Metaontology

Edited by Frederique Janssen-Lauret (University of Manchester)
About this topic
Summary

Whereas ontology is concerned with the nature of reality in general, metaontology is concerned with the nature of ontology— whether its questions have substantive and tractable answers, and if so, how best to answer them. More broadly, what we might call ‘metametaphysics’ investigates the prospects and methodology of metaphysics.

Key works Classic works include Ayer 1936Carnap 1950, and Quine 1953. A collection of more recent work can be found in Wasserman et al 2009
Introductions Eklund 2006, Manley 2009, Thomasson 2012
Related categories

1757 found
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  1. El nihilismo contemporáneo, ¿el lado oscuro de la Posmodernidad?Francisco Fernández Labastida & Juan Andrés Mercado - 2007 - México: Universidad Panamericana.
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  2. Biomemetics.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
  3. Irrelevant ‘Philosophy’: What is Philosophy by Philosophers.Ulrich De Balbian - 2021 - Oxford, UK: Academic.
    The tools employed might appear appropriate, the reasoning sound and argumentation valid, but the subject-matter, well one wonders what that has to do with philosophy, if anything at all? Viewing some of the topics one really wonders of the notion of philosophy is not stretched too far? So much that is passed off as philosophy itself or some kind of so-called interdisciplinary issues really appear as irrelevant. Topics from the grievance studies especially fall under this. It seems as if individuals (...)
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  4. Foundations of Information Technology Based on Bunge’s Systemist Philosophy of Reality.Roman Lukyanenko, Veda C. Storey & Oscar Pastor - 2021 - Mεtascience 2:online.
    General ontology is a prominent theoretical foundation for information technology analysis, design, and development. Ontology is a branch of philosophy which studies what exists in reality. A widely used ontology in information systems, especially for conceptual modeling, is the BWW (Bunge–Wand–Weber), which is based on ideas of the philosopher and physicist Mario Bunge, as synthesized by Wand and Weber. The ontology was founded on an early subset of Bunge’s philosophy; however, many of Bunge’s ideas have evolved since then. An important (...)
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  5. Natural Cybernetics of Time, or About the Half of Any Whole.Vasil Penchev - 2021 - Information Systems eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 4 (28):1-55.
    Norbert Wiener’s idea of “cybernetics” is linked to temporality as in a physical as in a philosophical sense. “Time orders” can be the slogan of that natural cybernetics of time: time orders by itself in its “screen” in virtue of being a well-ordering valid until the present moment and dividing any totality into two parts: the well-ordered of the past and the yet unordered of the future therefore sharing the common boundary of the present between them when the ordering is (...)
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  6. Fysis в работите на Хайдегер за Хьолдерлин.Vasil Penchev - 2004 - Философия 13 (3):14-18.
    Хайдегер има цикъл статии, посветени на немския поет Хьолдерлин и обсъждащи отношението на философия и поезия. Една често срещана "дума" в тях е 'природа'. Нейни рзлични конотации в произведения на философа за поета са предмет на изследване.
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  7. От "времевост и историчност" към "историчност и времевост".Vasil Penchev - 2006 - Философия 15 (6):22-30.
    "ОсноВният Въпрос, осноВната преgпостаВка за Всяка философия на историята е безспорно въпросът за значението на Времето, за прироgата на времето, защото историята е процес във времето, акт във времето, gВижение във времето. Ето защо значението, което се отgаВа на историята е непосреgно свързано със значението, което отgаваме на времето. Има ли времето метафизично значение? СВързано ли е то с нещо същестВено, gостигащо go най-gълбокото яgро на битието, или е само форма и услоВие за света на явленията, за света на феноменалното? (...)
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  8. Съдбата на битието (Синоптичен поглед към четири текста от Хайдегер).Vasil Penchev - 2005 - Философия 14 (3):23-30.
    ,.Въпросът, gали и как, и в какВи граници е възможно твърgението ,.Бог е" като абсолютно постаВяне, сега обаче става и остаВа за Кант тайната поgбуgа, която поgкарВа цялото мислене на ,.Критика на чистия разум" и заgВижВа послеgващите главни работи" (Мартин Хайдегер). "Религиозният и философският абсолют, Deиs и Esse не могат ga не бьgат взаимосВързани. КакВа е тази взаимоВръзка от глеgна точка на битието и познанието? В простото тВърgение ,.Бог е", тази връзка се gостига; но нейният характер и преgстаВляВа истинският проблем (...)
