Metaphor

Edited by Alper Yavuz (University of St. Andrews)
About this topic
Introductions Among philosophy of language textbooks only Lycan 2008 dedicates a chapter to metaphor. Two philosophy of language companions have chapters on metaphor: Moran 1997 and Reimer & Camp 2006. There is also a SEP entry: Hills 2012.
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  1. Metaphor and Reality. [REVIEW]B. A. - 1962 - Review of Metaphysics 16 (1):169-170.
  2. Root Metaphor.S. C. A. - 1982 - Review of Metaphysics 36 (1):162-163.
  3. Metaphor and Non-Metaphor: The Semantics of Adjective Noun Combinations.Jan M. G. Aarts - 1979 - Niemeyer.
  4. Reason, Nature, Metaphor.Andrew Abbott - 2016 - In Susan Neiman, Peter Galison & Wendy Doniger (eds.), What Reason Promises: Essays on Reason, Nature and History. De Gruyter. pp. 215-220.
  5. The JOURNEY Metaphor and Moral Political Cognition.Ahmed Abdel-Raheem - 2016 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 22 (3):373-401.
  6. Earl Mac Cormac's Cognitive Theory of Metaphor.E. M. Adams - 1988 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 26 (1):1-7.
  7. Metaphors and Theories.Josephine Mary Adams - 1977 - Dissertation, Temple University
  8. Battle as Banquet: A Metaphor in SūradāsaBattle as Banquet: A Metaphor in Suradasa.Vidyut Aklujkar - 1991 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 111 (2):353.
  9. Metaphor and Ontology.John Alexander - 1963 - Sophia 2 (3):12-18.
  10. Metaphor and Antimetaphor.Beda Alleman - 1967 - In Stanley Romaine Hopper & David L. Miller (eds.), Interpretation: The Poetry of Meaning. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. pp. 103--123.
  11. Language, Speakers, and Metaphor.James Allman - 1998 - Dissertation, Duke University
    I survey three analyses of metaphor, offered by Goodman, Rorty and Davidson, and find the first two unsatisfactory. To explain metaphor Goodman posits a relation--metaphorical reference--which is at best only an example of the phenomenon to be explained, and which at worst fails to distinguish metaphors from non-metaphors. Rorty's analysis casts metaphor as a linguistic object operating on verbal dispositions, but fails to account for the way in the interpretation of a metaphor depends upon an interpretation of its linguistic meaning. (...)
  12. Irreducible Metaphors in Theology.William P. Alston - 1980 - In Divine Nature and Human Language: Essays in Philosophical Theology. Cornell Up. pp. 17-38.
  13. Metaphor and Religious Language.William P. Alston & Janet Martin Soskice - 1988 - Philosophical Review 97 (4):595.
  14. Mapping English Metaphor Through Time.Wendy Anderson, Ellen Bramwell & Carole Hough (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This volume offers an empirical and diachronic investigation of the foundations and nature of metaphor in English. Metaphor is one of the hot topics in present-day linguistics, with a huge range of research focusing on the systematic connections between different concepts such as heat and anger, sight and understanding, or bodies and landscape. Until recently, the lack of a comprehensive data source made it difficult to obtain an overview of this phenomenon in any language, but this changed with the completion (...)
  15. Whole-for-Part Metonymy, Classification, and Grounding.Alexandra Arapinis - 2015 - Linguistics and Philosophy 38 (1):1-29.
    Since the early 1980s, metonymy has progressively gained central stage in linguistic investigations. The advent of cognitive linguistics marked a new turn in the study of this trope conceived, not as a deviation from semantic conventions, but as a phenomenon rooted in non-language-specific mechanisms of conceptualization of the world. Acknowledging that metonymy is ultimately cognitive in nature, this paper proposes to consider metonymy from its multiple levels of manifestation, integrating cognitive, pragmatic, semantic, but also ontological angles of approach. Taking whole-for-part (...)
  16. Normativity Without Exception: Donald Davidson On Language And Communication.Sonia Arribas - 2007 - Sorites 18:76-97.
    This paper deals with three texts by Donald Davidson's that discuss the issue of linguistic innovation from different epistemological standpoints. I show that Davidson's theory of metaphor undergoes a crucial transformation: from an early stage in which metaphor is viewed as an unintelligible and exceptional element external to language, to a later stage in which it is conceived as intrinsic to language, and thus as potentially understandable. This tracing of Davidson's development leads me to formulate an understanding of the concepts (...)
  17. Silence, Metaphor and the Communication of Religious Meaning Part I.Chris Arthur - 1993 - New Blackfriars 74 (875):457-464.
  18. Silence, Metaphor and the Communication of Religious Meaning Part II.Chris Arthur - 1993 - New Blackfriars 74 (876):486-495.
  19. Lexical Meaning in Context: A Web of Words.Nicholas Asher - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is a book about the meanings of words and how they can combine to form larger meaningful units, as well as how they can fail to combine when the ...
