practices in the Vedic and Chinese traditions. In response, Josipovic 2010 suggests a fundamental distinction between dualistic and non-dual forms of meditation practice. In a special issue of Contemporary Buddhism devoted to the topic, Dunne 2011 argues that contemporary mindfulness meditation is best understood as falling on the non-dual side of this distinction. Following the lead of other authors in that special issue (e.g. Bodhi 2011Gethin 2011, Dreyfus 2011), Davis & Thompson 2013 offer a more classical perspective on mindfulness practice, relating Theravada Buddhist textual understandings to recent empirical research, with particular emphasis on relations to philosophical debates over the nature of consciousness and mind.
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  1. added 2019-01-11
    Problematyka medytacyjnego wglądu i wiedzy wyzwalającej w soteriologii wczesnego buddyzmu. Krytyczna analiza problemu przy zastosowaniu podejścia interdyscyplinarnego.Grzegorz Polak - 2018 - Diametros 56:17-38.
    The relation of the meditative state of jhāna to the development of insight and liberating knowledge is one of the most controversial issues in studies on early Buddhism. In the Suttapitaka and later Buddhist meditative texts, one can find discrepancies which are difficult to reconcile. In this paper, I propose a new model of meditative insight using an interdisciplinary approach based both on critical philological studies of the Suttapitaka and the results of the dynamically developing cognitive science. I also highlight (...)
  2. added 2019-01-09
    Relacja pomiędzy absolutnym a względnym wymiarem rzeczywistości w klasycznych Upaniszadach.Marta Kudelska - 2018 - Diametros 56:1-16.
    The above problem is discussed with the use of the example of selected canonical Upanishads. The analysis starts with a fragment from the Mundaka Upanishad : “When he [ brahman ] that is both high [ para ] and low [ apara ] is seen”. In my opinion, this very conjoining of the absolute and relative reality, which is considerably rare in the canonical texts, requires in-depth analysis. In the discussed texts, the para / apara dimensions of reality are strictly (...)
  3. added 2018-10-09
    Krishnamurti Explained: A Critical Study.Peter Eastman - 2018
    The acclaim accorded Jiddu ‘Krishnamurti’ (1895-1986) – as an apparently major figure in our modern understanding of all things spiritual – shows just how shallow western popular culture is when it tries to extend its reach beyond science, materialism and celebrity. Krishnamurti liked to portray himself as a wholly independent thinker, and as someone who encouraged similar independence of thought in others, yet he milked the role of an oriental guru tirelessly, discoursing from on high in an autocratic and commanding (...)
  4. added 2018-09-07
    Mechanisms of Mind-Body Interaction and Optimal Performance.Yi-Yuan Tang & Brian Bruya - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
    Based on recent findings, we propose a framework for a relationship among attention, effort and optimal performance. Optimal performance often refers to an effortless and automatic, flow-like state of performance. Mindfulness regulates the focus of attention to optimal focus on the core component of the action, avoiding too much attention that could be detrimental for elite performance. Balanced attention is a trained state that can optimize any particular attentional activity on the dual-process spectrum.
  5. added 2018-09-07
    Introduction: Toward a Theory of Attention That Includes Effortless Attention.Brian Bruya - 2010 - In Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
    In this Introduction, I identify seven discrete aspects of attention brought to the fore by by considering the phenomenon of effortless attention: effort, decision-making, action syntax, agency, automaticity, expertise, and mental training. For each, I provide an overview of recent research, identify challenges to or gaps in current attention theory with respect to it, consider how attention theory can be advanced by including current research, and explain how relevant chapters of this volume offer such advances.
  6. added 2018-07-04
    A Companion to Velmans, M. (Ed.) (2018) Consciousness (Critical Concepts in Psychology) Volume 4: New Directions: Psychogenesis, Transformations of Consciousness, and Non-Reductive Integrative Theories, Major Works Series, London: Routledge, Pp. 572.Max Velmans - manuscript
    This is the fourth of four online Companions to Velmans, M. (ed.) (2018) Consciousness (Critical Concepts in Psychology), a 4-volume collection of Major Works on Consciousness commissioned by Routledge, London. -/- The Companion (and Volume) begins with a review of mental influences on states of the body and brain (psychogenesis), which are often thought of as theoretically problematic for conventional materialist theories of mind. The evidence is nevertheless extensive, for example in psychosomatic illnesses and studies of the physiological consequences of (...)
