Meta-Ethics

Edited by Daniel Star (Boston University)
Assistant editor: Yiying Peng
143 found
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1 — 50 / 143
  1. added 2022-08-18
    Introduction.Ulrike Heuer - 2022 - In The Roots of Normativity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1-19.
  2. added 2022-08-18
    The Evolution of Moral Standing Without Supervenience.Brian Zamulinski - 2022 - Philosophical Papers 51 (2):333-349.
    There is an alternative to the type of moral standing that hypothetically supervenes on other, base or subvenient, properties. Attributed moral standing results when people who have a naturally sel...
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  3. added 2022-08-18
    The Roots of Normativity.Joseph Raz (ed.) - 2022 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  4. added 2022-08-17
    Demystifying Normativity: Morality, Error Theory, and the Authority of Norms.Eline Gerritsen - 2022 - Dissertation,
    We are subject to many different norms telling us how to act, from moral norms to etiquette rules and the law. While some norms may simply be ignored, we live under the impression that others matter for what we ought to do. How can we make sense of this normative authority some norms have? Does it fit into our naturalist worldview? Many philosophers claim it does not. Normativity is conceived to be distinct from ordinary natural properties, making it mysterious. The (...)
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  5. added 2022-08-16
    Reasons for Rule Consequentialists.Christopher Woodard - 2022 - Ratio:1-10.
    This paper explores what a Rule Consequentialist of Brad Hooker's sort can and should say about normative rea- sons for action. I claim that they can provide a theory of reasons, but that doing so requires distinguishing dif- ferent roles of rules in the ideal code. Some rules in the ideal code specify reasons, while others perform differ- ent functions. The paper also discusses a choice that Rule Consequentialists face about how exactly to specify rea- sons. It ends by comparing (...)
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  6. added 2022-08-16
    Repenser la responsabilité lors de la mondialisation vers une conception de la méta-responsabilité.José Álvarez Sanchez - 2017 - Dissertation, Université de Paris Descartes
    Résumé : Les domaines de la philosophie et de la théorie politique ont connu un certain nombre de changements au cours des quarante dernières années. L'un attire notre attention tout particulièrement ; le basculement d'un point de vue national, cristallisé par le contrat social rawlsien, vers un point de vue non-national. En effet, plusieurs penseurs abordent un ensemble de phénomènes considérés comme nouveaux, tels que les traités de libre commerce et l'économie globale, les entreprises et les institutions supra et transnationales, (...)
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  7. added 2022-08-15
    Constitutivism, Moral.Luca Ferrero - 2020 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Ethics.
    Moral constitutivism purports to explain moral normativity by appeal to the nature of either agency or rational powers. Ambitious constitutivism aspires to ground the categorical authority of morality and to derive the content of the basic moral norms while avoiding the problems of moral realism. As a general strategy, moral constitutivism faces three serious challenges. First, the shmagency challenge. The worry is that the authority of the norms derived from the nature of agency is only conditional on having a reason (...)
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  8. added 2022-08-14
    Should Intro Ethics Make You a Better Person?Katharina Nieswandt - forthcoming - In Christian Kietzmann (ed.), Teleological Structures in Human Life: Essays for Anselm W. Müller. New York: Routledge.
    There is a common demand that moral theory be 'practical', voiced both in- and outside of philosophy. Neo-Humeans, Kantian constitutivists and Aristotelian naturalists have all advocated the idea that my knowledge that I ought to do something must lead me to actually do it—an idea sometimes called the “practicality requirement” for moral theory. Some university administrators apply this idea in practice, when they force students who violate the code of conduct to complete classes in moral theory, hoping that the knowledge (...)
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  9. added 2022-08-14
    Responsibility Where We Find It.John Beverley - 2021 - Dissertation, Northwestern University
    There is more responsibility on heaven and earth than dreamt of in most philosophy. This dissertation explores three debates in three sub-fields of philosophy, highlighting in each responsibilities agents find themselves with whether they like it or not. In the chapter "Trust Logic, Not Tortoises", I propose an answer to Wright’s Justification Question – to what extent are we justified in our knowledge of logic? – arguing early knowledge of logic is a species of know-how underwritten by dispositions to infer (...)