  20. 15 Metaphor in Discourse.Nicholas Asher & Alex Lascarides - 2001 - In Pierrette Bouillon & Federica Busa (eds.), The Language of Word Meaning. Cambridge University Press. pp. 262.
  21. Extending the Scope of Metaphor: An Examination of Definitions Old and New and Their Significance for Education.Elizabeth Ashton - 1997 - Educational Studies 23 (2):195-208.
    This article provides an analysis of theories of metaphor, tracing how far those which have dominated Western thought until the past few decades are reflective of the definitions within which writers from Classical Greece were working. It is shown how, during the Middle Ages and beyond, in particular since the seventeenth century, definitions of metaphor which emphasised ‘literal’ and ‘figurative’ levels of meaning have led to serious misconceptions concerning its nature and function in the attempts of human beings to conceptualise (...)
  22. Metaphor in Context: An Examination of the Significance of Metaphor for Reflection and Communication.Elizabeth Ashton - 1994 - Educational Studies 20 (3):357-366.
    This article shows how metaphor is basic to language structure. It is illustrated with practical examples of how metaphor is found within different social and cultural contexts, irrespective of historical time. Numerous examples are given of how metaphor works in efforts to communicate meaning. From an early age, young children are initiated into the use of metaphor. This appears to be understood intuitively, and examples of words games and riddles are given to show how children become familiar with the symbolic (...)
  23. 'The Rule of Metaphor': A Hermeneutic and Generative Phenomenological Analysis of Metaphor in the Discourse of Integrated Medicine.R. Will Ashton - 2000 - Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
    This dissertation shows how metaphor analysis may be used as an archeological method that takes the speech analyst beyond the surface of talk to disclose the generative density and sedimentation of possible meaning upon which a discourse is constructed. My analysis shows that within the context of the discourse of integrated medicine this method can bring certain semantic properties into view which might otherwise remain obscured or hidden. The method developed here is a critical one, framed in terms of the (...)
  24. The Kindness of God: Metaphor, Gender and Religious Language by Janet Martin Soskice.Margaret Atkins - 2010 - New Blackfriars 91 (1032):209-211.
  25. A Pragmatics of Metaphor: A Micronic Analysis of Metaphor in Conversation.William Arthur Ausmus - 1991 - Dissertation, Washington State University
    Metaphor is a linguistic phenomenon that has been studied primarily in terms of a semantic analysis. I treat metaphor as a pragmatic tool used by interactants in the process of doing figurative work in their conversational interactions. The use of conversational metaphor has consequences for the actions of the participants engaged in doing the routine activity of talk. I examine the relationships between the organization and structure of talk and conversational metaphors. In addition, I discuss the complex relationship between metaphor (...)
  26. Art and Religion as Metaphor.Michael Austin - 1995 - British Journal of Aesthetics 35 (2):145-153.
  27. Black & Davidson on Metaphor.Emily Ayoob - unknown
    Most theories of metaphor look at what occurs inside a metaphorical phrase and posit a shift in meaning in the metaphorical words. This includes the classic “Models and Metaphor,” by Max Black, who distinguishes between the literal words of the phrase and the metaphorical words. On this view, the two interact in such a way that the meanings of the metaphorical words change. In another view, Donald Davidson takes a radical stance in his “What Metaphors Mean” to assert that the (...)
  28. Metaphor and Knowledge: The Rhetorical Challenges at a Postmodern Science Think Tank.Kenneth Richard Baake - 2000 - Dissertation, New Mexico State University
    This qualitative research project looks at how rhetoric is used in a science think-tank to formulate knowledge and facilitate interdisciplinary communication. It draws from the author's participant-observer experiences at the Santa Fe Institute since 1997 as a freelance writer, from a series of focused research questions related to rhetoric at the site, and from textual research. The study focuses on metaphor, which is the rhetorical trope that the SFI scientists identified as being of prime importance to their discourse. The central (...)
  29. Metaphors & Morality.N. Bagchi - 2002 - Indian Philosophical Quarterly 29 (2/3):229-236.
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  30. Metaphors and Morality.Nandita Bagchi - 2002 - Indian Philosophical Quarterly 29 (2-3):229.
  31. Review: Making Truth: Metaphor in Science. [REVIEW]Daniela Bailer-Jones - 2004 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (4):811-815.
  32. The Nature of Shamanism: Substance and Function of a Religious Metaphor:The Nature of Shamanism: Substance and Function of a Religious Metaphor.John R. Baker - 1996 - Anthropology of Consciousness 7 (2):28-30.
  33. The Nature of Shamanism: Substance and Function of a Religious Metaphor.John R. Baker - 1996 - Anthropology of Consciousness 7 (2):28-30.