  7. added 2018-05-29
    Meditation and the Scope of Mental Action.Michael Brent & Candace Upton - 2019 - Philosophical Psychology 32 (1):52-71.
    While philosophers of mind have devoted abundant time and attention to questions of content and consciousness, philosophical questions about the nature and scope of mental action have been relatively neglected. Galen Strawson’s account of mental action, arguably the most well-known extant account, holds that cognitive mental action consists in triggering the delivery of content to one’s field of consciousness. However, Strawson fails to recognize several distinct types of mental action that might not reduce to triggering content delivery. In this paper, (...)
  8. added 2018-04-15
    Imaginative Moral Development.Nicolas Bommarito - 2017 - Journal of Value Inquiry 51 (2):251-262.
    The picture of moral development defended by followers of Aristotle takes moral cultivation to be like playing a harp; one gets to be good by actually spending time playing a real instrument. On this view, we cultivate a virtue by doing the actions associated with that virtue. I argue that this picture is inadequate and must be supplemented by imaginative techniques. One can, and sometimes must, cultivate virtue without actually performing the associated actions. Drawing on strands in Buddhist philosophy, I (...)
  9. added 2018-04-03
    Love: India’s Distinctive Moral Theory.Shyam Ranganathan - 2018 - In Adrienne Martin (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Love in Philosophy. New York: Routledge. pp. 371-381.
    In addition to the familiar moral theories of Virtue Ethics, Consequentialism and Deontology, India presents us with one unique moral theory: it may be called “Yoga” (discipline, meditation) but also “Bhakti,” which is typically translated as “Devotion” but is also translated as “Love.” In this chapter, I focus on Bhakti, in its formal and informal manifestations in Indian philosophy. In order to understand how it is a distinct and basic option of moral theory, I will identify four basic options of (...)
  10. added 2018-02-02
    Meditative Attention to Bodily Sensations: Conscious Attention Without Selection?Kranti Saran - 2018 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 25 (5-6):156-178.
    Prominent figures in the philosophical literature on attention hold that the connection between attention and selection is essential (Mole, 2011), necessary (Wu, 2011; 2014), or conceptual (Smithies, 2011). I argue that selection is neither essentially, necessarily, nor conceptually tied to attention. I first isolate the target conception of selection that I deny is so tightly coupled with attention: graded intramodal selection within consciousness. I analyse two visual cases: analysis of the first case shows that there can be attention without a (...)
  11. added 2018-01-10
    Meditation Matters: Replies to the Anti-McMindfulness Bandwagon!Rick Repetti & and Adam Burke Ron Purser, David Forbes - 2016 - In David Forbes Ron Purser (ed.), Handbook of Mindfulness: Culture, Context and Social Engagement. New Work, USA: Springer. pp. 473-494.
    A critical reply to the anti-mindfulness critics in the collection, who oppose the popular secularized adoption of mindfulness on various grounds (it is not Buddhism, it is Buddhism, it is a tool of neo-capitalist exploitation, etc.), I argue that mindfulness is a quality of consciousness, opposite mindlessness, that may be cultivated through practice, and is almost always beneficial to those who cultivate it.
  12. added 2017-12-21
    Facing Up to the Question of Ethics in Mindfulness-Based Interventions.Jake H. Davis - 2015 - Mindfulness 6 (1):46-48.
  13. added 2017-12-21
    Developing Attention and Decreasing Affective Bias: Towards a Cross-Cultural Cognitive Science of Mindfulness.Jake H. Davis & Evan Thompson - 2015 - In John D. Creswell Kirk W. Brown (ed.), Handbook of Mindfulness: Theory and Research,. Guilford Press.
  14. added 2017-12-21
    Can Enlightenment Be Traced to Specific Neural Correlates, Cognition, or Behavior? No, and (a Qualified) Yes.Jake H. Davis & David Vago - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology: Consciousness Research 4:870.
