Memory

Edited by John Sutton (Macquarie University)
Assistant editor: Sadegh Balal Niaki (University of Western Ontario)
About this topic
Summary

Remembering takes many distinctive forms. Philosophers have primarily discussed the form of memory in which I remember episodes and experiences in my own past. Such ‘personal’ (or ‘experiential’ or ‘episodic’) memories seem to represent the past events to which they refer, and to depend on certain kinds of causal connections between past and present. In ‘factual’ or ‘semantic’ memory, in contrast, I need not have personally experienced what I now remember. ‘Declarative’ memory of both these forms aims at truth, but can go wrong in minor or dramatic ways. We also remember both to do certain things (‘prospective’ memory), and how to do certain things (‘procedural’ memory). Philosophers discuss the nature, functions, and mechanisms of memory; its relations to perception, imagination, dreams, emotions, and knowledge; and its connections with personal identity, responsibility, and our moral and social lives. Memory is an active topic of interdisciplinary research between philosophy, cognitive science, and the social sciences.

Key works Theories of memory in the premodern history of philosophy are discussed by Draaisma 2000, Krell 1990, and Sutton 1998. Rich and wide-ranging theoretical treatments include Campbell 2003, Hacking 1995, and Middleton & Brown 2005. The causal theory of memory is developed in Martin & Deutscher 1966, while important work on personal or autobiographical memory includes Campbell 1997, Hoerl 1999, and Goldie 2012. CASEY 1987 offers a phenomenological treatment of memory, while Stern 1991 develops a Wittgensteinian approach. Sheets-Johnstone 2003 discusses kinesthetic or bodily memory. Ideas about social aspects of memory are developed by Wegner et al 1985.
Introductions Warnock 1987 is a fine, wide-ranging first read on the philosophy of memory, while Engel 1999 and Schacter 1996 offer provocative introductions to the psychology of memory. Sutton 2009 surveys a range of ideas about situated and social memory, while Boyer & Wertsch 2009 is a good collection of interdisciplinary essays.
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  1. Personal Information as Symmetry Breaker in Disagreements.Diego E. Machuca - forthcoming - Philosophy.
    When involved in a disagreement, a common reaction is to tell oneself that one is privy to personal information that justifies one’s confidence that one’s view is correct. Conversely, either one lacks the same kind of information about one’s opponent or, if one does possess it, it is clearly inferior in both amount and quality. Building on this natural reaction to disagreement, some contributors to the debate on its epistemic significance have claimed that one can stick to one’s guns by (...)
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  2. Memory, the fork asymmetry, and the initial state.Athamos Stradis - forthcoming - Synthese:1-25.
    Why do we have records of the past and not the future? Entropic explanations for this ‘record asymmetry’ have been popular ever since Boltzmann. Foremost amongst these is Albert and Loewer’s account, which explains the record asymmetry using a low-entropy initial macrostate plus an initial probability distribution. However, the details of how this initial state underpins the record asymmetry are not fully specified. In this paper I attempt to plug this explanatory gap in two steps. First, I suggest the record (...)
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  3. A Critical Review of Network-Based and Distributional Approaches to Semantic Memory Structure and Processes.Abhilasha A. Kumar, Mark Steyvers & David A. Balota - forthcoming - Topics in Cognitive Science.
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  4. Experience, heteroglosia and memory in Bruno Vvidal’s Rompan filas: figurines of horror as a fictional exercise.Gonzalo Rojas Canouet - 2020 - Alpha (Osorno) 51:97-107.
    Resumen: Este ensayo analizará el libro Rompan Filas de Bruno Vidal desde tres líneas de sentido, la alegoría, la heteroglosia y el giro subjetivo para definir el vaivén entre lo testimonial y lo poético, la contradicción. Este aspecto central de este trabajo se desprenderá desde la alegoría del horror como elemento problematizador de lo narrable de las experiencias traumáticas; la refracción de voces conduce a una heteroglosia que lleva consigo una responsabilidad como ética del texto; por último, el filtro prerrogativo (...)