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  9. What Is Metascientific Ontology?François Maurice - 2021 - Mεtascience 2:online.
    Metascientific ontology differs from philosophical ontologies in its objectives, objects and methods. By an examination of the ontological theories of Mario Bunge, we will show their main objective is a unified representation of the world as known through the sciences, that their objects of study are scientific concepts, and that their methods do not differ from those that one expects to find in any rational activity. Metascientific ontology is therefore not transcendent because it does not seek to represent non-concrete objects (...)
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  10. Qu'est-ce que l'ontologie métascientifique?François Maurice - 2021 - Mεtascience 2:prépublication.
    L’ontologie métascientifique se distingue des ontologies philosophiques par ses objectifs, ses objets et ses méthodes. Par un examen des théories ontologiques de Mario Bunge, nous montrerons que leur principal objectif est l’élaboration d’une représentation unifiée du monde tel que connu via les sciences, que leurs objets d’étude sont les concepts scientifiques, et que leurs méthodes ne diffèrent pas de celles qu’on s’attend à trouver dans toute activité rationnelle. L’ontologie métascientifique n’est donc pas transcendante parce qu’elle ne cherche pas à représenter (...)
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  11. Grounding, Metaphysical Laws, and Structure.Martin Grajner - forthcoming - Analytic Philosophy.
    According to the deductive-nomological account of ground, a fact A grounds another fact B in case the laws of metaphysics determine the existence of B on the basis of the existence of A. Accounts of grounding of this particular variety have already been developed in the literature. My aim in this paper is to sketch a new version of this account. My preferred account offers two main improvements over existing accounts. First, the present account is able to deal with necessitarian (...)
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  12. Why Composition Matters.Andrew M. Bailey & Andrew Brenner - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (8):934-949.
    Many say that ontological disputes are defective because they are unimportant or without substance. In this paper, we defend ontological disputes from the charge, with a special focus on disputes over the existence of composite objects. Disputes over the existence of composite objects, we argue, have a number of substantive implications across a variety of topics in metaphysics, science, philosophical theology, philosophy of mind, and ethics. Since the disputes over the existence of composite objects have these substantive implications, they are (...)
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  13. Bunge and Harman on the General Theory of Objects.Martìn Orensanz - 2021 - Mεtascience 2:online.
    Although there are significative differences between the philosophies of Mario Bunge and Graham Harman, there are also some fundamental similarities. One of the core features that they have in common is that both of them claim that it is possible to develop a general theory of objects. The former believes that the theory in question is logical-mathematical, while the latter suggests that it is on-tological. Regardless, they agree that all objects have to be considered, no mat-ter if they are real (...)
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  14. Natural Cybernetics and Mathematical History: The Principle of Least Choice in History.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Cultural Anthropology (Elsevier: SSRN) 5 (23):1-44.
    The paper follows the track of a previous paper “Natural cybernetics of time” in relation to history in a research of the ways to be mathematized regardless of being a descriptive humanitarian science withal investigating unique events and thus rejecting any repeatability. The pathway of classical experimental science to be mathematized gradually and smoothly by more and more relevant mathematical models seems to be inapplicable. Anyway quantum mechanics suggests another pathway for mathematization; considering the historical reality as dual or “complimentary” (...)
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  15. Ontological Investigations of a Pragmatic Kind? A Reply to Lauer.Simon Lohse - 2020 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 51 (1):3-12.
    This paper is a reply to Richard Lauer’s “Is Social Ontology Prior to Social Scientific Methodology?” (2019) and an attempt to contribute to the meta-social ontological discourse more broadly. In the first part, I will give a rough sketch of Lauer’s general project and confront his pragmatist approach with a fundamental problem. The second part of my reply will provide a solution for this problem rooted in a philosophy of the social sciences in practice.
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  16. Why Animalism Matters.Andrew M. Bailey, Allison Krile Thornton & Peter van Elswyk - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-14.