  34. Metaphysics and Metaphor.Edward G. Ballard - 1948 - Journal of Philosophy 45 (8):208-214.
  35. Filosofii͡a Metafory.G. S. Baranov - 2005 - Kuzbassvuzizdat.
  36. Untangling the Net Metaphor.Peter Barker - 1979 - Philosophy Research Archives 5:182-199.
    The longest remarks in the section of the Tractatus devoted to science introduce the net metaphor in a discussion of Newtonian mechanics. These sections of the Tractatus are generally believed to be inconsistent with the rest of the book. After a brief description of these difficulties and some relevant historical background I suggest a re-interpretation of the net metaphor in terms of contemporary debates about mechanics. This interpretation shows that the account of science in the Tractatus is an application of (...)
  37. Figurative Speech: Pointing a Poisoned Arrow at the Heart of Semantics.Stephen Barker - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-18.
    I argue that figurative speech, and irony in particular, presents a deep challenge to the orthodox view about sentence content. The standard view is that sentence contents are, at their core, propositional contents: truth-conditional contents. Moreover, the only component of a sentence’s content that embeds in compound sentences, like belief reports or conditionals, is the propositional content. I argue that a careful analysis of irony shows this view cannot be maintained. Irony is a purely pragmatic form of content that embeds (...)
  38. Metaphor, Simile, and the Exaggeration of Likeness.John Barnden - 2015 - Metaphor and Symbol 30 (1):41-62.
    This article reveals an overlooked way of interpreting sentences like “The Internet is crack [cocaine]” or “Libraries are supermarkets.” Many existing theories of metaphor could apply here. However, they can instead be interpreted in a likeness-exaggerating way, under which “Libraries are supermarkets” is simply an exaggerated way of saying that libraries are like supermarkets to a very high degree. This interpretation option follows from simple, general considerations about exaggeration and likeness scales. In this way it is preferable to the abbreviated-simile (...)
  39. Consciousness and Common Sense: Metaphors of Mind.John A. Barnden - 1997 - In Sean O. Nuallain, Paul Mc Kevitt & Eoghan Mac Aogain (eds.), Two Sciences of Mind. John Benjamins. pp. 311-340.
  40. The Rule of Metaphor. Multi-Disciplinary Studies of the Creation of Meaning in Language.J. Barnouw - 1979 - Review of Metaphysics 33 (1):200-204.
  41. Metaphor and Religious Language.Patrick Bastable - 1987 - Philosophical Studies 31:454-456.
  42. Metaphorical Senses.Monroe C. Beardsley - 1978 - Noûs 12 (1):3-16.
  43. The Metaphorical Twist.Monroe C. Beardsley - 1962 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 22 (3):293-307.
  44. Metaphor and Constancy of Meaning.Sherrill Jean Begres - 1992 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 43:143-161.
    The prevalent theories of metaphor in the literature, with very few exceptions, involve a conversion of either meaning or reference from the literal meaning or reference of the metaphor to either a corresponding simile or to a metaphorical meaning or reference. In this essay an altemative to the conversion view - i.e., a constancy theory - is offered that requires no such conversions. H.R Grice's notions of conversational maximes and implicatures provide a conceptual framework within which to account for metaphors (...)
  45. Theories of Metaphor.Sherrill Jean Begres - 1986 - Dissertation, Wayne State University
    Metaphor, I argue, is a type of expression that is used to communicate information beyond that communicated by its literal meaning. I argue that the literal meaning of metaphors are essential. I attempt to account for metaphor in such a way as to retain the literal meaning, while also accounting for what is called the "metaphorical meaning" of metaphors. Secondly, I am concerned with the mechanisms in virtue of which we are able to distinguish the metaphorical from the literal. ;Chapter (...)
  46. Prelinguistic Metaphors?Teresa Bejarano - 1999 - Pragmatics and Cognition 7 (2):361-373.
    The gap between the prelinguistic and the linguistic levels cannot be bridged as easily as Lakoff's cognitive linguistics suggests. Lakoff's event structure metaphor is reviewed here. Compared with physical movement, the bringing together of separated elements which occurs in predication would not be metaphorical only because it departs from concrete physical experience, but, more significantly, because it relies on elements artificially separated by means of language. However, if we do not overlook this fundamental leap, the event structure metaphor is a (...)
  47. Prelinguistic Metaphors?Teresa Bejarano - 1999 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 7 (2):361-373.
  48. The Fruitful Metaphor, but a Metaphor, Nonetheless.Marc Belth - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):622.
  49. The Alternative to the Storehouse Metaphor.Aaron Ben-Ze'ev - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):192.
  50. If It is Different Then How Come It is Similar? The Impressions of Sameness and Difference Experienced by Readers of Metaphoric Language.Motti Benari - 2004 - Pragmatics and Cognition 12 (2):351-374.
    In the current study of metaphor it is commonly assumed that during a metaphorical reading both an impression of dissimilarity and an impression of similarity are created in the reader's mind. These separate impressions exist simultaneously and each of them is considered to have linear relations with the metaphor's aptness without either coming at the expense of the other. Thus far this assumption has never received any satisfactory theoretical justification. In this paper I discuss the problem of the simultaneous existence (...)
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