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  5. The Relationship Between Confidence and Conformity in a Non-Routine Counting Task With Young Children: Dedicated to the Memory of Purificación Rodríguez.Ma Oliva Lago, Ana Escudero & Cristina Dopico - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Counting is a complex cognitive process that is paramount to arithmetical development at school. The improvement of counting skills of children depends on their understanding of the logical and conventional rules involved. While the logical rules are mandatory and related to one-to-one correspondence, stable order, and cardinal principles, conventional rules are optional and associated with social customs. This study contributes to unravel the conceptual understanding of counting rules of children. It explores, with a developmental approach, the performance of children on (...)
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  6. Manipulations of List Type in the DRM Paradigm: A Review of How Structural and Conceptual Similarity Affect False Memory. [REVIEW]Jennifer H. Coane, Dawn M. McBride, Mark J. Huff, Kai Chang, Elizabeth M. Marsh & Kendal A. Smith - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The use of list-learning paradigms to explore false memory has revealed several critical findings about the contributions of similarity and relatedness in memory phenomena more broadly. Characterizing the nature of “similarity and relatedness” can inform researchers about factors contributing to memory distortions and about the underlying associative and semantic networks that support veridical memory. Similarity can be defined in terms of semantic properties, lexical/associative properties, or structural properties. By manipulating the type of list and its relationship to a non-studied critical (...)
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  7. Music and Memory in Vernon Lee (Violet Paget) (1856-1935).Marina Trakas - 2019 - Encyclopedia of Concise Concepts by Women Philosophers.
    The relationship between music and memory is mainly developed in Music and Its Lovers (1932), a book where Lee presents interesting psychological and philosophical insights from the analysis of the responses made by 150 people to a questionnaire about the “expressive and emotional powers of music”. In this short encyclopedic entry, I present Lee's analysis of the many different ways in which musical experience depends on memory.
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  8. Affective Memory in Vernon Lee (Violet Paget) (1856-1935).Marina Trakas - 2019 - Encyclopedia of Concise Concepts by Women Philosophers.
    The notion of affective memory was first introduced by Théodule Ribot (1894), giving rise to a debate about its existence at the beginning of the 20th century. Although Vernon Lee did not directly take part in this discussion, she conceptualized this notion in a quite precise way, mainly in her book Music and Its Lovers (1932), clarifying the sometimes obscure formulations made by previous authors. In this short encyclopedic entry, I present Lee's characterization of affective memory.
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  9. Perceptual Imagination and Perceptual Memory: An Overview.Fiona Macpherson - 2018 - In Fabian Dorsch & Fiona Macpherson (eds.), Perceptual Imagination and Perceptual Memory. pp. 1-5.
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  10. Stress and Imagining Future Selves: Resolve in the Hot/Cool Framework.Janet Metcalfe & William James Jacobs - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Although Ainslie dismisses the hot/cool framework as pertaining only to suppression, it actually also has interesting implications for resolve. Resolve focally involves access to our future selves. This access is a cool system function linked to episodic memory. Thus, factors negatively affecting the cool system, such as stress, are predicted to impact two seemingly unrelated capabilities: willpower and episodic memory.
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  11. “In Imitation of Hadrian:” Memory and Urban Construction in the Late Antique Near East.Walter D. Ward - 2021 - Journal of Ancient History 9 (1):185-202.
    An inscription from Scythopolis commemorates the actions of a late fourth-century governor who “in imitation of Hadrian... rebuilt his own mother city.” This paper explores the memory of Hadrian in the Near East. It begins by examining Hadrian’s actions in the Near East, including the period prior to becoming emperor and his visit in 129/30 CE. It finishes with a discussion of Silvanus and Scythopolis and argues that Silvanus was responsible for repairing the odeum in the city which was damaged (...)
