Meta-Ethics

Edited by Daniel Star (Boston University)
Assistant editor: Yiying Peng
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  1. Astronomy, Geometry, and Logic, Rev. 1c: An Ontological Proof of the Natural Principles That Enable and Sustain Reality and Mathematics.Michael Lucas Monterey & Michael Lucas-Monterey - manuscript
    The latest draft (posted 05/14/22) of this short, concise work of proof, theory, and metatheory provides summary meta-proofs and verification of the work and results presented in the Theory and Metatheory of Atemporal Primacy and Riemann, Metatheory, and Proof. In this version, several new and revised definitions of terms were added to subsection SS.1; and many corrected equations, theorems, metatheorems, proofs, and explanations are included in the main text. The body of the text is approximately 18 pages, with 3 sections; (...)
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     Nietzsche: Meta-Ethics
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  2. Normative Reasons: Between Reasoning and Explanation.Arturs Logins - 2022 - Cambridge University Press.
    Reasons matter greatly to us in both ordinary and theoretical contexts, being connected to two fundamental normative concerns: figuring out what we should do and what attitudes to have, and understanding the duties and responsibilities that apply to us. This book introduces and critiques most of the contemporary theories of normative reasons considerations that speak in favor of an action, belief, or emotion - to explore how they work. Artūrs Logins develops and defends a new theory: the Erotetic view of (...)
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     Nietzsche: Meta-Ethics
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  3. Epistemic Instrumentalism Explained.Nathaniel P. Sharadin - 2022 - Routledge.
    Do epistemic requirements vary along with facts about what promotes agents' well-being? Epistemic instrumentalists say 'yes', and thereby earn a lot of contempt. This contempt is a mistake on two counts. First, it is incorrectly based: the reasons typically given for it are misguided. Second, it fails to distinguish between first- and second-order epistemic instrumentalism; and, it happens, only the former is contemptible. In this book, Nathaniel P. Sharadin argues for rejecting epistemic instrumentalism as a first-order view not because it (...)
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    History of Meta-Ethics
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  4. Fittingness First?: Reasons to Withhold Belief.Wooram Lee - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    Recent years have seen the rise of fittingness-first views, which take fittingness to be the most basic normative feature, in terms of which other normative features can be explained. This paper poses a serious difficulty for the fittingness-first approach by showing that existing fittingness-first accounts cannot plausibly accommodate an important class of reasons: reasons not to believe a proposition. There are two kinds of reasons not to believe a proposition: considerations that are counterevidence; and considerations that count against believing the (...)
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    History of Meta-Ethics
     Nietzsche: Meta-Ethics
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     Kant: Meta-Ethics
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  5. Actual Control - Demodalising Free Will.David Heering - 2020 - Dissertation, University of Leeds
    Plausibly, agents act freely iff their actions are responses to reasons. But what sort of relationship between reason and action is required for the action to count as a response? The overwhelmingly dominant answer to this question is modalist. It holds that responses are actions that share a modally robust or secure relationship with the relevant reasons. This thesis offers a new alternative answer. It argues that responses are actions that can be explained by reasons in the right way. This (...)
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    History of Meta-Ethics
     Nietzsche: Meta-Ethics
     Hume: Meta-Ethics
     Kant: Meta-Ethics
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  6. Moral Agency Within Social Structures and Culture: A Primer on Critical Realism for Christian Ethics. [REVIEW]Teofilo Giovan S. Pugeda Iii & Angelo Julian E. Perez - 2022 - Journal of Critical Realism:1-6.
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  7. Moral Agency Within Social Structures and Culture: A Primer on Critical Realism for Christian Ethics. [REVIEW]Teofilo Giovan S. Pugeda Iii & Angelo Julian E. Perez - 2022 - Journal of Critical Realism:1-6.
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     Reasons
    History of Meta-Ethics
     Nietzsche: Meta-Ethics
     Hume: Meta-Ethics
     Kant: Meta-Ethics
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  8. Transparency and the Truth Norm of Belief.Alireza Kazemi - forthcoming - Synthese.
    That it can explain the phenomenon of transparency, namely the fact that if you resolve whether p, you have thereby resolved whether to believe that p, was originally put forward as a great virtue of normativist conceptions of belief. However, non-normativists have convincingly shown that the permissive version of the truth norm of belief, which is one of the most plausible and promising versions of it, cannot in fact accommodate this phenomenon. Alarmed by this situation, in this paper I re-assess (...)
