Metaphor

Edited by Alper Yavuz (Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University)
About this topic
Introductions Among philosophy of language textbooks only Lycan 1999 dedicates a chapter to metaphor. Two philosophy of language companions have chapters on metaphor: Moran 1997 and Reimer & Camp 2006. There is also a SEP entry: Hills 2012.
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  1. added 2020-05-31
    A Formal Model of Metaphor in Frame Semantics.Vasil Penchev - 2016 - In Proceedings of the 41st Annual Convention of the Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour. New York: Curran Associates, Inc.. pp. 187-194.
    A formal model of metaphor is introduced. It models metaphor, first, as an interaction of “frames” according to the frame semantics, and then, as a wave function in Hilbert space. The practical way for a probability distribution and a corresponding wave function to be assigned to a given metaphor in a given language is considered. A series of formal definitions is deduced from this for: “representation”, “reality”, “language”, “ontology”, etc. All are based on Hilbert space. A few statements about a (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-21
    An Inferential Impasse in the Theory of Implicatures.Savas L. Tsohatzidis - manuscript
  3. added 2020-05-08
    Metafore, modelli, linguaggio scientifico: il dibattito postempirista.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 1988 - In Melchiorre Virgilio (ed.), Simbolo e conoscenza. Milan, Italy: VIta e Pensiero. pp. 31-102.
    I discuss Mary Hess’s interaction-view of scientific metaphor, outline an alternative view and show how it may prove fruitful when applied to chapters of the history of science. I start with a reconstruction of the discussion on the nature of scientific models and on their relationship to metaphors that has taken place in the Anglo-Saxon philosophy of Science starting from the Fifties; the discovery started with Stephen Pepper and Kenneth Burke, reaching Thomas Kuhn, Marx Wartofsky, and George Lakoff via Max (...)
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  4. added 2020-02-22
    Generating and Interpreting Metaphors with NETMET.Eric Steinhart - 2005 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers 4 (2).
    The structural theory of metaphor (STM) uses techniques from possible worlds semantics to generate and interpret metaphors. STM is presented in detail in The Logic of Metaphor: Analogous Parts of Possible Worlds (Steinhart, 2001). STM is based on Kittay’s semantic field theory of metaphor (1987) and ultimately on Black’s interactionist theory (1962, 1979). STM uses an intensional calculus to specify truth-conditions for many grammatical forms of metaphor. The truth-conditional analysis in STM is inspired in part by Miller (1979) and Hintikka (...)
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  5. added 2020-02-22
    NETMET: A Program for Generating and Interpreting Metaphors.Eric Steinhart - 1995 - Computers and Humanities 28 (6):383-392.
    Metaphors have computable semantics. A program called NETMET both generates metaphors and produces partial literal interpretations of metaphors. NETMET is based on Kittay's semantic field theory of metaphor and Black's interaction theory of metaphor. Input to NETMET consists of a list of literal propositions. NETMET creates metaphors by finding topic and source semantic fields, producing an analogical map from source to topic, then generating utterances in which terms in the source are identified with or predicated of terms in the topic. (...)
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  6. added 2020-02-22
    Analogical Truth-Conditions for Metaphors.Eric Steinhart - 1994 - Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 9 (3):161-178.
    It has often been said that metaphors are based on analogies, but the nature of this relation has never been made precise. This article rigorously and formally specifies two semantic relations that do obtain between some metaphors and analogies. We argue that analogies often provide conditions of meaningfulness and truth for metaphors. An analogy is treated as an isomorphism from a source to topic domain. Metaphors are thought of as surface structures. Formal analogical conditions of meaningfulness and truth are fully (...)
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  7. added 2020-02-22
    Generating Metaphors From Networks.Eric Steinhart & Eva Kittay - 1994 - In Approaches to Metaphor. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. pp. 41-94.
    Metaphor's peculiar property to yield cognitive insight-- often in otherwise false sentences -- has been the focus of contemporary studies of metaphor. In Metaphor: Its Linguistic Structure and Cognitive Force, Eva Kittay develops the semantic field theory of metaphor (SFTM). The task of the present work is to formalize some of the central claims of SFTM. Formalization forces us to make the central concepts of SFTM precise and operational, and it enables us to evaluate the consistency and explanatory power of (...)
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  8. added 2020-02-22
    Metaphor.Eric Steinhart & Eva Kittay - 1993 - In Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press. pp. 2452-2456.
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  9. added 2020-02-12
    Demystifying metaphor: a strategy for literal paraphrase.Megan Henricks Stotts - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-20.