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  10. added 2022-08-13
    Repenser la responsabilité lors de la mondialisation vers une conception de la méta-responsabilité.José Álvarez Sanchez - 2017 - Dissertation, Université Paris Descartes
    ésumé : Les domaines de la philosophie et de la théorie politique ont connu un certain nombre de changements au cours des quarante dernières années. L'un attire notre attention tout particulièrement ; le basculement d'un point de vue national, cristallisé par le contrat social rawlsien, vers un point de vue non-national. En effet, plusieurs penseurs abordent un ensemble de phénomènes considérés comme nouveaux, tels que les traités de libre commerce et l'économie globale, les entreprises et les institutions supra et transnationales, (...)
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  11. added 2022-08-12
    Varieties of Moral Motivation: Empirical Perspectives.Mark Alfano - forthcoming - In David Copp & Connie Rosati (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter examines three recent empirical approaches to the study of moral motivation: moral foundations theory, deep pragmatism, and morality-as-cooperation. All three approaches conceptualize moral motivation as a suite of desires, emotions, sentiments, dispositions, values, and relationships that move people to think, judge, and act in accordance with morality. Moral foundations theory posits five or six basic foundations: care, fairness, loyalty, authority, sanctity, and sometimes liberty. People are thought to be emotionally attuned to each foundation, though some are more sensitive (...)
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  12. added 2022-08-11
    The Epistemic Vs. The Practical.Antti Kauppinen - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Metaethics.
    What should we believe if epistemic and practical reasons for belief point in different directions? I argue that there’s no single answer, but rather a Dualism of Theoretical and Practical Reason is true: what we epistemically ought to believe and what we practically ought to believe may come apart, and both are independently authoritative. I argue in particular against recently popular views that subordinate the epistemic to the practical: it’s not the case that epistemic reasons bear on what we ‘just (...)
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  13. added 2022-08-11
    Blackburn’s Wittgenstein: The Quasi-Realist.Ali Hossein Khani - forthcoming - In Ali Hossein Khani & Gary N. Kemp (eds.), Wittgenstein and Other Philosophers (Volume I).
  14. added 2022-08-11
    Michelle Ciurria, An Intersectional Feminist Theory of Moral Responsibility.Lucy McDonald - 2022 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 19 (4):435-437.
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  15. added 2022-08-09
    Indecision and Buridan's Principle.Daniel Coren - forthcoming - Synthese.
    The problem known as Buridan’s Ass says that a hungry donkey equipoised between two identical bales of hay will starve to death. Indecision kills the ass. Some philosophers worry about human analogs. Computer scientists since the 1960s have known about the computer versions of such cases. From what Leslie Lamport calls ‘Buridan’s Principle’ – a discrete decision based on a continuous range of input-values cannot be made in a bounded time – it follows that the possibilities for human analogs of (...)
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  16. added 2022-08-09
    MORALITY An Individual Dilemma.Zaman Ali - forthcoming - Lahore: Zaman Ali.
    The problem isn’t not only with what’s right and wrong but the problem is with who decides about what’s right and wrong.
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  17. added 2022-08-08
    Reflective Equilibrium.Kauppinen Antti & Jaakko Hirvelä - forthcoming - In David Copp, Tina Rulli & Connie Rosati (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Normative Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    How can we figure out what’s right or wrong, if moral truths are neither self-evident nor something we can perceive? Very roughly, the method of reflective equilibrium (RE) says that we should begin moral inquiry from what we already confidently think, seeking to find a a match between our initial convictions and general principles that are well-supported by background theories, mutually adjusting both until we reach a coherent outlook in which our beliefs are in harmony (the equilibrium part) and we (...)
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  18. added 2022-08-07
    Sobre los juicios de valor relativo en Wittgenstein.Emilio Méndez Pinto - manuscript
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  19. added 2022-08-07
    Having the Meaning of Life in View.Ulf Hlobil - forthcoming - In Christian Kietzmann (ed.), Teleological Structures in Human Life: Essays for Anselm W. Müller. New York: Routledge.