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  12. “The Sleeping Beauty of the Brain”: Memory, MIT, Montreal, and the Origins of Neuroscience.Yvan Prkachin - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):22-44.
  13. False Procedural Memory.Urim Retkoceri - 2021 - Philosophical Psychology 34 (3):397-423.
    Lately, it seems a number of philosophical memory theories are incorporating false memory phenomena into their conceptual frameworks. At the same time, scientific research is extending its analysis of false memories to nondeclarative forms of memory. However, both sides have paid little attention to the notion of false procedural memory. Yet, from everyday experience as well as from psychological investigation, we are aware of different ways procedural memory goes wrong. Here, I characterize the conceptual foundation of false procedural memory. First, (...)
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  14. Autobiographical Memory and Social Identity in Autism: Preliminary Results of Social Positioning and Cognitive Intervention.Prany Wantzen, Amélie Boursette, Elodie Zante, Jeanne Mioche, Francis Eustache, Fabian Guénolé, Jean-Marc Baleyte & Bérengère Guillery-Girard - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Autobiographical memory is closely linked to the self-concept, and fulfills directive, identity, social, and adaptive functions. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder are now known to have atypical AM, which may be closely associated with social communication difficulties. This may result in qualitatively different autobiographical narratives, notably regarding social identity. In the present study, we sought to investigate this concept and develop a cognitive intervention targeting individuals with ASD. First, 13 adolescents with ASD and 13 typically developing adolescents underwent an AM (...)
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  15. Evans on Intellectual Attention and Memory Demonstratives.Mark Fortney - forthcoming - Analytic Philosophy.
    Intellectual attention, like perceptual attention, is a special mode of mental engagement with the world. When we attend intellectually, rather than making use of sensory information we make use of the kind of information that shows up in occurent thought, memory, and the imagination (Chun, Golomb, & Turk-Browne, 2011). In this paper, I argue that reflecting on what it is like to comprehend memory demonstratives speaks in favour of the view that intellectual attention is required to understand memory demonstratives. Moreover, (...)
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  16. Brain Death: What We Are and When We Die.Lukas Meier - 2020 - Dissertation, University of St. Andrews
    When does a human being cease to exist? For millennia, the answer to this question had remained largely unchanged: death had been diagnosed when heartbeat and breathing were permanently absent. Only comparatively recently, in the 1950s, rapid developments in intensive-care medicine called into question this widely accepted criterion. What had previously been deemed a permanent cessation of vital functions suddenly became reversible. -/- A new criterion of death was needed. It was suggested that the destruction of the brain could indicate (...)
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  17. The Association Between Effectiveness of Tinnitus Intervention and Cognitive Function—A Systematic Review.Tianxiang Lan, Zuwei Cao, Fei Zhao & Nick Perham - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Tinnitus refers to the perception of sound in the absence of an external stimulus. This can be problematic and can lead to health problems in some sufferers, including effects on cognitive functions such as attention and memory. Although several studies have examined the effectiveness of tinnitus interventions, e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy and sound therapy, it is still unclear as to the overall quality and limitations of these studies and whether their results could be generalized. Clarification is also needed as to (...)
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  18. The Missing Link Between Memory and Reinforcement Learning.Christian Balkenius, Trond A. Tjøstheim, Birger Johansson, Annika Wallin & Peter Gärdenfors - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Reinforcement learning systems usually assume that a value function is defined over all states that can immediately give the value of a particular state or action. These values are used by a selection mechanism to decide which action to take. In contrast, when humans and animals make decisions, they collect evidence for different alternatives over time and take action only when sufficient evidence has been accumulated. We have previously developed a model of memory processing that includes semantic, episodic and working (...)
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  19. What Experience Doesn't Teach: Pain Amnesia and a New Paradigm for Memory Research.B. G. Montero - 2020 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 27 (11-12):102-125.