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     The Naturalistic Fallacy
     The Open Question Argument
     The Is/Ought Gap
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     Ought Implies Can
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     Values and Norms
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     Internalism and Externalism about Moral Judgment
     Internalism and Externalism about Reasons
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     Moral Rationality
     Moral Reasons
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    Moral Responsibility
     Control and Responsibility
     Doing and Allowing
     Free Will and Responsibility
     Moral Responsibility, Misc
     Responsibility and Reactive Attitudes
     Collective Responsibility
     Psychopathology and Responsibility
     Psychopathy and Responsibility
     Responsibility in Applied Ethics
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     Varieties of Moral Value
     Topics in Moral Value
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    Practical Reason
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     Practical Reason, Misc
     Reasons
    History of Meta-Ethics
     Nietzsche: Meta-Ethics
     Hume: Meta-Ethics
     Kant: Meta-Ethics
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  9. The Principles of New Ethics I: Meta-Ethics.Wang Haiming - 2020 - Routledge.
    "From Descartes to Spinoza, Western philosophers have attempted to propose an axiomatic systemization of ethics. However, without consensus on the contents and objects of ethics, the system remains incomplete. This four-volume set presents a model that highlights a Chinese philosopher's insights on ethics after a 22 year study. Three essential components of ethics are examined: metaethics, normative ethics, and virtue ethics. This volume is the second part of the discussion on normative ethics. The author analyzes humanity, liberty, justice, happiness, and (...)
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    Moral Judgment
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     The Naturalistic Fallacy
     The Open Question Argument
     The Is/Ought Gap
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  10. Love, Friendship, and Moral Motivation.Carme Isern-Mas - 2022 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 42 (2):93-107.
    The love that we feel for our friends plays an essential role in both our moral motivation to act towards them; and in our moral obligations towards them, that is, in our special duties. We articulate our proposal as a reply to Stephen Darwall’s second-person proposal, which we take to be a contemporary representative of the Kantian view. According to this view, love does not have a necessary role neither in moral motivation, nor in moral obligation; just a complementary one. (...)
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  11. Reason and Respect.Kenneth Walden - 2020 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 15.
    This chapter develops and defends an account of reason: to reason is to scrutinize one’s attitudes by consulting the perspectives of other persons. The principal attraction of this account is its ability to vindicate the unique of authority of reason. The chapter argues that this conception entails that reasoning is a robustly social endeavor—that it is, in the first instance, something we do with other people. It is further argued that such social endeavors presuppose mutual respect on the part of (...)
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  12. Rationally-Unquestionable Education, Values and Knowledge.Kym Farrand - manuscript
    ‘Rationality’ here only concerns knowledge, e.g., ways to acquire scientific knowledge. Many factors are required for human rationality to exist and develop, e.g., life and evidence-based education. Rationality’s need for those factors, hence their value to rationality, is rationally-unquestionable. Those factors require certain educational, moral, political, social, health-care etc values to be practised. This implies a pro-rationality education-theory and related values-theory, with one obligatory, general end – a uniquely rationally-unquestionable end. That theory has deeply-humanly-meaningful, universal applications: the theory has implications (...)
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  13. Absolutist-Dispositional Meta-Ethics and Genuine Moral Disagreement.Ibrahim Dagher - forthcoming - Dialogue.
    Often, semantic accounts of ethical statements wherein those statements have their truth-conditions linked in some capacity to the mental state of an agent face the difficulty of explaining how it is that moral agents and communities genuinely disagree. However, there are––I shall argue––such semantic theories of ethical statements we can construct that avoid this explanatory deficit, insofar as they are both absolute and dispositional theories. In this paper, I will (i) explore and analyze one such semantic theory, Roderick Firth (1952)’s (...)
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  14. ETHICS: THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN ACTS.Noel Pariñas - 2018 - Meycauayan, Bulacan, Philippines: IPM PUBLISHING.
    the proclivity of many people to classify human acts as good or bad calls into mind the import of ETHICS. The penchant for classification warrants the evaluation of the bases for saying that one is bad or good action. Normally, human act is ethical if it is in accordance with what one would relatively expect in view of the events or the circumstances and unethical if the action is not called for by the circumstances, or a person whose behavior is (...)
