Mencius

Edited by Hagop Sarkissian (CUNY Graduate Center, Baruch College (CUNY))
Assistant editor: Andrew Lambert (College of Staten Island (CUNY))
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193 found
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  1. added 2020-04-27
    Confucianism and American Philosophy. [REVIEW]Andrew Lambert - 2017 - Review of Metaphysics 71 (4).
  2. added 2020-04-17
    Emotional Attachment and Its Limits: Mengzi, Gaozi and the Guodian Discussions.Karyn L. Lai - 2019 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 14 (1):132-151.
    Mengzi maintained that both benevolence (ren 仁) and rightness (yi 義) are naturally-given in human nature. This view has occupied a dominant place in Confucian intellectual history. In Mencius 6A, Mengzi's interlocutor, Gaozi, contests this view, arguing that rightness is determined by (doing what is fitting, in line with) external circumstances. I discuss here some passages from the excavated Guodian texts, which lend weight to Gaozi's view. The texts reveal nuanced considerations of relational proximity and its limits, setting up requirements (...)
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  3. added 2019-10-11
    Structured Inclusivism About Human Flourishing: A Mengzian Formulation.Matthew D. Walker - 2013 - In Stephen C. Angle & Michael Slote (eds.), Virtue Ethics and Confucianism. New York, NY, USA: pp. 94-102.
  4. added 2019-09-13
    Mencius, Hume, and the Virtue of Humanity: Sources of Benevolent Moral Development.Jeremiah Carey & Rico Vitz - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-21.
    In this paper, we elucidate the moral psychology and what we might call the moral sociology of Mencius and of Hume, and we argue for three claims. First, we demonstrate that there are strong similarities between Mencius and Hume concerning some of the principal psychological sources of the virtue of humanity. Second, we show that there are strong similarities between the two concerning some of the principal social sources of the virtue of humanity. Third, we argue that there are related, (...)
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  5. added 2019-06-11
    Human Nature and Moral Education in Mencius, Xunzi, Hobbes, and Rousseau.Eric Schwitzgebel - 2007 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 24 (2):147 - 168.
    (2007) History of Philosophy Quarterly. 24, 147-168.
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  6. added 2019-06-06
    Translating (and Interpreting) the Mengzi: Virtue, Obligation, and Discretion.Stephen C. Angle - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (4):676-683.
  7. added 2019-06-06
    Mengzi's 孟子 Inheritance, Criticism, and Overcoming of Moist Thought 1.Weixiang Ding - 2008 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (3):403-419.
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  8. added 2019-06-06
    Special Topic: Filial Piety: The Root of Morality or the Source of Corruption?: Confucianism and Corruption: An Analysis of Shun’s Two Actions Described by Mencius.Liu Qingping - 2007 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 6 (1):1-19.
    Confucianism advocates the lofty moral ideal of humane love (ren ai 仁愛) and condemns immoral actions. Strangely enough, however, Mencius, a paradigmatic Confucian intellectual who believed that a true man cannot be corrupted by wealth, subdued by power, or affected by poverty (Tu 1989a: 15), highly commended such typically corrupt actions as bending the law for the benefit of relatives or appointing people by mere nepotism when he talked about Shun 舜 in the text of the Mencius. In the first (...)
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  9. added 2019-06-06
    Review of Mencius on Becoming Human by James Behuniak Jr. [REVIEW]Franklin Perkins - 2007 - Philosophy East and West 57 (4):596-599.
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    Mencius' Criticism of Mohism: An Analysis of "Meng Tzu" 3A: 5.Kwong-loi Shun - 1991 - Philosophy East and West 41 (2):203-214.
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  11. added 2019-06-06
    Mencius and the Mind-Inherence of Morality: Mencius' Rejection of Kao Tzu's Maxim in "Meng Tzu" 2A:2.Kwong-Loi Shun - 1991 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 18 (4):371.
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  12. added 2019-06-06
    An Examination of Mencius' Theory of Human Nature With Reference to Kant.Philip Ho Hwang - 1983 - Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 74 (3):343.
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  13. added 2019-06-06
    The Sayings of Mencius.James Roland Mencius & Ware - 1960 - New American Library.
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  14. added 2019-03-10
    Growing Virtue: The Theory and Science of Developing Compassion From a Mencian Perspective.David Wong - 2015 - In Brian Bruya (ed.), The Philosophical Challenge from China. Cambridge: MIT.
