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  1. added 2020-05-22
    Vom Sinn der Metaphysik oder Uber den Unterschied von Ursache und Bedingung.Hermann Krings - 1985 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 92 (1):98-109.
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  2. added 2020-05-19
    Die Entstehung und ursprüngliche Bedeutung des Namens Metaphysik.Hans Reiner - 1954 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 8 (2):210 - 237.
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  3. added 2020-05-19
    Die Bedeutung der Wertung in der Gegensätzlichkelt.K. Miescher - 1952 - Dialectica 6 (3):270-283.
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  4. added 2020-05-11
    OBERHUBER, H. E. -Die Geltungs-Grundlagen Metaphysischer Urteile. [REVIEW]A. C. Ewing - 1929 - Mind 38:116.
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  5. added 2020-05-08
    Personal Identity, Concerns, and Indeterminacy.Matti Eklund - 2004 - The Monist 87 (4):489-511.
    Let the moral question of personal identity be the following: what is the nature of the entities we should focus our prudential concerns and ascriptions of responsibility around? (If indeed we should structure these things around any entities at all.) Let the semantic question of personal identity be the question of what is the nature of the entities that ‘person’ is true of. A naive (in the sense of simple and intuitive) view would have it that the two questions are (...)
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  6. added 2020-04-20
    Escaping the Natural Attitude About Gender.Robin Dembroff - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    Alex Byrne’s article, “Are Women Adult Human Females?”, asks a question that Byrne treats as nearly rhetorical. Byrne’s answer is, ‘clearly, yes’. Moreover, Byrne claims, 'woman' is a biological category that does not admit of any interpretation as (also) a social category. It is important to respond to Byrne’s argument, but mostly because it is paradigmatic of a wider phenomenon. The slogan “women are adult human females” is a political slogan championed by anti-trans activists, appearing on billboards, pamphlets, and anti-trans (...)
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  7. added 2020-04-03
    The Neo-Molinist Square Stands Firm: A Rejoinder to Kirk MacGregor.Elijah Hess - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):391-406.
    In a previous issue of Philosophia Christi, Kirk MacGregor responded to an essay of mine in which I argued for a neo-Molinist account of open theism. The argument demonstrated how, given standard counterfactual semantics, one could derive an “open future square of opposition,” that is, a depiction of the logical relations that hold between future-tense statements from an open theistic standpoint. Conceding the validity of the argument, MacGregor nevertheless sought to deny its soundness by criticizing both its conclusion and the (...)
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  8. added 2020-03-23
    Rejecting the “Implicit Consensus”: A Reply to Jenkins.Rebecca Mason - forthcoming - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy.
    Thought: A Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  9. added 2020-03-21
    La Multiplicidad de los Entes según Tomás de Aquino.Fernando A. Riofrio - 2017 - Sarrebruck, Alemania: Editorial Académica Española, OmniScriptum.
    Multiplicity of Beings according to Saint Thomas Aquinas is a book that aimed to find an explanation of beings' diversity on the grounds of the metaphysical intrinsic principles of beings identified by Aristótle. Are matter and form causes of identity, individuation and diversity of substances? Aquinas answers this question by means of some demonstrations grounded on the very nature of matter and form, in the line of the doctrines contained in book 7 of the Aristotle's Metaphysics.
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  10. added 2020-03-18
    Alexandre Kojève, The Religious Metaphysics of Vladimir Solovyov, Translated by Ilya Merlin and Mikhail Pozdniakov, Palgrave Pivot, 2018. [REVIEW]Frédéric Tremblay - 2020 - Sophia: International Journal of Philosophy and Traditions:1-3.
    This is a review of Alexandre Kojève, The Religious Metaphysics of Vladimir Solovyov, translated by Ilya Merlin and Mikhail Pozdniakov, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018. This slim book is a translation of Kojève’s essay “La métaphysique religieuse de Vladimir Soloviev,” which was first published in two installments in the Revue d’histoire et de philosophie religieuses in 1934. The French text was itself based on Kojève’s doctoral dissertation, Die religiöse Philosophie Wladimir Solowjews, defended in Heidelberg under the direction of Karl Jaspers (...)
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  11. added 2020-03-07
    To Reduce Nothingness Into a Reference by Falsity.Hazhir Roshangar - manuscript
    Assuming the absolute nothingness as the most basic object of thought, I present a way to refer to this object, by reducing it onto a primitive object that supersedes and comes right after the absolute nothingness. The new primitive object that is constructed can be regarded as a formal system that can generate some infinite variety of symbols. [The PDF here is outdated, for a recent draft please contact me.].
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  12. added 2020-01-08
    A Genesis of Speculative Empiricisms: Whitehead and Deleuze Read Hume.Russell J. Duvernoy - 2019 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 57 (4):459-482.
    Deleuze’s “transcendental empiricism” and the “empirical side” of Whitehead’s metaphysics are paradoxical unless placed in the context of their unorthodox readings of empiricism. I explore this context focusing on their engagements with Hume. Both subvert presumptions of a categorical gap between external nature and internal human experience and open possibilities for a speculative empiricism that is non-reductive while still affirming experience as source for philosophical thinking. Deleuze and Whitehead follow Hume in beginning with events of sensation as primary but do (...)