    Do we remember what pain feels like? Investigations into this question have sometimes led to ambiguous or apparently contradictory results. Building on research on pain memory by Rohini Terry and colleagues, I argue that this lack of agreement may be due in part to the difficulty researchers face when trying to convey to their study's participants the type of memory they are being tasked with recalling. To address this difficulty, I introduce the concept of 'qualitative memory', which, arguably, is the (...)
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  20. A Principled Approach to Feature Selection in Models of Sentence Processing.Garrett Smith & Shravan Vasishth - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (12).
    Among theories of human language comprehension, cue‐based memory retrieval has proven to be a useful framework for understanding when and how processing difficulty arises in the resolution of long‐distance dependencies. Most previous work in this area has assumed that very general retrieval cues like [+subject] or [+singular] do the work of identifying (and sometimes misidentifying) a retrieval target in order to establish a dependency between words. However, recent work suggests that general, handpicked retrieval cues like these may not be enough (...)
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  21. Bayesianism and Self-Doubt.Darren Bradley - forthcoming - Synthese:1-19.
    How should we respond to evidence when our evidence indicates that we are rationally impaired? I will defend a novel answer based on the analogy between self-doubt and memory loss. To believe that one is now impaired and previously was not is to believe that one’s epistemic position has deteriorated. Memory loss is also a form of epistemic deterioration. I argue that agents who suffer from epistemic deterioration should return to the priors they had at an earlier time. I develop (...)
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  22. Kritik über Sassi (2007): Tracce nella mente. Teorie della memoria da Platone ai moderni.Antonio Cimino - 2008 - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 13 (1):269-271.
  23. From Collective Memory ... To Collective Metamemory?Santiago Arango-Munoz & Kourken Michaelian - 2020 - In Anika Fiebich (ed.), Minimal Cooperation and Shared Agency. Studies in the Philosophy of Sociality, vol 11. pp. 195-217.
    Ouraiminthischapteristodelineatetheformofsharedagencythatwe take to be manifested in collective memory. We argue for two theses. First, we argue that, given a relatively weak conception of episodicity, certain small-scale groups display a form of emergent (i.e., genuinely collective) episodic memory, while large-scale groups, in contrast, do not display emergent episodic memory. Second, we argue that this form of emergent memory presupposes (high-level and possibly low-level) metamemorial capacities, capacities that are, however, not themselves emergent group-level features but rather strictly individual-level features. The form of (...)
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  24. Memory Altering Technologies and the Capacity to Forgive: Westworld and Volf in Dialogue.Michelle A. Marvin - 2020 - Zygon 55 (3):713-732.
    I explore the impact of memory altering technologies in the science fiction drama (2016–2020) in order to show that unreconciled altered traumatic memory may lead to a dystopian breakdown of society. I bring Miroslav Volf's theological perspectives on memory into conversation with the plot of Westworld in order to reveal connections between memory altering technologies and humanity's responsibility to remember rightly. Using Volf's theology of remembering as an interpretive lens, I analyze characters’ inability to remember rightly while recalling partial memories (...)
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  25. Remembering the Past and Imagining the Actual.Daniel Munro - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 12 (2).
    Recently, a view I refer to as “hypothetical continuism” has garnered some favour among philosophers, based largely on empirical research showing substantial neurocognitive overlaps between episodic memory and imagination. According to this view, episodically remembering past events is the same kind of cognitive process as sensorily imagining future and counterfactual events. In this paper, I first argue that hypothetical continuism is false, on the basis of substantive epistemic asymmetries between episodic memory and the relevant kinds of imagination. However, I then (...)
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  26. Mental Time Travel? A Neurocognitive Model of Event Simulation.Donna Rose Addis - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):233-259.
    Mental time travel is defined as projecting the self into the past and the future. Despite growing evidence of the similarities of remembering past and imagining future events, dominant theories conceive of these as distinct capacities. I propose that memory and imagination are fundamentally the same process – constructive episodic simulation – and demonstrate that the ‘simulation system’ meets the three criteria of a neurocognitive system. Irrespective of whether one is remembering or imagining, the simulation system: acts on the same (...)