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  15. added 2019-03-05
    Partiality Versus Impartiality in Early Confucianism.Lok Hoe - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (2).
    Confucianism supports partiality because of its heavy emphasis on filial piety, but this may not always be true. Some assertions in the Analects appear to support comprehensive cosmopolitanism . Filial piety can simply be a requirement for moral training, and once this virtue is cultivated, the individual should extend the same love to all human beings. Impartiality as a requirement of morality is clearly exhibited in Mencius. If it is human nature to feel fear and pity for a child on (...)
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  16. added 2019-03-05
    Mencius.D. C. Lau (ed.) - 2003 - Cambridge University Press.
    Mencius, who lived in the 4th century B.C., is second only to Confucius in importance in the Confucian tradition. The _Mencius_ consists of sayings of Mencius and conversations he had with his contemporaries. When read side by side with the _Analects_, the _Mencius_ throws a great deal of light on the teachings of ConfuciusMencius developed many of the ideas of Confucius and at the same time discussed problems not touched upon by Confucius. He drew out the implications of Confucius' moral (...)
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  17. added 2019-02-01
    A Study of the Philosophy of the Silk "Wuxing" Text Commentary Section and a Discussion of the Silk "Wuxing" Text and Mencius's Philosophy.Chen Lai - 2011 - Contemporary Chinese Thought 43 (2):70-107.
  18. added 2019-02-01
    Arguing for Zisi and Mencius as the Respective Authors of the "Wuxing" Canon and Commentary Sections, and the Historical Significance of the Discovery of the Guodian "Wuxing" Text.Chen Lai - 2011 - Contemporary Chinese Thought 43 (2):14-25.
  19. added 2018-08-23
    The Role of Human Nature in Moral Inqiury: MacIntyre, Mencius, and Xunzi.Richard Kim - 2015 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 32 (4):313-333.
    Appeals to human nature in normative inquiry have fallen out of favor among contemporary philosophers. There are a variety of reasons frequently cited by those who see appeals to human nature as deeply problematic: (a) that the notion of human nature, which conceives nature as having a teleological direction, is incompatible with evolutionary biology; (b) that the manifest diversity of cultural values and traditions falsify any essentialist claims involving a common nature necessarily shared by all humans; (c) that appeals to (...)
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  20. added 2018-06-22
    Mengzi’s Moral Psychology, Part 1: The Four Moral Sprouts.John Ramsey - 2018 - 1000-Word Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology.
    Mengzi (372–289 BCE), or Mencius, an early Confucian whose thinking is represented in the eponymous Mengzi, argues that human nature is good and that all human beings possess four senses—the feelings of compassion, shame, respect, and the ability to approve and disapprove—which he variously calls “hearts” or “sprouts.” Each sprout may be cultivated into its corresponding virtue of ren, li, yi, or zhi. -/- Here we explore why Mengzi thinks we possess these four hearts and their relation to the cultivated (...)
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  21. added 2018-06-22
    Mengzi’s Moral Psychology, Part 2: The Cultivation Analogy.John Ramsey - 2018 - 1000-Word Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology.
    We explore the central analogy behind Mengzi’s view of ethical cultivation. -/- Philosophers sometimes ask what makes a person’s life worthwhile or what conditions make for a good life. Mengzi’s answer involves cultivating our innate moral senses into fully ripened virtues of ren (humaneness), yi (rightness), li (propriety), and zhi (wisdom). This cultivation neither is individualistic nor can it happen in isolation: it requires a lifetime of meaningful interactions with other people. In short, one’s ethical cultivation is interdependent with other (...)
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  22. added 2018-04-16
    Confucianism and American Philosophy.Mathew A. Foust - 2017 - Albany, USA: SUNY Press.
    In this highly original work, Mathew A. Foust breaks new ground in comparative studies through his exploration of the connections between Confucianism and the American Transcendentalist and Pragmatist movements. In his examination of a broad range of philosophers, including Confucius, Mencius, Xunzi, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Charles Peirce, William James, and Josiah Royce, Foust traces direct lines of influence from early translations of Confucian texts and brings to light conceptual affinities that have been previously overlooked. Combining resources from (...)
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  23. added 2017-09-07
    The Bridge of Benevolence: Hutcheson and Mencius.Alejandra Mancilla - 2013 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 12 (1):57-72.