    There is a long philosophical tradition of skepticism about the possibility of adequate paraphrases for metaphorical utterances. And even among those who favor paraphrasability, there is a tendency to think that paraphrases of metaphorical utterances may themselves have to be non-literal. I argue that even the most evocative and open-ended metaphorical utterances can be literally and adequately paraphrased, once we recognize that they are actually indirect speech acts—specifically, indirect directives that command the hearer to engage in an open-ended comparison. This (...)
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  10. added 2020-02-12
    Metaphor: Its Cognitive Force and Linguistic Structure.Peter Ludlow - 1991 - Journal of Philosophy 88 (6):324-330.
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  11. added 2020-02-12
    Symbol and Metaphor in Human Experience.Carl H. Hamburg - 1950 - Journal of Philosophy 47 (24):720-721.
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  12. added 2020-02-11
    Metaphor in Analytic Philosophy and Cognitive Science.Jakub Mácha - 2019 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 75 (4):2247-2286.
    This article surveys theories of metaphor in analytic philosophy and cognitive science. In particular, it focuses on contemporary semantic, pragmatic and non-cognitivist theories of linguistic metaphor and on the Conceptual Metaphor Theory advanced by George Lakoff and his school. Special attention is given to the mechanisms that are shared by nearly all these approaches, i.e. mechanisms of interaction and mapping between conceptual domains. Finally, the article discusses several recent attempts to combine these theories of linguistic and conceptual metaphor into a (...)
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  13. added 2020-02-11
    Analytische Theorien der Metapher. Untersuchungen zum Konzept der metaphorischen Bedeutung.Jakub Mácha - 2010 - Dissertation, Masaryk-Universität Brno
    Zusammenfassung: Gegenstand der Arbeit ist das Konzept der metaphorischen Be-deutung, soweit dessen Ursprung in der analytischen Philosophie zu finden ist. In der Ein-leitung der Untersuchung werden jedoch auch ältere Theorien der Metapher vorgestellt, die aus der Perspektive der metaphorischen Bedeutung relevant sind oder als relevant be-trachtet werden können. Allen diesen Theorien liegt die Definition zugrunde, dass in der Metapher etwas als etwas anderes gesehen wird. Daher kann von einer Wahrnehmungs-metaphorik die Rede sein. Das erste Kapitel meiner Arbeit behandelt die Frage, (...)
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  14. added 2020-02-11
    Metaphorically Speaking. [REVIEW]Claes Entzenberg - 2001 - Mind 110 (438):523-526.
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  15. added 2020-01-07
    Hyperbolic Figures.Mihaela Popa-Wyatt - unknown
    It’s natural for hyperbole to mix with metaphor and irony, and other figures of speech. How do they mix together and what kind of compound, if any, arises out of the mixing? In tackling this question, I shall argue that thinking of hyperbolic figures along the lines familiar from ironic metaphor compounds is a temptation we should resist. Looking in particular at hyperbolic metaphor and hyperbolic irony, I argue, they don’t yield a new encompassing compound figure with one figure building (...)
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  16. added 2019-12-02
    Ricoeurs Theorie der Metapher. Anmerkungen aus analytischer Perspektive.Sebastian Gäb - 2015 - In Peter Welsen & Dominic Harion (eds.), Der lange Weg der Interpretation. Perspektiven auf Paul Ricoeurs hermeneutische Phänomenologie. Regensburg, Deutschland: pp. 87-104.
    Presents Ricoeurs theory of metaphor as an attempt to give a conceptual analysis of metaphor and discusses various criticisms.
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  17. added 2019-11-10
    Semantic Meaning and Content: The Intractability of Metaphor.Richmond Kwesi - forthcoming - Studia Semiotyczne.
    Davidson argues that metaphorical sentences express no propositional contents other than the explicit literal contents they express. He offers a causal account, on the one hand, as an explanation of the supposed additional content of a metaphor in terms of the effects metaphors have on hearers, and on the other hand, as a reason for the non-propositional nature of the ‘something more’ that a metaphor is alleged to mean. Davidson’s account is meant to restrict the semantic notions of meaning, content, (...)
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  18. added 2019-11-09
    Davidson’s Phenomenological Argument Against the Cognitive Claims of Metaphor.Richmond Kwesi - 2019 - Axiomathes 30:1-24.
    In this paper, I take a critical look at the Davidsonian argument that metaphorical sentences do not express propositions because of the phenomenological experience—seeing one thing as another thing—involved in understanding them as metaphors. According to Davidson, seeing-as is not seeing-that. This verdict is aimed at dislodging metaphor from the position of being assessed with the semantic notions of propositions, meaning, and truth. I will argue that the phenomenological or perceptual experience associated with metaphors does not determine the propositional contentfulness (...)