    The paper aims to clarify the role of the meaning of life in Anselm Müller’s philosophy. Müller says that the ethically good life is the life of acting well, and acting well requires at least a rough conception of the meaning of life, or a conception of what makes a life go well. But why is such a conception required and what does it mean to have such a conception? I argue that such a conception cannot provide us with ultimate (...)
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  20. added 2022-08-07
    Corporate Identity.Mihailis E. Diamantis - 2022 - In Experimental Philosophy of Identity and the Self. New York: pp. 203-216.
    Any effort to specify identity conditions for corporations faces significant challenges. Corporations are amorphous. Nature draws no hard lines defining where they start or stop, whether in space or time. Corporations are also frustratingly dynamic. They often change the most basic aspects of their composition by exchanging parts, splitting and merging, changing ownership, and reworking fundamental internal operations. -/- Even so, we apply corporate identity conditions all the time. Both law and common intuition recognize that corporations do things—like pollute environments (...)
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  21. added 2022-08-06
    Accepting Moral Responsibility for the Actions of Autonomous Weapons Systems—a Moral Gambit.Mariarosaria Taddeo & Alexander Blanchard - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-24.
    In this article, we focus on the attribution of moral responsibility for the actions of autonomous weapons systems. To do so, we suggest that the responsibility gap can be closed if human agents can take meaningful moral responsibility for the actions of AWS. This is a moral responsibility attributed to individuals in a justified and fair way and which is accepted by individuals as an assessment of their own moral character. We argue that, given the unpredictability of AWS, meaningful moral (...)
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  22. added 2022-08-03
    Automated Psycholinguistic Analysis of the Anglophone Manosphere.Mark Alfano, Byrne Joanne & Roose Joshua - forthcoming - In Matthew Lindauer (ed.), Advances in Experimental Political Philosophy. Bloomsbury.
    Masculinity seems to play a role in the recruitment and radicalization of lone-wolf terrorists and other violent extremists. In this chapter, we examine multiple dimensions of masculinity in six corpora. We do so via linguistic analysis of the corpora associated with and produced by a range of groups and individuals. In particular, we analyze two corpora from each of: men’s rights groups, male supremacists, and manifestos of male domestic terrorists. Our results indicate that there are four distinct strands of thinking, (...)
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  23. added 2022-08-03
    Moral Responsibility in the Age of Free Will Skepticism: A Defence of Frankfurtian-Compatibilism.Owen Jeffrey Crocker - 2022 - Compos Mentis: Undergraduate Journal of Cognition and Neuroethics 10 (1):1-19.
    Free will skepticism is radical in its core claim that free will is illusory. Criminal law, however, appears to presuppose that persons are free and hence, morally responsible for their actions. So, if free will skepticism is true, our current practices that hold people to account for their wrongs appears unjustified–even immoral. This paper will challenge the free will skeptic’s core claim that free will does not exist and defend current practices of moral responsibility by offering (and defending) a Frankfurtian-compatibilist (...)
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  24. added 2022-08-02
    Vulnerability, Moral Responsibility, and Moral Obligations: The Case of Industrial Action in the Medical and Allied Professions.Henry Adobor - forthcoming - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.
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  25. added 2022-08-02
    Contractualism and the Moral Point of View.Ken Oshitani - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-18.
    In this paper, I argue that accounts of the normative basis of morality face the following puzzle, drawing on a case found in Susan Wolf’s influential discussion of conflicts between the moral and personal points of view. On the one hand, morality appears to constitute an independent point of view that can intelligibly conflict with, and can conceivably be overruled by, the verdicts of other points of view. On the other hand, moral demands appear to carry a distinctive sort of (...)
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  26. added 2022-08-02
    How to nuke Megaton. Spiel-Handlung als Gegenstand moralischer Urteile.Erik Eschmann - 2018 - In Christian Klager (ed.), Dimensionen der Moral im Spiel. Göttingen, Deutschland: pp. 47-64.