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  15. Om analysen av värde i termer av passande attityder och dess neutralitet.Andrés G. Garcia - forthcoming - Filosofisk Tidskrift.
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  16. Kollapsprincipen och välsmakande färger.Andrés G. Garcia & Jakob Werkmäster - forthcoming - Filosofisk Tidskrift.
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  17. Debunking Arguments in Parallel: The Cases of Moral Belief and Theistic Belief.Max Baker-Hytch - forthcoming - In Diego E. Machuca (ed.), Evolutionary Debunking Arguments: Ethics, Philosophy of Religion, Philosophy of Mathematics, and Epistemology. London:
    There is now a burgeoning literature on evolutionary debunking arguments (EDAs) against moral beliefs, but perhaps surprisingly, a relatively small literature on EDAs against religious beliefs. There is an even smaller literature comparing the two. This essay aims to further the investigation of how the two sorts of arguments compare with each other. To begin with, I shall offer some remarks on how to best formulate these arguments, focusing on four different formulations that one can discern in the literature and (...)
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  18. Riemann, Metatheory, and Proof, Rev.3.Michael Lucas Monterey & Michael Lucas-Monterey - manuscript
    The work provides comprehensively definitive, unconditional proofs of Riemann's hypothesis, Goldbach's conjecture, the 'twin primes' conjecture, the Collatz conjecture, the Newcomb-Benford theorem, and the Quine-Putnam Indispensability thesis. The proofs validate holonomic metamathematics, meta-ontology, new number theory, new proof theory, new philosophy of logic, and unconditional disproof of the P/NP problem. The proofs, metatheory, and definitions are also confirmed and verified with graphic proof of intrinsic enabling and sustaining principles of reality.
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  19. The Value Gap.Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen - 2022 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    In The Value Gap, Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen addresses the distinction between what is finally good and what is finally good-for, two value notions that are central to ethics and practical deliberation. The first part of the book argues against views that claim that one of these notions is either faulty, or at best conceptually dependent on the other notion. Whereas these two views disagree on whether it is good or good-for that is the flawed or dependent concept, it is argued, as (...)
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  20. Ressentiment and Self-Deception in Early Phenomenology: Voigtländer, Scheler, and Reinach.Íngrid Vendrell-Ferran - forthcoming - In Ingrid Vendrell Ferran (ed.), Else Voigtländer. Self, Emotion, and Sociality.
    This chapter explores the early phenomenological accounts of Ressentiment provided by Else Voigtländer, Max Scheler, and Adolf Reinach. In particular, it examines the self-deceptive processes that lead to the “inversion of values” inherent to Ressentiment, i.e., how an object previously felt as valuable is denuded of its worth when the subject realizes that she cannot achieve it. For the comparative analysis of the three accounts, attention is paid to three crucial issues: 1) the origins of Ressentiment (etiology); 2) its place (...)
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  21. Non-cognitivisme.Bruno Verbeek - 2014 - In Martin van Hees, Ingrid Robeyns & Thomas Nys (eds.), Basisboek Ethiek. Amsterdam, Netherlands: pp. 315-331.
    This is a chapter on noncognitivism in a textbook on ethics.
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  22. Rationality-Required Values: Reinterpreting Kant, Rawls, Aristotle, Mill and Others.Kym Farrand - manuscript
    ‘Rationality’ here only concerns knowledge, e.g., ways to acquire scientific knowledge. Many factors are required for human rationality to exist and develop, e.g., life and evidence-based thinking. Rationality’s need for those factors, hence their value to rationality, is rationally-unquestionable. Those factors require certain moral, political, social, legal, health-care etc values to be practised. This implies a pro-rationality values-theory, with one obligatory, general end – a uniquely rationally-unquestionable end. That theory has deeply-humanly-meaningful, universal applications: the theory has implications for current and (...)
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  23. An Existential Foundation for an Ethics of Care in Heidegger’s Being and Time.Reed Stevens - forthcoming - The Journal of Ethics:1-17.