    Here is a question as intriguing as it is brief: what are we? The animalist’s answer is equal in brevity: we are animals. This stark formulation of the animalist slogan distances it from nearby claims – that we are essentially animals, for example, or that we have purely biological criteria of identity over time. Is the animalist slogan -- unburdened by modal or criterial commitments – still interesting, though? Or has it lost its bite? In this article we address such (...)
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  17. Methodology in the Ontology of Artworks: Exploring Hermeneutic Fictionalism.Elisa Caldarola - 2020 - In Concha Martinez Vidal & José Luis Falguera Lopez (ed.), Abstract Objects: For and Against.
    There is growing debate about what is the correct methodology for research in the ontology of artworks. In the first part of this essay, I introduce my view: I argue that semantic descriptivism is a semantic approach that has an impact on meta-ontological views and can be linked with a hermeneutic fictionalist proposal on the meta-ontology of artworks such as works of music. In the second part, I offer a synthetic presentation of the four main positive meta-ontological views that have (...)
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  18. “An Argument Against a Meta-Ontology of Art Inspired by Peter Lamarque’s Reading of Jean Paul Sartre”.Elisa Caldarola - 2019 - Aesthetica Preprint 111:85-96.
    As Peter Lamarque explains in "Work and Object", the claim that artworks are not identical with their vehicles lies at the core of a variety of art-ontological accounts, including Jean-Paul Sartre’s one. In chapter 10, Lamarque gives us an insightful read-ing of Sartre’s art-ontological proposal: works of art in themselves do not exist, while what exists is their ‘material analogue’ which, when perceived, arouses in us certain imaginings. What we call ‘artwork’ is the object of such imaginings – an object (...)
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  19. Philosophical Letters of David K. Lewis: Volume 1: Causation, Modality, Ontology.Helen Beebee & A. R. J. Fisher (eds.) - 2020 - Oxford University Press.
    The life-long correspondence of David K. Lewis, one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century, reveals the development, breadth, and depth of his philosophy in its historical context. The first of this two volume collection of letters focuses on his contributions to metaphysics, arguably where he made his greatest impact.
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  20. Quantifier Variance.Eli Hirsch & Jared Warren - 2019 - In The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Relativism. New York: pp. 349-357.
    Quantifier variance is a well-known view in contemporary metaontology, but it remains very widely misunderstood by critics. Here we briefly and clearly explain the metasemantics of quantifier variance and distinguish between modest and strong forms of variance (Section I), explain some key applications (Section II), clear up some misunderstandings and address objections (Section III), and point the way toward future directions of quantifier-variance-related research (Section IV).
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  21. Meinongian Merits and Maladies.Samuel Hoadley-Brill - manuscript
    According to what has long been the dominant school of thought in analytic meta-ontology––defended not only by W. V. O. Quine, but also by Bertrand Russell, Alvin Plantinga, Peter van Inwagen, and many others––the meaning of ‘there is’ is identical to the meaning of ‘there exists.’ The most (in)famous aberration from this view is advanced by Alexius Meinong, whose ontological picture has endured extensive criticism (and borderline abuse) from several subscribers to the majority view. Meinong denies the identity of being (...)
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  22. Rejoinder to Kris McDaniel.Andrew Brenner - 2020 - Philosophy East and West 70 (2):565-569.
    I would like to thank Kris McDaniel for his reply. In my original response to McDaniel I say that, given his interpretation of the distinction between conventional and ultimate truth, we would no longer be able to employ certain powerful arguments in favor of the thesis that persons are merely conventionally existent, and it would turn out that the thesis that persons are merely conventionally existent doesn't have some of the important implications that proponents of that thesis generally take it (...)
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  23. Ontological Pluralism, Abhidharma Metaphysics, and the Two Truths: A Response to Kris McDaniel.Andrew Brenner - 2020 - Philosophy East and West 70 (2):543-557.
    Kris McDaniel has recently proposed an interpretation of the distinction between conventional truth and ultimate truth, as that distinction is made within Abhidharma metaphysics. According to McDaniel's proposal, the distinction between conventional truth and ultimate truth is closely connected with a similar distinction between conventional existence and ultimate existence. What is more, the distinction between conventional existence and ultimate existence should be interpreted along ontological pluralist lines: the difference between things that ultimately exist and things that merely conventionally exist amounts (...)