    Will man das Spiel auf seine moralische Beurteilbarkeit hin untersuchen, so muss zunächst geklärt werden, auf was sich diese moralischen Urteile beziehen können. Betrachtet man dabei primär das Spiel als Spiel, so rückt die Spiel-Spieler-Beziehung während des Spielvollzugs ins Zentrum der Betrachtung. Aus dieser Perspektive bietet sich allerdings lediglich die Spiel-Handlung als Objekt moralischer Urteile an, wie sie im Unterschied zum Gamer vom Player, während des Spielens vollzogen werden kann. Als konstitutive Bedingung der Spiel-Handlung darf daher die Haltung des Spielers (...)
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  27. added 2022-07-29
    Pathways From Inability to Blamelessness in Moral Judgment.John Turri - 2022 - Philosophical Psychology 35 (6):777-792.
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  28. added 2022-07-28
    Tell Us What You Really Think: A Think Aloud Protocol Analysis of the Verbal Cognitive Reflection Test.Nick Byrd, Brianna Joseph, Gabriela Gongora & Miroslav Sirota - manuscript
    The standard interpretation of cognitive reflection tests assumes that correct responses are reflective and lured responses are unreflective. However, prior process-tracing of mathematical reflection tests has cast doubt on this interpretation. In two studies (N = 201), we deployed a validated think-aloud protocol in-person and online to test how this assumption is satisfied by the new, validated, less familiar, and less mathematical verbal Cognitive Reflection Test (vCRT). Importantly, thinking aloud did not disrupt test performance compared to a control group. Moreover, (...)
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  29. added 2022-07-28
    The Source of Responsibility.Randolph Clarke - forthcoming - Ethics.
    Although we are morally responsible for things of various kinds, what we bear direct responsibility for are certain exercises of our agency (and perhaps some omissions of these). Theorists disagree about what kind of agency is in this respect the source of our responsibility. Some hold that it is agency the exercises of which are actions. Others say that it is agency exercised in forming reasons-responsive attitudes on the basis of our take on reasons (or value). With attention to the (...)
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  30. added 2022-07-28
    Ethics of Artificial Intelligence Vs Ethical Artificial Intelligence.Giovanni Landi - 2020 - Www.Intelligenzaartificialecomefilosofia.Com.
    The discussion and debates around Ethical AI cannot simply ignore the fact that ethics is not a self-standing discipline by is part of Philosophy and can only be approached as such.
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  31. added 2022-07-26
    How to Choose Normative Concepts.Ting Cho Lau - 2022 - Analytic Philosophy.
    Matti Eklund (2017) has argued that ardent realists face a serious dilemma. Ardent realists believe that there is a mind-independent fact as to which normative concepts we are to use. Eklund claims that the ardent realist cannot explain why this is so without plumping in favor of their own normative concepts or changing the topic. The paper first advances the discussion by clarifying two ways of understanding the question of which normative concepts to choose: a theoretical question about which concepts (...)
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  32. added 2022-07-24
    THE CONTOURS OF FREE WILL SCEPTICISM.Simon Pierre Chevarie-Cossette - 2019 - Dissertation, Oxford University
    Free will sceptics claim that we lack free will, i.e. the command or control of our conduct that is required for moral responsibility. There are different conceptions of free will: it is sometimes understood as having the ability to choose between real options or alternatives; and sometimes as being the original or true source of our own conduct. Whether conceived in the first or in the second way, free will is subject to strong sceptical arguments. However, free will sceptics face (...)
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  33. added 2022-07-23
    Naturalistic Arguments for Ethical Hedonism.Neil Sinhababu - manuscript
    This essay presents two arguments for ethical hedonism, each defending it on naturalistic grounds. This abstract lists the three premises of each argument. First is the Reliability Argument. [R1] The reliability of a process is the probability that beliefs it generates are true. [R2] Phenomenal introspection is reliable in generating belief that pleasure is good. [R3] No other processes are independently reliable in generating moral belief. ∴ [%PIG] Pleasure is probably the only good thing. Second is the Universality Argument. [U1] (...)