    The Scottish sentimentalist Francis Hutcheson and the Chinese Confucianist Mencius give benevolence (ren) a key place in their respective moral theories, as the first and foundational virtue. Leaving aside differences in style and method, my purpose in this essay is to underline this similarity by focusing on four common features: first, benevolence springs from compassion, an innate and universal feeling shared by all human beings; second, its objects are not only human beings but also animals; third, it is sensitive to (...)
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  24. added 2017-09-05
    Wisdom, Agency, and the Role of Reasons in Mengzi.John Ramsey - 2015 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 42 (3-4):300-317.
    I examine the role moral reasons play in the Mengzi and their relationship to Mengzi's conception of wisdom. Some commentators have argued that agency in early Chinese thought is best characterized as performance based rather than deliberation based. I propose that Mengzi's conception of agency is both performative and deliberative because he understands wisdom as a sort of expert decision making. Consequently, Mengzi relies on moral reasons of two sorts. First, duan-reasons are reasons to act so as to overcome internal (...)
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  25. added 2017-06-13
    Mengzi and Virtue Ethics.Bryan Van Norden - 2003 - Journal of Ecumenical Studies 40 (1-2):120-36.
    I want first to present an overview of what I take to be Mengzi's own systematic ethics, which I shall approach as a version of "virtue ethics," and second to examine some of the standard arguments against Mengzi's position. -/- .
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  26. added 2017-05-30
    Wong on Three Confucian Metaphors for Ethical Development.Christian Miller - 2017 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 16 (4):551-558.
    This is my contribution to a symposium on David Wong’s paper, “Early Confucian Philosophy and the Development of Compassion.” I simply grant Wong his reading of the relevant texts and consider the merits of the ideas about ethical development on their own terms. In particular, my aim is to see how fruitful these ideas might be in the contemporary philosophical landscape.
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  27. added 2017-02-27
    Ren Xing and What It is to Be Truly Human.Dennis Arjo - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (3):455-473.
  28. added 2016-12-08
    Finding Wisdom in East Asian Classics.Wm Theodore de Bary (ed.) - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    _Finding Wisdom in East Asian Classics_ is an essential, all-access guide to the core texts of East Asian civilization and culture. Essays address frequently read, foundational texts in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese, as well as early modern fictional classics and nonfiction works of the seventeenth century. Building strong links between these writings and the critical traditions of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism, this volume shows the vital role of the classics in the shaping of Asian history and in the development (...)
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  29. added 2016-09-02
    Confucian Role Ethics and Relational Autonomy in the Mengzi.John Ramsey - 2016 - Philosophy East and West 66 (3):903-922.
    This essay examines whether Confucian role ethics offers resources to identify and redress gender inequality and oppression. On its face, Confucian role ethics seems ill suited for this task for two reasons. First, a central tenet of role ethics is that a person is constituted by her roles. Because roles are constituted by norms that govern them, many social roles are, and have been, historically oppressive. Second, discussions of Confucian role ethics tend to avoid talk of autonomy, yet autonomy is (...)
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  30. added 2016-09-02
    Confucian Role Ethics: A Critical Survey.John Ramsey - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (5):235-245.
    This article surveys recent scholarship on Confucian role ethics, examines some of its fundamental commitments, and suggests future directions for scholarship. Role ethics interprets early Confucianism as promoting a relational conception of persons and employs this conception to emphasize how a person's roles and relationships are the source of her ethical obligations and ethical growth. While there is much consensus among role ethic scholars, they disagree over the role of theory in further explicating the view and about the metaphysical basis (...)
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  31. added 2016-09-01
    Correlative Reasoning About Water in Mengzi 6A2.Nicholaos Jones - 2016 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 15 (2):193-207.
    Mengzi 孟子 6A2 contains the famous water analogy for the innate goodness of human nature. Some evaluate Mengzi’s reasoning as strong and sophisticated; others, as weak or sophistical. I urge for more nuance in our evaluation. Mengzi’s reasoning fares poorly when judged by contemporary standards of analogical strength. However, if we evaluate the analogy as an instance of correlative thinking within a yin-yang 陰陽 cosmology, his reasoning fares well. That cosmology provides good reason to assert that water tends to flow (...)