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  19. added 2019-10-23
    Assertion and its Social Significance: An Introduction.Bianca Cepollaro, Paolo Labinaz & Neri Marsili - 2019 - Rivista Italiana di Filosofia del Linguaggio 13 (1):1-18.
    This paper offers a brief survey of the philosophical literature on assertion, presenting each contribution to the RIFL special issue "Assertion and its social significance" within the context of the contemporary debate in which it intervenes. The discussion is organised into three thematic sections. The first one concerns the nature of assertion and its relation with assertoric commitment – the distinctive responsibility that the speaker undertakes in virtue of making a statement. The second section considers the epistemic significance of assertion, (...)
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  20. added 2019-09-25
    «Тяжко його було переїхати і стрілити у ворота». Жаргонізми в українській футбольній лексиці першої половини хх століття.Iryna Protsyk - 2018 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 4:95-110.
    Предметом розгляду в статті є жаргонізми, що функціювали в українському футбольному дискурсі першої половини ХХ ст. Проаналізовано семантику жаргонних лексичних одиниць та покласифіковано їх на групи за тематичним принципом. Детально зосереджено увагу на з’ясуванні особливостей жаргонізмів із тематичної групи назв футбольних дій та процесів, зокрема описано їхнє походження та способи їхнього творення.
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  21. added 2019-09-14
    Andrés Bello as a Prefiguration of Richard Rorty.Sergio A. Gallegos - 2019 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 55 (2):161-174.
    The present paper argues that the Venezuelan-Chilean philosopher Andrés Bello constitutes an important but heretofore neglected prefiguration of Richard Rorty. I argue for this thesis by articulating first an Inter-American philosophical narrative (based on previous work by Alex Stehn and Carlos Sanchez) that enables me to highlight certain common characteristics in philosophical projects that flourished across the Americas. Having done this, I show that Rorty’s anti-representationalism and anti-foundationalism are prefigured in Bello’s most important philosophical treatise, Filosofía del Entendimiento, to the (...)
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  22. added 2019-09-09
    Meaning Transfer Revisited.David Liebesman & Ofra Magidor - 2018 - Philosophical Perspectives 32 (1):254-297.
  23. added 2019-09-08
    Remarks on Scientific Metaphors.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 1988 - In Maria Luisa Dalla Chiara & Maria Clara Galavotti (eds.), Temi e prospettive della Logica e Filosofia della Scienza. Volume 2. Bologna, Italy: CLUEB. pp. 114-116.
    Recent contributions by Kuhn, Wartofsky, and Granger, converge in the direction of an extended view of models, one that acknowledges a metaphorical dimension in the language of science. Such a view is in some respects the opposite of the views of both Bachelard and the Logical Empiricists. A number of familiar puzzles of the philosophy of science, such as the problem of reference, the opposition of realism and instrumentalism, that between explanation and understanding, and the status of scientific objectivity, may (...)
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  24. added 2019-08-26
    Language, Meaning, and Use in Indian Philosophy: An Introduction to Mukula's “Fundamentals of the Communicative Function”.Malcolm Keating - 2019 - New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
    This introduction brings to life the main themes in Indian philosophy of language by using an accessible translation of an Indian classical text to provide an entry into the world of Indian linguistic theories. -/- Malcolm Keating draws on Mukula's Fundamentals of the Communicative Function to show the ability of language to convey a wide range of meanings and introduce ideas about testimony, pragmatics, and religious implications. Along with a complete translation of this foundational text, Keating also provides: - Clear (...)
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  25. added 2019-07-05
    Was heißt es, dass eine Metapher absolut ist? Metaphern als Indizien.Andreas Kaminski - 2014 - In Alexander Friedrich, Petra Gehring & Andreas Kaminski (eds.), Journal Phänomenologie. Schwerpunkt: Metaphern als strenge Wissenschaft.
    Blumenbergs Paradigmen zu einer Metaphorologie sind bekannt für die Entdeckung absoluter Metaphern. Zahlreiche systematische Fragen mögen dabei offen geblieben sein, etwa die nach verschiedenen Typen1 von Metaphern oder den Methoden ihrer Interpretation, so dass schon bezweifelt wurde, ob es sich überhaupt um eine Metapherntheorie handle.2 Immerhin: Dass es absolute Metaphern gibt, was diese sind und woran sie erkannt werden können, wird von Blumenberg in großer Prägnanz und anhand zahlreicher Beispiele dargestellt. Wenn es eine unangetastete Gewissheit in der Blumenbergrezeption gibt, so (...)