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  27. Remembering: Epistemic and Empirical.Carl F. Craver - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):261-281.
    The construct “remembering” is equivocal between an epistemic sense, denoting a distinctive ground for knowledge, and empirical sense, denoting the typical behavior of a neurocognitive mechanism. Because the same kind of equivocation arises for other psychologistic terms, the effort to spot and remedy the confusion in the case of remembering might prove generally instructive. The failure to allow these two senses of remembering equal play in their respective domains leads, I argue, to unnecessary confusion about memory externalism, the possibility of (...)
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  28. Is Remembering to Do a Special Kind of Memory?Thor Grünbaum & Søren Kyllingsbæk - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):385-404.
    When a person decides to do something in the future, she forms an intention and her intention persists. Philosophers have thought about the rational requirement that an agent’s intention persists until its execution. But philosophers have neglected to think about the causal memory mechanisms that could enable this kind of persistence and its role in rational long-term agency. Our aim of this paper is to fill this gap by arguing that memory for intention is a specific kind of memory. We (...)
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  29. Editorial: Memory as Mental Time Travel.André Sant’Anna, Kourken Michaelian & Denis Perrin - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):223-232.
    Originally understood as memory for the “what”, the “when”, and the “where” of experienced past events, episodic memory has, in recent years, been redefined as a form of past-oriented mental time travel. Following a brief review of empirical research on memory as mental time travel, this introduction provides an overview of the contributions to the special issue, which explore the theoretical implications of that research.
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  30. Still Life, a Mirror: Phasic Memory and Re-Encounters with Artworks.Clare Mac Cumhaill - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):423-446.
    Re-encountering certain kinds of artworks in the present (re-listening to music, re- reading novels) can often occasion a kind of recollection akin to episodic recollection, but which may be better cast as ‘phasic’, at least insofar as one can be said to remember ‘what it was like’ to be oneself at some earlier stage or phase in one’s personal history. The kinds of works that prompt such recollection, I call ‘still lives’ - they are limited wholes whose formal properties are (...)
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  31. Mental Time Travel and Disjunctivism.István Aranyosi - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):367-384.
    The paper discusses radical constructivism about episodic memory as developed by Kourken Michaelian under the name of “simulationism”, a view that equates episodic memory with mental time travel. An alternative, direct realist view is defended, which implies disjunctivism about the appearance of remembering. While admitting the importance of mental time travel as an underlying cognitive mechanism in episodic memory, as well as the prima facie reasonableness of the simulationist’s critique of disjunctivism, I formulate three arguments in defense of disjunctivism, which (...)
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  32. The Experience of Being Oneself in Memory: Exploring Sense of Identity via Observer Memory.Ying-Tung Lin - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):405-422.
    Every episodic memory entails a sense of identity, which allows us to mentally travel through time. There is a special way by which the subject who is remembering comes into contact with the self that is embedded in the episodic simulation of memory: we can directly and robustly experience the protagonist in memory as ourselves. This paper explores what constitutes such experience in memory. On the face of it, the issue may seem trivial: of course, we are able to entertain (...)
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  33. Rewarding one’s Future Self: Psychological Connectedness, Episodic Prospection, and a Puzzle about Perspective.Christopher Jude McCarroll & Erica Cosentino - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):449-467.
    When faced with intertemporal choices, which have consequences that unfold over time, we often discount the future, preferring smaller immediate rewards often at the expense of long-term benefits. How psychologically connected one feels to one’s future self-influences such temporal discounting. Psychological connectedness consists in sharing psychological properties with past or future selves, but connectedness comes in degrees. If one feels that one is not psychologically connected to one’s future self, one views that self like a different person and is less (...)
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  34. Defending Discontinuism, Naturally.Sarah Robins - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):469-486.