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  34. added 2022-07-23
    Empirical Evidence for Moral Bayesianism.Haim Cohen, Ittay Nissan-Rozen & Anat Maril - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-30.
    Many philosophers in the field of meta-ethics believe that rational degrees of confidence in moral judgments should have a probabilistic structure, in the same way as do rational degrees of belief. The current paper examines this position, termed “moral Bayesianism,” from an empirical point of view. To this end, we assessed the extent to which degrees of moral judgments obey the third axiom of the probability calculus, ifP(A∩B)=0thenP(A∪B)=P(A)+P(B), known as finite additivity, as compared to degrees of beliefs on the one (...)
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  35. added 2022-07-21
    Non-Naturalism, the Supervenience Challenge, Higher-Order Properties, and Trope Theory.Jussi Suikkanen - forthcoming - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Non-naturalist realism is the view that normative properties are unique kind of stance-independent properties. It has been argued that such views fail to explain why two actions that are exactly alike otherwise must also have the same normative properties. Mark Schroeder and Knut Olav Skarsaune have recently suggested that non-naturalist realists can respond to this supervenience challenge by taking the primary bearers of normative properties to be action-kinds. This paper develops their response in two ways. Firstly, it provides additional motivation (...)
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  36. added 2022-07-21
    Collective Inaction - When Is It Our Failure?Anne Schwenkenbecher - forthcoming - Synthese.
    The statement that we are currently failing to address some of humanity’s greatest challenges seems uncontroversial – we are not doing enough to limit global warming to a maximum of 2ºC and we are exposing vulnerable people to preventable diseases when failing to produce herd immunity. But what singles out such failings (inactions) from all the things we did not do (non-actions) when all are unintended? Unlike their individualist counterparts, collective inaction and omission have not yet received much attention in (...)
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  37. added 2022-07-20
    Practical Judgment as Reflective Judgment: On Moral Salience and Kantian Particularist Universalism.Sabina Vaccarino Bremner - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  38. added 2022-07-20
    Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment: Two Preregistered Replications of Paxton, Ungar, and Greene.Jonas Herec, Jaroslav Sykora, Kamil Brahmi, David Vondracek, Oldriska Dobesova, Martin Smelik, Martin Vaculik & Jakub Prochazka - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (7).
    Cognitive Science, Volume 46, Issue 7, July 2022.
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  39. added 2022-07-18
    Praise.Daniel Telech - forthcoming - Philosophy Compass.
    One way of being responsible for an action is being praiseworthy for it. But what is the “praise” of which the praiseworthy agent is worthy? This paper provides a survey of answers to this question, i.e. a survey of possible accounts of praise’s nature. It then presents an overview of candidate norms governing our responses of praise. By attending to praise’s nature and appropriateness conditions, we stand to acquire a richer conception of what it is to be, and to regard (...)
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  40. added 2022-07-17
    The Comparison Problem for Approximating Epistemic Ideals.Marc-Kevin Daoust - forthcoming - Ratio.
    Some epistemologists think that the Bayesian ideals matter because we can approximate them. That is, our attitudes can be more or less close to the ones of our ideal Bayesian counterpart. In this paper, I raise a worry for this justification of epistemic ideals. The worry is this: In order to correctly compare agents to their ideal counterparts, we need to imagine idealized agents who have the same relevant information, knowledge, or evidence. However, there are cases in which one’s ideal (...)
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  41. added 2022-07-15
    Aspects of justice.Maarten Mentzel -
    Aspects of justice. Debate on ethical principles and social justice - ethische principes en sociale gerechtigheid. Referring to Hans Kelsen (1952); Chaïm Perelman (1945; 1960; 1961); Hanna F. Pitkin (1972); John Rawls (1971) -/- Aspecten van rechtvaardigheid - M.A. Thesis, Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, June 2, 1975 .
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  42. added 2022-07-15
    Tiantai Metaethics.Jason Dockstader - 2022 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 100 (2):215-229.