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  32. added 2016-04-18
    How Kierkegaard Can Help Us Understand Covering in Analects 13.18.Andrew James Komasinski - 2016 - Asian Philosophy 26 (2):133-148.
    ABSTRACTI suggest that Kierkegaard proves a helpful interlocutor in the debate about Analects 13.18 and the meaning of yin 隱. After surveying the contemporary debate, I argue that Kierkegaard and the Confucians agree on three important points. First, they both present relational selves. Second, both believe certain relationships are integral for moral knowledge. Third, both present a differentiated account of love where our obligations are highest to those with whom we are closest. Moreover, Kierkegaard’s ‘covering’ in the deliberation ‘Love covers (...)
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  33. added 2016-04-10
    Confucian Moral Self Cultivation, 2nd Ed.Philip J. Ivanhoe - 2000 - Hackett.
    A concise and accessible introduction to the moral philosophy of Kongzi (Confucius), Mengzi (Mencius), Xunzi, Zhu Xi, Wang Yangming, Yan Yuan and Dai Zhen.
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  34. added 2015-08-27
    Seok, Bongrae, Embodied Moral Psychology and Confucian Philosophy: Lanham: Lexington Books, 2013, Xvi + 197 Pages.Brian Bruya - 2014 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (4):613-616.
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  35. added 2015-08-27
    Mengzi Xin Xing Zhi Xue.James Behuniak & Roger T. Ames (eds.) - 2005 - She Hui Ke Xue Wen Xian Chu Ban She.
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  36. added 2015-08-27
    Practicality and Spirituality in the Mencius.Irene Bloom - 2003 - In Weiming Tu & Mary Evelyn Tucker (eds.), Confucian Spirituality. Crossroad Pub. Company. pp. 1--233.
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  37. added 2015-06-29
    Mengzi’s Externalist Solution to the Role Dilemma.John Ramsey - 2015 - Asian Philosophy 25 (2):188-206.
    The role dilemma raises a problem for role ethic interpretations of Confucianism. The dilemma arises from the conflict between the demands and obligations of Humaneness and the demands and obligations of roles one occupies. Favoring the demands of Humaneness undermines a role ethic because roles and role-obligations no longer ground the ethic. However, favoring social role-obligations permits immoral and unjust role-obligations and allows for uncharitable readings of Confucianism.This paper examines how Mengzi resolves the dilemma. I argue that Mengzi’s account of (...)
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  38. added 2015-03-14
    The Cultivation of Moral Feelings and Mengzi's Method of Extension.Emily McRae - 2011 - Philosophy East and West 61 (4):587-608.
    Offered here is an interpretation of the ancient Confucian philosopher Mengzi's (372–289 B.C.E.) method of cultivating moral feelings, which he calls "extension." It is argued that this method is both psychologically plausible and an important, but often overlooked, part of moral life. In this interpretation, extending our moral feelings is not a project in logical consistency, analogical reasoning, or emotional intuition. Rather, Mengzi's method of extension is a project in realigning the human heart that harnesses our rational, reflective, and emotional (...)
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  39. added 2014-04-03
    Of One Mind or Two? Query on the Innate Good in Mencius.Whalen Lai - 1990 - Religious Studies 26 (2):247 - 255.
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  40. added 2014-04-02
    Mencius and the Natural Environment.Cecilia Wee - 2009 - Environmental Ethics 31 (4):359-374.
    Environmental ethicists who look toward East Asian philosophies in their quest for a fruitful way of conceiving the relationship of humans to nature often turn to Taoism and Buddhism for inspiration. They rarely turn to Confucianism. Moreover, among those who do look to Confucianism for inspiration, almost no attention is given to the early Confucians, most likely because they are seen as embracing a humanist perspective—that is, they are concerned with how humans should relate to other humans and with the (...)
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  41. added 2014-03-31
    What Cèyǐn Zhī Xīn (Compassion/Familial Affection) Really Is.Myeong-Seok Kim - 2010 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (4):407-425.
    This essay aims to delineate Mengzi’s view of emotion by analyzing his first ethical sprout, often referred to by the Chinese term cèyǐn zhī xīn 惻隱之心.Previous scholars usually translate this term as “compassion,” “sympathy,” or “commiseration,” in the sense of the painful feeling one feels at the misfortune of others. My goal in this article is to clarify the nature of this painful feeling, and specifically I argue that (1) cèyǐn zhī xīn is primarily construing another being’s misfortune with sympathetic (...)