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  24. Zeno's Paradox as a Derivative for the Ontological Proof of Panpsychism.Eamon Macdougall - manuscript
    This article attempts to elucidate the phenomenon of time and its relationship to consciousness. It defends the idea that time exists both as a psychological or illusory experience, and as an ontological property of spacetime that actually exists independently of human experience.
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  25. On What There 'Is': Aristotle and the Aztecs on Being and Existence.Lynn Sebastian Purcell - 2018 - APA Newsletter on Hispanic/Latino Issues in Philosophy 18 (1):11-23.
    A curious feature of Aztec philosophy is that the basic metaphysical question of the “Western” tradition cannot be formulated in their language, in Nahuatl. This did not, however, prevent the Aztecs from developing an account of 'reality', or whatever it is that might exist. The article is the first of its kind to compare the work of Aristotle on ousia (being) and the Aztecs on teotl and ometeotl. Through this analysis, it suggests that both of the Nahuatl terms are fundamental (...)
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  26. Expansionism and Mereological Universalism.Giorgio Lando - 2020 - Theoria 86 (2):187-219.
    Mereological universalists, according to whom every plurality of entities has a fusion, usually claim that most quantifications are restricted to ordinary entities. However, there is no evidence that our usual quantifications over ordinary objects are restricted. In this article I explore an alternative way of reconciling Mereological Universalism with our usual quantifications. I resort to a modest form of ontological expansionism and to the so-called interpretational modalities. Quantifications over ordinary objects are the initial stages of the expansion. From these initial (...)
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  27. Response to William Lane Craig’s God Over All.Peter van Inwagen - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):267-275.
    In contrast to William Lane Craig’s view this article presents a sort of precis of my position on ontological commitment—whether you call it neo-Quineanism or not—and its implications for the nominalism-realism debate, a precis that proceeds from first principles.
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  28. Introducción a la Ontología.Axel Barceló - manuscript
    Intuitivamente, la realidad está formada por entidades y hechos existentes y concretos. Sin embargo, nuestro lenguaje y pensamiento versa también sobre hechos meramente posibles, sobre cosas inexistentes y entidades abstractas. ¿Cómo es esto posible? ¿Significa ello que cuando hablamos y pensamos de estas otras cosas no hablamos de nada real? ¿o mas bien la realidad está mas poblada de lo que pensábamos y hay diferentes maneras de formar parte de la realidad además de la de existir de manera positiva y (...)
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  29. Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz’s Views on Ontology.Artur Kosecki - 2020 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 34 (3):99-116.
    This article will address the views of Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz - the leading representative of the Lvov-Warsaw School. I will present arguments proving that the Polish philosopher could have anticipated contemporary metaontological discussions. -/- In the first part, I will provide a profile of Ajdukiewicz as a representative of the Lvov-Warsaw School. I will outline the assumptions of his metaepistemological projects: radical conventionalism and semantic epistemology. In the second part, I will argue that the former project resulted in views on existence (...)
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  30. Endurant Types in Ontology-Driven Conceptual Modeling: Towards OntoUML 2.0.Giancarlo Guizzardi, Tiago Prince Sales, Claudenir M. Fonseca, Daniele Porello, Joao Paulo Almeida & Nicola Guarino - 2018 - In J. C. Trujillo, K. C. Davis, X. Du, Z. Li, T. W. Ling, G. Li & M. L. Lee (eds.), Conceptual Modeling - 37th International Conference, {ER} 2018, Xi'an, China, October 22-25, 2018, Proceedings. Springer. pp. 136--150.
    For over a decade now, a community of researchers has contributed to the development of the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) - aimed at providing foundations for all major conceptual modeling constructs. This ontology has led to the development of an Ontology-Driven Conceptual Modeling language dubbed OntoUML, reflecting the ontological micro-theories comprising UFO. Over the years, UFO and OntoUML have been successfully employed in a number of academic, industrial and governmental settings to create conceptual models in a variety of different domains. (...)
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  31. Pragmatist Quietism.Andrew Sepielli - manuscript
  32. Eliminativism: The Problem of Representation and Carnapian Metametaphysics.Krzysztof Poslajko - 2019 - Acta Analytica 34 (2):181-195.