    The more interest philosophers take in memory, the less agreement there is that memory exists—or more precisely, that remembering is a distinct psychological kind or mental state. Concerns about memory’s distinctiveness are triggered by observations of its similarity to imagination. The ensuing debate is cast as one between discontinuism and continuism. The landscape of debate is set such that any extensive engagement with empirical research into episodic memory places one on the side of continuism. Discontinuists concerns are portrayed as almost (...)
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  35. Self-Referential Memory and Mental Time Travel.Jordi Fernández - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):283-300.
    Episodic memory has a distinctive phenomenology. One way to capture what is distinctive about it is by using the notion of mental time travel: When we remember some fact episodically, we mentally travel to the moment at which we experienced it in the past. This way of distinguishing episodic memory from semantic memory calls for an explanation of what the experience of mental time travel is. In this paper, I suggest that a certain view about the content of memories can (...)
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  36. Business as usual and Ovsyankina effect.Andrej Poleev - 2020 - Enzymes 18.
    Die Wiederaufnahme unterbrochener Handlungen nach der Aussetzung der Maßnahmen zur Eindämmung von CoVid19 veranschaulicht Unveränderlichkeit und Unvergänglichkeit regressives Zustandes, in dem sich weite Teile der Bevölkerung befinden. Nach kurzer Unterbrechung kommt alles in gewöhnten Kreis alltäglicher Routine und Gedankenlosigkeit, mit denen solche Aufgaben erledigt werden. Nichts, aber gar nichts änderte sich nach dem Unglück, das eigentlich, wie in meisten solchen Fällen, die Gelegenheit bietet, über sich selbst und die Welt nachzudenken.
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  37. Women and National Socialism in Postwar German Literature: Gender, Memory, and Subjectivity. By Katherine Stone. Pp. 232, Rochester, NY, Camden House, 2017, $65.00. [REVIEW]Patrick Madigan - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (3):580-581.
  38. Rena Molho: Der Holocaust der griechischen Juden. Studien zur Geschichte und Erinnerung. Aus dem Griechischen übersetzt von Lulu Bail, mit einem Prolog von Nikos Zaikos, Bonn: Verlag J. H. Dietz 2016, 263 S. [REVIEW]Martin Arndt - 2020 - Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 72 (2):230-231.
  39. Investigações acerca do objeto intencional da memória.Úrsula Lied - 2019 - XVII Semana Acadêmica de Filosofia.
    Este artigo pretende analisar três teorias a respeito do que é o objeto intencional da memória. As teorias abordadas são o realismo direto, o realismo representativo e o pragmatismo em filosofia da memória. A primeira delas defende que quando lembramos, acessamos um evento passado sem intermédios; a segunda argumenta que acessamos diretamente uma representação do evento passado; a última, elaborada recentemente, afirma que nossas lembranças são determinadas por nossas ações. Apresentamos a ideia central de cada teoria, com quais outras teorias (...)
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  40. Embodied Remembering.Kellie Williamson & John Sutton - 2014 - In L. A. Shapiro (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition. Routledge. pp. 315--325.
    Experiences of embodied remembering are familiar and diverse. We settle bodily into familiar chairs or find our way easily round familiar rooms. We inhabit our own kitchens or cars or workspaces effectively and comfortably, and feel disrupted when our habitual and accustomed objects or technologies change or break or are not available. Hearing a particular song can viscerally bring back either one conversation long ago, or just the urge to dance. Some people explicitly use their bodies to record, store, or (...)
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  41. Against Overconfidence: Arguing for the Accessibility of Memorial Justification.Jonathan Egeland Harouny - forthcoming - Synthese:1-21.
    In this article, I argue that access internalism should replace preservationism, which has been called “a received view” in the epistemology of memory, as the standard position about memorial justification. My strategy for doing so is two-pronged. First, I argue that the considerations which motivate preservationism also support access internalism. Preservationism is mainly motivated by its ability to answer the explanatory challenges posed by the problem of stored belief and the problem of forgotten evidence. However, as I will demonstrate, access (...)