    Martin Heidegger’s existential account of care in Being and Time provides us with an opportunity to reimagine what the proper theoretical grounding of an ethic of care might be. Heidegger’s account of care serves to deconstruct the two primary foundations that an ethic of care is often based upon. Namely, that we are inevitably interdependent upon one another and/or possess an innate disposition to care for fellow humans in need. Heidegger’s account reveals that both positions are founded upon an ontic, (...)
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  24. A fundamentação da moralidade kantiana e o seu correlato princípio do Direito.Rubin Souza - 2012 - Jus Navigandi 1 (1):1-17.
    Pretendeu-se dissertar acerca do conceito kantiano do Direito a partir da gênese da sua fundamentação moral, ressaltando a aprioricidade da mesma e seu reflexo na doutrina jurídica. Contrariamente ao moral sense da Filosofia empirista inglesa, a moralidade kantiana baseia-se completamente a priori, abdicando de uma antropologia em sua exposição e formulando-se como pura metafísica, a partir de conhecimentos abstratos. Coaduna à concepção de moralidade kantiana o seu conceito de Direito, que também não possui, portanto, qualquer fundamento na experiência. Desta forma, (...)
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  25. Practical Reasons for Belief Without Stakes☆.N. G. Laskowski & Shawn Hernandez - 2021 - Analytic Philosophy 63 (1):16-27.
    Analytic Philosophy, Volume 63, Issue 1, Page 16-27, March 2022.
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  26. Can Hybrid Voluntarism Solve the Indeterminacy Problem of the Reasons Responsiveness Account of Rationality?Dominik Boll - 2021 - In Alžbeta Kuchtová (ed.), Young Philosophy 2021 Conference Proceedings. Bratislava: IRIS. pp. 116-128.
    The conception of rationality as Reasons Responsiveness (RR) has seen a revival in the literature. However, RR faces the indeterminacy problem: an agent may be instrumentally irrational even without failing to respond correctly to reasons. Reasons do not conclusively determine choice, but this should not be possible on RR. Hybrid Voluntarism (HV), which is supposed to apply particularly to cases where “reasons run out”, may be a solution. According to Ruth Chang, we can create will-based reasons through commitment if the (...)
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  27. Being Your Best Self: Authenticity, Morality, and Gender Norms.Rowan Bell - forthcoming - Hypatia.
    Trans and gender-nonconforming people sometimes say that certain gender norms are authentic for them. For example, a trans man might say that abiding by norms of masculinity tracks who he really is. Authenticity is sometimes taken to appeal to an essential, pre-social “inner self.” It is also sometimes understood as a moral notion. Authenticity claims about gender norms therefore appear inimical to two key commitments in feminist philosophy: that all gender norms are socially constructed, and that many domains of gender (...)
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  28. Non-Naturalism and Reasons-Firstism: How to Solve the Discontinuity Problem by Reducing Two Queerness Worries to One.Victor Moberger - 2022 - The Journal of Ethics 26 (1):131-154.
    A core tenet of metanormative non-naturalism is that genuine or robust normativity—i.e., the kind of normativity that is characteristic of moral requirements, and perhaps also of prudential, epistemic and even aesthetic requirements—is metaphysically special in a way that rules out naturalist analyses or reductions; on the non-naturalist view, the normative is sui generis and metaphysically discontinuous with the natural. Non-naturalists agree, however, that the normative is modally as well as explanatorily dependent on the natural. These two commitments—discontinuity and dependence—at least (...)
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  29. Rationality and Normativity.John Brunero - forthcoming - In International Encyclopedia of Ethics.
    This entry considers the question of whether rationality is normative; that is, the question of whether one always ought (or, more weakly, has a reason) to be rational. It first distinguishes substantive from structural rationality, noting how structural rationality presents a more serious challenge to the thesis that rationality is normative. It then considers the plausibility of skepticism about structural rationality, and notes some problems facing such skepticism. However, if we are not skeptics about structural requirements, we face the task (...)
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  30. The Post-Truth Crisis, The Value of Truth, and the Substantivist-Deflationist Debate.Gila Sher - forthcoming - Australasian Philosophical Review.
    The present crisis of truth, the "post-truth" crisis, puts the philosophy of truth in a new light. It calls for a reexamination of the tasks of the philosophy of truth and sets a new adequacy condition on this philosophy. One of the central roles of the philosophy of truth is to explain the importance of truth for human life and civilization. Among other things, it has to explain what is, or will be, lost in a post-truth era. Clearly, the deflationist (...)