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  26. added 2019-06-14
    Kurt Feyaerts , The Bible Through Metaphor and Translation. A Cognitive Semantic Perspective.Frank Polak - 2005 - Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (2):430-433.
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  27. added 2019-06-10
    Metaphors We Live By.David E. Cooper - 1984 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 18:43-58.
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  28. added 2019-06-06
    An Irenic Idea About Metaphor: William G. Lycan.William G. Lycan - 2013 - Philosophy 88 (1):5-32.
    Donald Davidson notoriously rejected ‘metaphorical meaning’ and denied the existence of linguistic mechanisms by which metaphorical significance is conveyed. He contended that the meanings metaphorical sentences have are just their literal meanings, though metaphorical utterances may brute-causally have important cognitive effects. Contrastingly, John Searle offers a Gricean account of metaphor as an elaborated kind of implicature, and defends metaphorical meaning as speaker-meaning. Each of those positions is subject to very telling objections from the other's point of view. This paper proposes (...)
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  29. added 2019-06-06
    Metaphor and Criticism BSA Prize Essay, 2010: Articles.James Grant - 2011 - British Journal of Aesthetics 51 (3):237-257.
    The prevalence of colourful metaphors and figurative language in critics’ descriptions of artworks has long attracted attention. Talk of ‘liquid melodies’, ‘purple prose’, ‘soaring arches’, and the use of still more elaborate figurative descriptions, is not uncommon. My aim in this paper is to explain why metaphor is so prevalent in critical description. Many have taken the prevalence of art-critical metaphors to reveal something important about aesthetic experience and aesthetic properties. My focus is different. I attempt to determine what metaphor (...)
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  30. added 2019-06-06
    Why Irony Sometimes Comes to Mind: Paradoxical Effects of Thought Suppression.Raymond W. Gibbs - 2007 - Radical Philosophy Review of Books 15 (2):229-251.
    Research on the pragmatics of irony focuses on verbal irony use or on people's ironic conceptualizations of external events. But people sometimes experience irony within themselves whenever conscious attempts to accomplish something lead to completely contrary results. These situations sometimes seem ironic and evoke strong emotional reactions precisely because people understand the incompatibility between what is desired and what has occurred, enough so that the idea of irony may pop into consciousness. Psychological research now reveals that the difficulty in suppressing (...)
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  31. added 2019-06-06
    Suppression in Metaphor Interpretation: Differences Between Meaning Selection and Meaning Construction: Articles.Paula Rubio Fernández - 2007 - Journal of Semantics 24 (4):345-371.
    Various accounts of metaphor interpretation propose that it involves constructing an ad hoc concept on the basis of the concept encoded by the metaphor vehicle. This paper discusses some of the differences between these theories and investigates their main empirical prediction: that metaphor interpretation involves enhancing properties of the metaphor vehicle that are relevant for interpretation, while suppressing those that are irrelevant. This hypothesis was tested in a cross-modal lexical priming study adapted from early studies on lexical ambiguity. The different (...)
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  32. added 2019-06-06
    Metaphors: A Constructivist Approach.Ana Pasztor - 2004 - Pragmatics and Cognition 12 (2):317-350.
    The purpose of this paper is to contextualize the study of metaphors within constructivist-informed research, in the hope that this process will orient cognitive scientists to the usefulness of implementing qualitative research methodologies, especially to using the person of the researcher as the primary research instrument. First, I explore some of the differences between Johnson and Lakoff's Contemporary Metaphor Theory and approaches evolving from it on one hand, and the clinical approach to metaphor based on a constructivist therapy model, on (...)
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  33. added 2019-06-06
    Metaphorical “Networks” and Verbal Communication: A Semiotic Perspective of Human Discourse.Marcel Danesi - 2003 - Sign Systems Studies 31 (2):341-363.
    This paper presents the notion that verbal discourse is structured, in form and contents, by metaphorical reasoning. It discusses the concept of “metaphorical network” as a framework for relating the parts of a speech act to each other, since such an act seems to cohere into a meaningful text on the basis of “domains” that deliver common concepts. The basic finding of several research projects on this concept suggest that source domains allow speakers to derive sense from a verbal interaction (...)
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  34. added 2019-06-06
    Gender and Hans Blumenberg’s Theory of Myth.Vida Pavesich - 2000 - International Studies in Philosophy 32 (4):83-105.
  35. added 2019-06-06
    The Tension Between Aristotle's Theories and Uses of Metaphor.Alfredo Marcos - 1997 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 28 (1):123-139.
  36. added 2019-06-06
    XI—Metaphor and the Understanding of Art.Berys Gaut - 1997 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 97 (3):223-241.