  15. added 2017-02-15
    “Just A Swinging Door” – Examining The Egocentric Misconception Of Meditation.Antti Saari & Jani Pulkki - 2012 - Paideusis: Journal of the Canadian Philosophy of Education Society 20 (2):15-24.
    Various kinds of contemplative practices have been a part of the western philosophical tradition since the Age of Antiquity. Today, however, philosophy as a way of life has ceased to be an integral part of academic practice. The capability to gain knowledge or understanding is believed to come out of pure intellectual endeavor, without exercising the mind and body holistically. This has created a blind spot for philosophy, where no profound pedagogical and moral transformation of subjectivity can be articulated. Furthermore, (...)
  16. added 2017-02-15
    PIEPER, JOSEF. "The End of Time. A Meditation on the Philosophy of History La Fin des Temps. Meditation Sur la Philosophie de L'Historie". [REVIEW]Peter W. Nash - 1955 - Modern Schoolman 33:127.
  17. added 2017-02-14
    Medi? Ation: Meditation and Medication in a Personal Tale of Clinical Depression.Sheva Carr - 1999 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43 (1):98.
  18. added 2017-02-13
    Training Effortless Attention.M. I. Posner, M. K. Rothbart, M. R. Rueda & Y. Tang - 2010 - In Brian Bruya (ed.), Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action. MIT Press.
    This chapter explains the concept of effort on the basis of evidence from experimental and cognitive psychology, demonstrates how it has been used in conducting studies of brain activity, and goes on to examine the individual differences that play a role in determining the efficiency of brain networks associated with effortful control. It also reviews certain educational training methods; those when used among children can change these networks, along with conditional changes developed in adults through meditation training. The findings reveal (...)
  19. added 2017-02-13
    The Impact of Positive and Negative Spiritual Experiences on Distress and the Moderating Role of Mindfulness.Niko Kohls, Harald Walach & George Lewith - 2009 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 31 (3):357-374.
    Both spiritual experiences and mindfulness as a psychological variable have been identified as components of wellbeing and health. As there is uncertainty about their relationship, we have investigated the impact of spiritual experiences and mindfulness as well as their interaction on distress in chronically ill patients. The unidimensional Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale , the multidimensional Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire , the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory , and the Brief Symptom Inventory were administered to 109 chronically ill patients. Fifty-eight patients reported regular and (...)
  20. added 2017-02-13
    Meditative Reason and the Logic of Communication.Ashok K. Gangadean - 1986 - In Martin Tamny & K. D. Irani (eds.), Rationality in Thought and Action. Greenwood Press. pp. 29--167.
  21. added 2017-02-13
    Zazen Als Christliche Meditation German Repr.Hugo Makibi Enomiya-Lassalle - 1968 - Kairos 10:162-174.
  22. added 2017-02-12
    Zen Meditation and Access to Information in the Unconscious.Madelijn Strick, Tirza Hj van Noorden, Rients R. Ritskes, Jan R. de Ruiter & Ap Dijksterhuis - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1476-1481.
    In two experiments and two different research paradigms, we tested the hypothesis that Zen meditation increases access to accessible but unconscious information. Zen practitioners who meditated in the lab performed better on the Remote Associate Test than Zen practitioners who did not meditate. In a new, second task, it was observed that Zen practitioners who meditated used subliminally primed words more than Zen practitioners who did not meditate. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
  23. added 2017-02-12
    Empathy, Intimacy, Attention, and Meditation: An Introduction.Sandra Costen Kunz - 2009 - Buddhist-Christian Studies 29:55-60.
  24. added 2017-02-12
    Practice Makes Better? A Study of Meditation Learners in a Classroom Environment.Chin‐Yen Lin, Tsung‐Hsien Kuo, Yen‐Ku Kuo, Yen‐Lin Kuo, Li‐An Ho & Chien‐Ting Lin - 2007 - Educational Studies 33 (1):65-80.