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  31. Is Morality Immune to Luck, After All? Criminal Behavior and the Paradox of Moral Luck.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2022 - In Evangelos D. Protopapadakis & Georgios Arabatzis (eds.), Modernity and Contemporaneity. pp. 161-180.
    Both the genetic endowment we have been equipped with, and the environment we had to be born and raised in, were not – and never are – for us to choose; both are pure luck, a random ticket in this enormously inventive cosmic lottery of existence. If it is luck that has makes us the persons we are, and since our decisions and choices depend largely on the kind of persons we are, it seems that everything we do or fail (...)
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  32. Replies to Timmerman and Gorman.John Martin Fischer - forthcoming - The Journal of Ethics:1-20.
    In my reply to the thoughtful comments of Timmerman and Gorman, I take up, and further explore, some main questions, including: Can a horribly immoral person lead a meaningful life? Similarly, can a significantly deluded person lead a meaningful life? What role do judgments of meaningfulness play in our normative framework? How can we understand the debate between those who would embrace the possibility of immortality and those who would reject it? What is the role of narrativity in evaluating meaning (...)
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  33. Why Metaethics Matters.Rachel Handley - 2021 - Psyche Ideas.
    An introductory article on metaethics and why it matters. I discuss why we should care about metaethics, what metaethics is and how it differs from normative ethics. This article is for a general audience.
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  34. Philosophical Naturalism and Empirical Approaches to Philosophy.Jonathan Y. Tsou - forthcoming - In Marcus Rossberg (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Analytic Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    This chapter examines the influence of the empirical sciences (e.g., physics, biology, psychology) in contemporary analytic philosophy, with focus on philosophical theories that are guided by findings from the empirical sciences. Scientific approaches to philosophy follow a tradition of philosophical naturalism associated with Quine, which strives to ally philosophical methods and theories more closely with the empirical sciences and away from a priori theorizing and conceptual analysis.
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  35. Cremaschi, Sergio, Breve storia dell’etica. [REVIEW]Maria Giulia Bernardini - 2014 - REF 15 (lunedì 20 ottobre 2014):1.
    La sua storia dell’etica rivitalizza il panorama delle ricostruzioni fin qui offerte, sia per la scelta delle figure sulle quali concentrarsi, sia per le modalità con le quali esse vengono messe in dialogo. Il tutto, con linguaggio accessibile anche ai neofiti, senza che una tale scelta impedisca che i più esperti di questi temi possano rinvenirvi motivi di interesse e spunti per ulteriori approfondimenti. Cremaschi, insomma, rende democratico l'accesso all'etica – risultato di certo non così facile da ottenere – vincendo (...)
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  36. Tatsache, Wert und menschliche Sensibilität: Die Brentanoschule und die Gestaltpsychologie.Íngrid Vendrell-Ferran - 2014 - In Marta Ubiali & Maren Wehrle (eds.), Feeling and Value, Willing and Action. pp. 141 - 162.
    In diesem Aufsatz werden die Fragen nach dem Ort der Werte in der Erfahrung und nach ihrer Natur als Qualität besonderer Art anhand von Ansätzen der Brentanoschule und der Gestaltpsychologie untersucht. Konkret geht es darum, diejenigen Positionen innerhalb dieser Schulen zu analysieren, welche die Werte sowohl in Abhängigkeit von den Eigenschaften des Objektes, an dem diese haften, als auch von der psychophysischen Konstitution des Subjektes, welche sich auf Werte bezieht, verstehen. Brentanos Dispositionalismus, Meinongs erste und zweite dispositionalistische Theorie der Werte (...)
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  37. Lectures on a Philosophy Less Ordinary: Language and Morality in J. L. Austin's Philosophy.Niklas Forsberg - 2021 - New York, USA: Routledge.
    This book offers a comprehensive reinterpretation of J.L. Austin’s philosophy. It opens new ways of thinking about ethics and other contemporary issues in the wake of Austin’s philosophical work. -/- Austin is primarily viewed as a philosopher of language whose work focused on the pragmatic aspects of speech. His work on ordinary language philosophy and speech act theory is seen as his main contribution to philosophy. This book challenges this received view to show that Austin used his most well-known theoretical (...)
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