    ABSTRACT This paper is a contribution to the emerging field of comparative metaethics, which aims to analyse the metaethical views of philosophical traditions outside the Western mainstream. It argues that the metaethical views implicit in the mediaeval Chinese school of Tiantai Buddhism can be reconstructed in contemporary terms in order to develop two novel views. These views are moral dialetheism and moral trivialism. The taxonomy of contemporary metaethical views, in epistemic terms, is exhausted by either partial success, or complete error, (...)
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  43. added 2022-07-14
    Controlling Our Reasons.Sophie Keeling - 2022 - Noûs.
    Philosophical discussion on control has largely centred around control over our actions and beliefs. Yet this overlooks the question of whether we also have control over the reasons for which we act and believe. To date, the overriding assumption appears to be that we do not, and with seemingly good reason. We cannot choose to act for a reason and acting-for-a-reason is not itself something we do. While some have challenged this in the case of reasons for action, these claims (...)
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  44. added 2022-07-13
    Les Publications des Experts Médicaux : L’Exemple de L’Anesthésie-Réanimation.Jean Xavier Mazoit & Hervé Bouaziz - 2021 - Médecine et Droit 2021 (169):59-63.
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  45. added 2022-07-12
    Nietzschean Moral Error Theory.Patrick Hassan - forthcoming - History of Philosophy Quarterly.
    Nietzsche has sometimes been interpreted as endorsing an error theory about moral judgements (most notably Hussain, 2007). There are a host of passages which provide prima facie reason for such an interpretation. However, the extent of the appropriateness of this interpretation is a matter of dispute. The parameters of his alleged error theory are unclear. This paper aims to re-consider the evidence for the view that Nietzsche is a moral error theorist, and makes the case that Nietzsche defends a local (...)
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  46. added 2022-07-12
    A Mencian Account of Resentment.Daryl Ooi - forthcoming - Philosophy Compass.
    The reactive attitude of ‘resentment’ has been gaining increasing attention within contemporary philosophical literature. However, little attention has been given to the conceptions of resentment in Asian philosophy. In recent years, some philosophers have argued that there is a positive account of resentment in Confucian philosophy. This paper brings a recent Mencian account of resentment in conversation with contemporary philosophical discussions. The conversations revolve around aspects of resentment such as exculpatory conditions, payback, transition, and moral cultivation. The conversation not only (...)
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  47. added 2022-07-11
    The Onus in 'Ought'.Mahrad Almotahari & Brian Rabern - forthcoming - Analysis.
    We present a puzzle about deontic modals. An adequate resolution requires abandoning the standard theory. What to replace it with isn’t clear. We consider two possibilities.
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  48. added 2022-07-10
    The End of Moral Relativity.William Godfrey Kohl - manuscript
    A "Hierarchy of Societal Needs" as a complement to Maslow's hierarchy of needs is proposed in the paper.
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  49. added 2022-07-09
    Schopenhauer and Modern Moral Philosophy.Stephen Puryear - forthcoming - In David Bather Woods & Timothy Stoll (eds.), The Schopenhauerian Mind. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Anscombe counsels us to dispense with those moral concepts that presuppose a divine law conception of ethics, among which she numbers the concepts of “moral obligation and moral duty, […] of what is morally right and wrong, and of the moral sense of ‘ought’.” Schopenhauer made a similar point more than a century earlier, though his critique implicates a narrower range of concepts. Through reflection on his accounts of right and wrong and of duty and obligation, I attempt to show (...)
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  50. added 2022-07-08
    Toward a Reactive Attitudes Theodicy.Garrett Pendergraft - forthcoming - In Peter Furlong & Leigh Vicens (eds.), Theological Determinism: New Perspectives. pp. 231–50.
    According to the argument from gratuitous evil, if God were to exist, then gratuitous evil wouldn’t; but gratuitous evil does exist, so God doesn’t. We can evaluate different views of divine providence with respect to the resources they are able to bring to bear when encountering this argument. By these lights, theological determinism is often seen as especially problematic: the determinist is seen as having an impoverished set of resources to draw from in her attempts to respond to the argument (...)
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