    The study investigates the effect of length of meditation history on various factors, namely learning motivation, learning outcome and classroom climate. Data were collected from working adult learners attending meditation classes in two large cities in Taiwan. The investigation categorized learners based on meditation experience, namely 10 years. The study investigated how experience affects learners in their perception of motivation, learning outcome and classroom climate, using one‐way ANOVA and post‐hoc analysis. Results showed a non‐linear ordered response—longer meditation experience does not (...)
  25. added 2017-02-12
    Praying with Anselm at Admont: A Meditation on Practice.Rachel Fulton - 2006 - Speculum 81 (3):700-733.
  26. added 2017-02-12
    The First Meditation (Philosophy and Carnival).E. Trias - 2000 - Filozofia 55 (2):139-150.
  27. added 2017-02-12
    Philosophy and Meditation.S. Galik - 2000 - Filozofia 55 (5):439-441.
  28. added 2017-02-11
    Meditation Als Soziale Erfahrung.Birgit Althans - 2013 - Paragrana: Internationale Zeitschrift für Historische Anthropologie 22 (2):252-263.
  29. added 2017-02-10
    Applied Yoga Psychology Studies of Neurophysiology of Meditation.K. Ramakrishna Rao - 2011 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (11-12):11-12.
  30. added 2017-02-09
    Levels of Immersion, Tacit Knowledge and Expertise.Rodrigo Ribeiro - 2013 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):367-397.
    This paper elaborates on the link between different types and degrees of experience that can be gone through within a form of life or collectivity—the so-called levels of immersion—and the development of distinct types of tacit knowledge and expertise. The framework is then probed empirically and theoretically. In the first case, its ‘predictions’ are compared with the accounts of novices who have gone through different ‘learning opportunities’ during a pre-operational training programme for running a huge nickel industrial plant in Brazil. (...)
  31. added 2017-01-29
    Brief Mindfulness Induction Could Reduce Aggression After Depletion.Cleoputri Yusainy & Claire Lawrence - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:125-134.
  32. added 2017-01-29
    The Protective Effects of Brief Mindfulness Meditation Training.Jonathan B. Banks, Matthew S. Welhaf & Alexandra Srour - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:277-285.
  33. added 2017-01-29
    How Does It Feel to Lack a Sense of Boundaries? A Case Study of a Long-Term Mindfulness Meditator.Yochai Ataria, Yair Dor-Ziderman & Aviva Berkovich-Ohana - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 37:133-147.
  34. added 2017-01-29
    Working Mindfully: Can Mindfulness Improve Work-Related Wellbeing and Work Effectiveness?William Van Gordon, Edo Shonin, Katie Skelton & Mark Griffiths - 2014 - Counselling at Work:14-19.
    There is currently growing interest among occupational stakeholders in the applications of mindfulness in the workplace. In addition to discussing the potential role that mindfulness may have in improving psychological wellbeing inside and outside of work, previous Counselling at Work articles on mindfulness have explored the change management implications associated with rolling out mindfulness interventions at the organisational level.1,2 Following a brief explanation of what we mean by the term ‘mindfulness’, this article complements these earlier perspectives by providing: (i) an (...)
  35. added 2017-01-29
    5. The Strategy of the First Meditation.Harry G. Frankfurt - 2009 - In Demons, Dreamers, and Madmen: The Defense of Reason in Descartes's "Meditations". Princeton University Press. pp. 60-74.
  36. added 2017-01-29
    Man and God: A Physiological Meditation, Tr. From the French.Jean Marie A. Perot - 1881
  37. added 2017-01-28
    Applied Yoga Psychology Studies of Neurophysiology of Meditation.K. Rao - 2011 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (11-12):161-198.
    Yoga-Sutras of Patanjali is a foundational psychological text that organizes, codifies, and systematically presents in s_tra form the psychology as practised in India around second century BCE. Its theme is to help humans free themselves from their congenital bondage due to conditioned existence and consequent suffering. The goal is to restore the person to her inherent unconditioned blissful being. The quintessence of Yoga is meditation. Meditation consists of dharana and dhyana, a contemplative state of passive attention precipitated by a prolonged (...)