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  42. added 2014-03-31
    Two Mencian Political Notions in Tokugawa Japan.John Allen Tucker - 1997 - Philosophy East and West 47 (2):233-253.
    Two Mencian political notions are examined: rebellion against tyranny and righteous martyrdom, as explored theoretically by prominent Japanese scholars of the Tokugawa period (1603-1867). It is argued here generally that Confucianism, as represented by the Mencius, was more than a feudal ideology legitimizing the hegemony of Tokugawa shoguns, since these two Mencian notions were advocated and/or opposed by both supporters and opponents of the Tokugawa regime. In the development of this argument, it is also revealed that the two notions were (...)
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  43. added 2014-03-31
    The Concept of Fate in Mencius.Ning Chen - 1997 - Philosophy East and West 47 (4):495-520.
    Mencius, who often spoke of ming in different senses among which only one can be taken as fate, upheld two doctrines of fate--moral determinism and blind, unalterable fate--but he was prone to apply the former to collective entities, and the latter to individual persons. This bi-level distinction, which is at variance with the non-distinction in both Moism and Taoism, exercised a profound influence upon the minds of later Confucians.
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  44. added 2014-03-31
    Mencius on Courage.Bryan W. Norden & Bryan Van Norden - 1997 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 21 (1):237-256.
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  45. added 2014-03-31
    Selves, Virtues, Odd Genres, and Alien Guides: An Approach to Religious Ethics.Lee H. Yearley - 1997 - Journal of Religious Ethics 25 (3):127 - 155.
    Complex tensions define us, and that is why rational evaluative analysis and the deliberate application of principles to cases can, at best, claim to account for only a limited register in the full compass of ethical voice. Close analysis of brief texts from the "Mencius" and Dante's "Inferno" discloses in both an approach to ethical reflection that aims to expand the capacity for virtue, the ethical skillfulness exercised in response and evaluation, through affective engagement of the reader. This approach, a (...)
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  46. added 2014-03-31
    Mencius on Jen-Hsing.Kwong-loi Shun - 1997 - Philosophy East and West 47 (1):1-20.
    The use of the term hsing in the Meng-tzu is discussed, along with Mencius' views on jen-hsing. It is argued that while the use of hsing need not connote something unlearned and shared, Mencius did view jen-hsing in terms of certain unlearned emotional predispositions shared by all jen. He regarded jen as a species distinguished from other animals by its capability of cultural accomplishment, and felt that it is the presence of the emotional predispositions that makes this possible.
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  47. added 2014-03-31
    Human Nature and Biological Nature in Mencius.Irene Bloom - 1997 - Philosophy East and West 47 (1):21-32.
    Ren-xing can be aptly translated as "human nature," representing as it does the Mencian conviction of and sympathy for a common humanity. The enterprise of comparative philosophy is furthered by drawing attention to the large and important conceptual sphere within which Mencius was working, to his concern for the most fundamental realities of human life, and to his translatability across time and cultures.
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  48. added 2014-03-30
    A Defence of Mencius' Ethical Naturalism.James A. Ryan - 1997 - Asian Philosophy 7 (1):23 – 36.
    I argue that Mencius puts forth a defensible form of ethical naturalism, according to which moral properties, moral motivation, and moral deliberation can be accounted for within the parameters of a naturalistic worldview. On this position, moral properties are the subjectively real properties which acts have in virtue of their corresponding to our most coherent set of shared desires. I give a naturalistic definition of 'right' which, I argue, is implicit in Mencius' philosophy. I address the objection that some of (...)
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  49. added 2014-03-30
    Mencius on Human Nature and Courage.Xinyan Jiang - 1997 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 24 (3):265-289.
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  50. added 2014-03-29
    Justification of War in Ancient China.James A. Stroble - 1998 - Asian Philosophy 8 (3):165 – 190.
    The most defensible justifications of war in the European intellectual tradition hold that war is instrumentally necessary for the maintenance of peace and order. An investigation of Ancient Chinese philosophical attitudes towards war calls this assumption into question. The closest parallel to an instrumental concept of war is found in the Legalist school, but historical experience in China has rejected this. The Confucian school, especially Mencius and Xunxi, insists that war is not instrumental in creating social order, but derives from (...)
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