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  42. The Relationship Between Endowment and Ownership Effects in Memory Across Cultures.Philip Collard, Alexandra Walford, Lucy Vernon, Fumihiko Itagaki & David Turk - 2020 - Consciousness and Cognition 78:102865.
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  43. Some thoughts on memory from Wittgenstein / Considerações acerca da memória a partir de Wittgenstein.Rodrigo Cid - 2010 - Prometeus: Filosofia em Revista 3:69-78.
    This article intends to present the thought of Wittgenstein – mainly from his notes at Philosophical Investigations (PI), Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology (RPP), and Last Writings on the Philosophy of Psychology (LW) – and of his commentators about important thesis on memory. This one is a major epistemic problem, since our knowledge of the past facts comes from it. Provided that it sometimes fails, is important to know of what we are talking about when we use the term (...)
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  44. Человек – это память.Andrej Poleev - 2019 - Enzymes 17.
    Человек – это память. Чтобы понять, что такое человек, необходимо понять, что такое память.
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  45. Eye-Closure & the Retrieval of Item-Specific Information in Recognition Memory.Andrew Parker & Neil Dagnall - 2020 - Consciousness and Cognition 77:102858.
  46. Observer Memory and Immunity to Error Through Misidentification.Jordi Fernández - forthcoming - Synthese (1):641-660.
    Are those judgments that we make on the basis of our memories immune to error through misidentification? In this paper, I discuss a phenomenon which seems to suggest that they are not; the phenomenon of observer memory. I argue that observer memories fail to show that memory judgments are not IEM. However, the discussion of observer memories will reveal an interesting fact about the perspectivity of memory; a fact that puts us on the right path towards explaining why memory judgments (...)
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  47. Memory: A Self-Referential Account.Jordi Fernandez - 2019 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    This book offers a philosophical account of memory. Memory is remarkably interesting from a philosophical point of view. Our memories interact with mental states of other types in a characteristic way. They also have some associated feelings that other mental states lack. Our memories are special in terms of their representational capacity too, since we can have memories of objective events, and we can have memories of our own past experiences. Finally, our memories are epistemically special, in that beliefs formed (...)
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  48. The Functional Character of Memory.Jordi Fernandez - 2018 - In Dorothea Debus Kourken Michaelian (ed.), New Directions in the Philosophy of Memory. London: pp. 52-72.
    The purpose of this chapter is to determine what is to remember something, as opposed to imagining it, perceiving it, or introspecting it. What does it take for a mental state to qualify as remembering, or having a memory of, something? The main issue to be addressed is therefore a metaphysical one. It is the issue of determining which features those mental states which qualify as memories typically enjoy, and those states which do not qualify as such typically lack. In (...)
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  49. Intentional Objects of Memory.Jordi Fernandez - 2017 - In Sven Bernecker & Kourken Michaelian (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Memory. London, UK: pp. 88-100.
    Memories are mental states with a number of interesting features. One of those features seems to be their having an intentional object. After all, we commonly say that memories are about things, and that a subject represents the world in a certain way by virtue of remembering something. It is unclear, however, what sorts of entities constitute the intentional objects of memory. In particular, it is not clear whether those are mind-independent entities in the world or whether they are mental (...)
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  50. Insight: What Is It, Exactly? — A Commentary on Ursula Voss and Allan Hobson.Lana Kuhle - 2015 - In Thomas Metzinger & Jennifer M. Windt (eds.), Open MIND: Philosophy and the Mind Sciences in the 21st Century. Cambridge: pp. 1629-1641.
    In “What is the state-of-the-art on lucid dreaming? Recent advances and ques- tions for future research”, Ursula Voss and Allan Hobson provide a detailed view of the features characterizing lucid dreaming and put forward four innovative hy- potheses to explain why and how lucid dreaming occurs, as well as how lucid dream states are related to other states of consciousness. Their aim is to show that not only is there benefit to studying lucid dreaming in itself, as this would give (...)
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