    The aim of this paper is to propose a new reading of eliminative materialism concerning propositional attitudes, along the lines of broadly understood Carnapian metametaphysics. According to the proposed reading, eliminativism should be seen as a normative metalinguistic claim that we should dispose of terms like “beliefs” and associated linguistic rules. It will be argued that such reading allows a significant philosophical problem which besets eliminativism to be solved: the problem of representation. The general idea of the problem of representation, (...)
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  33. The Generous Ontology of Thin Objects: Øystein Linnebo: Thin Objects: An Abstractionist Account. New York: Oxford University Press, Xvii + 231 Pp, $50.00 HB. [REVIEW]Nathaniel Gan - 2019 - Metascience 28 (1):167-169.
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  34. Objectivity and Evaluation.Justin Clarke-Doane - forthcoming - In Christopher Cowie & Richard Rowland (eds.), Companions in Guilt Arguments in Metaethics.
    I this article, I introduce the notion of pluralism about an area, and use it to argue that the questions at the center of our normative lives are not settled by the facts -- even the normative facts. One upshot of the discussion is that the concepts of realism and objectivity, which are widely identified, are actually in tension. Another is that the concept of objectivity, not realism, should take center stage.
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  35. Morality and Mathematics.Justin Clarke-Doane - 2020 - Oxford University Press.
    To what extent are the subjects of our thoughts and talk real? This is the question of realism. In this book, Justin Clarke-Doane explores arguments for and against moral realism and mathematical realism, how they interact, and what they can tell us about areas of philosophical interest more generally. He argues that, contrary to widespread belief, our mathematical beliefs have no better claim to being self-evident or provable than our moral beliefs. Nor do our mathematical beliefs have better claim to (...)
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  36. L'identità diacronica fra ontologia e metafisica.Francesco Franda - 2014 - Rivista Italiana di Filosofia Analitica Junior 2 (5):66-81.
    In this paper, I tackle the problem of diachronic identity. Far from providing a criterion for identity over time, the aim of this work is to understand if this issue pertains to ontology, conceived as that part of philosophy that tries to answer the question about what entities exist, and metaphysics, conceived as that part of philosophy that tries to explain, of those entities, what they are. On the face of it, only metaphysics has the task to solve this problem, (...)
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  37. On Ajdukiewicz's and Quine's Views on Ontology.Artur Kosecki - 2019 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 33 (2):49-66.
    The aim of the paper is to analyze the views of Willard van Orman Quine and compare them with the views of Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz, an eminent philosopher from the Lvov-Warsaw School. I will argue that Ajdukiewicz's approach to ontology is deflationary and, in that respect, similar to Quine's. In my analysis of these two ontological stances, I would like to refer to Price's deflationist interpretation of Quine’s views in order to highlight the similarity between Ajdukiewicz's views and Quine’s stance on (...)
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  38. Mereology: A Philosophical Introduction.Giorgio Lando - 2017 - London, UK: Bloomsbury.
    Parthood and composition are everywhere. The leg of a table is part of the table, the word "Christmas" is part of the sentence "I wish you a merry Christmas", the 13th century is part of the Middle Ages. The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg compose Benelux, the body of a deer is composed of a huge number of cells, the Middle Ages are composed of the Early Middle Ages, High Middle Ages, and Late Middle Ages. Is there really a general theory (...)
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  39. Facts in Logical Space: A Tractarian Ontology Jason Turner Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016; 362 Pp.; $85.00. [REVIEW]John Beverley - 2018 - Dialogue 57 (3):637-639.
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  40. J. Azzouni, Ontology Without Borders, Oxford University Press, New York, 2017, Xxxvi + 256 Pp. [REVIEW]Nathaniel Gan - 2018 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 24 (2):177-178.
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  41. Existência.João Branquinho - 2015 - Compêndio Em Linha de Problemas de Filosofia Analítica.
    Neste ensaio, discutem-se cinco questões acerca da existência: 1. É a existência representável em termos de quantificação? 2. É a existência um predicado" real", de primeira ordem? 3. É existir o mesmo que ser? 4. Existe tudo? 5. Qual é a forma lógica de afirmações de existência? São introduzidas e examinadas algumas das mais salientes posições acerca destas questões, em especial a concepção Frege-Russell da existência e diversas concepções recentes neo-Meinongianas. Defendemos as seguintes três teses acerca daquilo que deve ser (...)