  38. added 2017-01-28
    Bridging East-West Perspectives Through an Application of Mindfulness Meditation.Lise M. Cassinelli - 2011 - Dissertation, Proquest
  39. added 2017-01-28
    Reflections on a Silent Meditation Retreat: A Beginner’s Perspective.Chad Johnson - 2009 - International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 28 (1):134-138.
    This paper explores the experience of a silent meditation retreat from the perspective of a novice practitioner. The 7-day Scientist Meditation Retreat was held at the Spirit Rock Meditation Center in Woodacre, California. It was intended to provide meditation researchers an intensive silent retreat experience. The author shares his reflections throughout the retreat and concludes with some of the personal insights he gained.
  40. added 2017-01-28
    Inner Light Perception of Vihangam Yogis: A Qualitative Study.Ravi Prakash, Z. Ul Haq, O. Prakash, S. Sarkhel & D. Kumar - 2009 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 16 (2-3):124-140.
    Meditation hasrecently emerged as a topic of interest for the medicinal scientists as well as for the neuropsychological scientists for different reasons. The methods used by both of these approaches have been mostly objective. This quest of objectification has led to vigorous use of tools like EEG and ERP, which has definitely led to revealing of marvellous aspects of meditation. However, the subjective states of meditation have been much less explored, especially when seen in contrast to the objective states. The (...)
  41. added 2017-01-28
    Mindfulness in Measurement: Reconsidering the Measurable in Mindfulness Practice.Sharon Solloway & William Fisher Jr - 2007 - International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 26:58-81.
    Can an organic partnership of qualitative and quantitative data confirm the value of mindfulness practice as an assignment in undergraduate education? Working from qualitative evidence suggesting the existence of potentially measurable mindfulness effects expressed in ruler measures, a previous study calibrated a mathematically invariant scale of mindfulness practice effects with substantively and statistically significant differences in the measures before and after the assignment. Current efforts replicated these results. The quantitative model is described in measurement terms defined at an introductory level. (...)
  42. added 2017-01-28
    Meta-Analysis of Meditation Outcomes in Counseling and Psychotherapy.Leonard Chinaka Anyanwu - 1998 - Dissertation, University of North Texas
    Meditation inclues a variety of techniques that share a common conscious effort to focus attention in a non-analytic way. In terms of its goals, meditation is a state of completely focused attention devoid of external thoughts--a state of heighted choice-less awareness. ;This study was designed to: Identify and critically review professional literature on the effectiveness of meditation; Provide an overall measure of effectiveness through the statistical meta-analysis technique; Provide a classification of findings through the voting method; and summarize and integrate (...)
  43. added 2017-01-28
    Meditation on Metaphysics.Abbe Lanion - 1996 - Indian Philosophical Quarterly 23 (1-2):233.
  44. added 2017-01-28
    A Phenomenological Inquiry of Six Psychotherapists Who Practice Buddhist Meditation.Alan Dreifuss - 1990 - Dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies
    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of Buddhist meditation practice on the attitude, work and lived experience of therapists and their self-reported experiences of work with clients. The research describes particular dynamics and effects of meditation on six psychotherapists who practiced Buddhist meditation for over five years in the Theravadin , Zen and Vajrayana traditions. Interviews and follow-up interviews were conducted by the researcher combining both structured and open-ended formats. A phenomenological analysis of the interviews with (...)
  45. added 2017-01-28
    The Goal of Meditation.Nakamura Hajime - 1986 - Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 13 (1):63-79.
  46. added 2017-01-28
    The Self and Pure Consciousness.Jonathan Shear - 1972 - Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
  47. added 2017-01-28
    CONZE, Buddhist Meditation. [REVIEW]A. N. Marlow - 1955 - Hibbert Journal 54:411.
  48. added 2017-01-28
    Dernière Méditation. Savonarole & Ch Journet - 1949 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 5 (4):484-484.
  49. added 2017-01-28
    Meditation on Berdyaev's "Three Times".E. M. Rowell - 1949 - Hibbert Journal 48:252.
  50. added 2017-01-28
    A Meditation on the Living God.T. B. Luard - 1943 - Hibbert Journal 42:193.
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