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  37. added 2019-06-06
    Marcel Danesi. "Vico, Metaphor, and the Origin of Language". [REVIEW]Frank Nuessel - 1994 - New Vico Studies 12:106.
  38. added 2019-06-06
    Language Recreated: Seventeenth-Century Metaphorists and the Act of Metaphor. [REVIEW]David J. De Leonardis - 1993 - Review of Metaphysics 46 (3):643-644.
    Skulsky examines how figurative language acts in seventeenth-century English poetry. Though a working knowledge of these poets would be helpful to the reader, particularly with respect to the work of John Donne, George Herbert, and Henry Vaughan, it is not absolutely necessary. Furthermore, though Skulsky's book may be of primary interest to the student of poetry, much of what he says in respect to the way in which language operates will be of concern to the philosopher.
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  39. added 2019-06-06
    Metaphor and Prop Oriented Make‐Believe.Kendall L. Walton - 1993 - European Journal of Philosophy 1 (1):39-57.
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  40. added 2019-06-06
    Metaphor: Its Cognitive Force and Linguistic Structure. [REVIEW]Merrie Bergman - 1991 - Philosophical Review 100 (1):112-115.
    Merrie Bergmann Philosophical Review 100 :112-115Taking into account pragmatic considerations and recent linguistic and psychological studies, the author forges a new understanding of the relation between metaphoric and literal meaning. The argument is illustrated with analysis of metaphors from literature, philosophy, science, and everyday language.
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  41. added 2019-06-06
    Seeing Metaphor as Seeing‐As: Remarks on Davidson's Positive View of Metaphor.Lynne Tirrell - 1991 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (2):143-154.
    Davidson suggests that metaphor is a pragmatic (not a semantic) phenomenon; on his view, metaphor is a perlocutionary effect prompts its audience to see one thing as another. Davidson rightly attacks speaker-intentionalism as the source of metaphorical meaning, but settles for an account that depends on audience intentions. A better approach would undermine intentionalism per se, replacing it with a social practice analysis based on patterns of extending the metaphor. This paper shows why Davidson’s perceptual model fails to stave off (...)
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  42. added 2019-06-06
    Metaphor and the Will to Power.Paul Evans Holbrook Jr - 1988 - International Studies in Philosophy 20 (2):19-28.
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  43. added 2019-06-06
    Analogy, Metaphor and God-Language: Charles Hartshorne.David Tracy - 1985 - Modern Schoolman 62 (4):249-264.
  44. added 2019-06-06
    On Metaphor.Roger A. Shiner - 1982 - Philosophy and Literature 6 (1/2):196.
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  45. added 2019-06-06
    A Study of Metaphor: On the Nature of Metaphorical Expressions, with Special Reference to Their Reference by J. J. Mooij.Avishai Margalit - 1979 - Journal of Philosophy 76 (8):453-457.
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  46. added 2019-06-06
    Rhétorique des mots, rhétorique des idées. À propos du « Traité de l'argumentation » de Ch. Perelman et L. Olbrechts-Tyteca.Guy Bouchard - 1979 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 35 (3):301.
    L'histoire de la rhétorique s'apparente à une peau de chagrin: d'une préoccupation pour les mots et les idées en général, elle a progressivement mis l'accent sur les mots, puis sur les tropes et figures, puis sur la métaphore et la métonymie, puis sur la seule métaphore. Mais l'intérêt pour les mots a refait surface dans des disciplines comme la linguistique et la stylistique. Et l'intérêt pour les idées caractérise l'oeuvre de Ch. Perelman, comme en témoigne, entre autres, son Traité de (...)
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  47. added 2019-06-06
    Metaphor: An Annotated Bibliography and History. [REVIEW]Ernan McMullin - 1975 - New Scholasticism 49 (2):235-235.
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  48. added 2019-06-06
    Analysis of Metaphor in the Light of W. M. Urban’s Theories. [REVIEW]P. M. J. - 1975 - Review of Metaphysics 29 (1):150-151.
    Building on a well-developed philosophy of language, Shibles proposes a theory of metaphor. Whereas one philosophy of language may regard metaphor as an inadequate or fallacious form of reasoning, another may consider it to be the very foundation of language. Shibles’ views lie in the latter direction, and he employs Wilbur Urban’s philosophy of language, presented in his Language and Reality, to develop his theory. Urban’s importance lies in his avoidance of reducing the philosophy of language to symbolic logic and (...)
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  49. added 2019-06-06
    Metaphor.Max Black - 1954 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 55:273.
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  50. added 2019-06-06
    Metaphor.A. M. MacIver - 1940 - Analysis 7 (1):61-67.
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