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  42. On the Genealogy of Universals: The Metaphysical Origins of Analytic Philosophy.Fraser MacBride - 2018 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    The concepts of particular and universal have grown so familiar that their significance has become difficult to discern, like coins that have been passed back and forth too many times, worn smooth so their values can no longer be read. On the Genealogy of Universals seeks to overcome our sense of over-familiarity with these concepts by providing a case study of their evolution during the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, a study that shows how the history of these (...)
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  43. The Significance of the New Logic.Walter Carnielli, Frederique Janssen-Lauret & William Pickering (eds.) - 2018 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    W. V. Quine was one of the most influential figures of twentieth-century American analytic philosophy. Although he wrote predominantly in English, in Brazil in 1942 he gave a series of lectures on logic and its philosophy in Portuguese, subsequently published as the book O Sentido da Nova Lógica. The book has never before been fully translated into English, and this volume is the first to make its content accessible to Anglophone philosophers. Quine would go on to develop revolutionary ideas about (...)
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  44. Markus gabriel, wolfram hogrebe, andreas speer , Das neue Bedürfnis nach Metayphysik. The New Desire for Metaphysics.Thomas Zimmer - 2017 - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 20 (1):200-204.
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  45. God and Abstract Objects: The Coherence of Theism: Aseity.William Lane Craig - 2017 - Springer.
    This book is an exploration and defense of the coherence of classical theism’s doctrine of divine aseity in the face of the challenge posed by Platonism with respect to abstract objects. A synoptic work in analytic philosophy of religion, the book engages discussions in philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of language, metaphysics, and metaontology. It addresses absolute creationism, non-Platonic realism, fictionalism, neutralism, and alternative logics and semantics, among other topics. The book offers a helpful taxonomy of the wide range of options (...)
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  46. The Causal Metaphor Account of Metaphysical Explanation.Jonathan L. Shaheen - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (3):553-578.
    This paper argues that the semantic facts about ‘because’ are best explained via a metaphorical treatment of metaphysical explanation that treats causal explanation as explanation par excellence. Along the way, it defends a commitment to a unified causal sense of ‘because’ and offers a proprietary explanation of grounding skepticism. With the causal metaphor account of metaphysical explanation on the table, an extended discussion of the relationship between conceptual structure and metaphysics ends with a suggestion that the semantic facts about ‘because’ (...)
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  47. Introduction to the Special Issue on The Enactive Approach to Qualitative Ontology.Andrea Pace Giannotta, Roberta Lanfredini, Nicola Liberati & Pagni Elena - 2016 - Humana.Mente - Journal of Philosophical Studies (31).
    This Special Issue is dedicated to building a bridge between different disciplines concerned in the investigation of the qualitative dimension of experience and reality. The two main objectives of the Issue can be summarized as follows: 1) to elucidate the need for a revision of categories to account for the qualitative dimension in various disciplines (that include, for example, the cognitive sciences, neurosciences, biology, linguistics, informatics, artificial intelligence, robotics, newly emerging computer technologies) in order to develop an ontology that can (...)
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  48. The Metaphysical Criterion and its Implications.H. Wildon Carr - 1905 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 5:117.
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  49. Gustav Bergmann, New Foundations of Ontology. [REVIEW]Barry Smith - 1995 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 3:304-306.
    The formal ontology here presented is what we might call a typed combinatorial Meinongian mereology. Its author seeks to formulate the laws, here called ‘canons’, regulating how entities can combine together in wholes of different sorts. The method, as in Bergmann’s earlier works, involves the construction of an ideal language of such a sort that the analysis of complex wholes can be achieved by transforming our natural-language representations of reality into what we might think of as artificial characteristic maps or (...)
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  50. Metaphysical Presuppositions of Scientific Practice: ‘Atomism’ Vs. ‘Wholism’.Alexander Rueger & W. David Sharp - 1998 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 28 (1):1-20.
    A certain order or stability of nature has often been seen as a necessary presupposition of many of our scientific practices, in particular of our use of information gained in one kind of circumstance to explain or predict what happens in quite different situations. John Maynard Keynes and, more recently, Nancy Cartwright have argued that these practices commit us to the existence of stable ‘atoms’ or ‘natures’ or ‘tendencies.’ The phenomena we observe in nature are, on this view, the result (...)
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