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  13. added 2019-12-22
    Hybrid Identities and Just Being Yourself.Gillian Russell - 2014 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 57 (4):455-465.
    This paper points out a tension between Agustín Rayo's criteria for singulartermhood and his explicit views on the status of Hybrid Identities, that is, identity statements that use singular terms from two different Systems of Representation, such as "7=Julius Caesar" or more suggestively "I am b" where "b" is a singular term referring to my brain. It argues that non-trivial Hybrid Identities are common and important in philosophy and elsewhere, and it suggests a friendly alternative that involves treating Hybrid Identities (...)
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  14. added 2019-12-15
    Grief and Composition as Identity.C. E. Garland - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
    ‘It feels like I have lost a part of myself’ is frequently uttered by those grieving the death of a loved one. Despite the ubiquity of such utterances, and the palpable sense that they express something true, few philosophers have considered what, if anything, accounts for their truth. Here, I develop a suggestion from Donald Baxter according to which Composition as Identity provides us a means to understand the grief utterances literally. In doing so, I identify and develop a version (...)
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  15. added 2019-11-01
    La crítica de Hegel a la tesis fichteana del obstáculo (Anstoß).Hector Ferreiro - 2019 - In Mariano L. Gaudio & María Jimena Solé (eds.), Fichte en el laberinto del idealismo. Buenos Aires: RAGIF Ediciones. pp. 665-696.
    La doctrina del choque (Anstoß), que Fichte desarrolla ante todo en el Fundamento de toda la Doctrina de la Ciencia, pero también en otros escritos de la época de Jena, ha sido desde antaño objeto de crítica tanto por los admiradores como por los detractores de la filosofía fichteana. Existen al menos dos modos específicamente diferentes y aparentemente contrapuestos de comprender su sentido: según una lectura, el choque sería una autoafección del propio Yo; según otra, un residuo realista, en última (...)
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  16. added 2019-09-30
    Contra Tooley: Divine Foreknowledge is Possible.Elijah Hess - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (2):165-172.
    Michael Tooley’s latest argument against the possibility of divine foreknowledge trades on the idea that, whichever theory of time is true, the ontology of the future—or lack thereof—gives rise to special problems for God’s prescience. I argue that Tooley’s reasoning is predicated on two mischaracterizations and conclude that, on at least some theories of time, the possibility of divine foreknowledge appears secure.
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  17. added 2019-09-27
    Computer Science and Metaphysics: A Cross-Fertilization.Edward N. Zalta, Christoph Benzmüller & Daniel Kirchner - 2019 - Open Philosophy 2 (1):230-251.
    Computational philosophy is the use of mechanized computational techniques to unearth philosophical insights that are either difficult or impossible to find using traditional philosophical methods. Computational metaphysics is computational philosophy with a focus on metaphysics. In this paper, we develop results in modal metaphysics whose discovery was computer assisted, and conclude that these results work not only to the obvious benefit of philosophy but also, less obviously, to the benefit of computer science, since the new computational techniques that led to (...)
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  18. added 2019-09-26
    Reasons and Two Kinds of Fact.Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen & Rysiek Sliwinski - 2011 - Neither/nor-Philosophical Papers Dedicated to Erik Carlson on the Occasion of His Fiftieth Birthday 58:243 - 257.
    The much endorsed idea that reasons are facts, gives raise to several issues, not least when it is applied to the distinction between agent-neutral and agent-relative reasons. The paper distinguish in broad terms between two important views on the nature of facts. Given in particular a view that conceives of facts as abstract entities, the dichotomy is not particularly problematic. We might run into problems when it comes to identifying which facts are reasons and which are not, but the very (...)
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  19. added 2019-09-10
    Existential Inertia.Paul R. Audi - 2019 - Philosophic Exchange 48 (1):1-26.
    To all appearances, the basic building blocks of reality tend to keep existing unless something intervenes to destroy them. In other words, basic things seem to have existential inertia. But why might this be? This paper considers a number of arguments for and against existential inertia. It discusses arguments inspired by Aquinas, Descartes, and Spinoza, as well as considerations deriving from Occam’s Razor, entropy, and certain views about the nature of time and change.
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  20. added 2019-09-07
    History of Substance in Philosophy.Bassey Samuel Akpan & Charles Clement Odohoedi - 2016 - History of Substance in Philosophy 5:254-270.
    A lot of words investigated by philosophers get their inception for conventional or extra-philosophical dialect. Yet the idea of substance is basically a philosophical term of art. Its employments in normal dialect tend to derive, often in a twisted way, different from its philosophical usage. Despite this, the idea of substance differs from philosophers, reliant upon the school of thought in which it is been expressed. There is an ordinary concept in play when philosophers discuss “substance”, and this is seen (...)
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  21. added 2019-09-02
    The Bloomsbury Companion to Bertrand Russell.Russell Wahl (ed.) - 2018 - New York, USA: Bloomsbury.
    A founder of modern analytic philosophy and one of the most important logicians of the twentieth century, Bertrand Russell has influenced generations of philosophers. The Bloomsbury Companion to Bertrand Russell explores this influence in detail and responds to renewed interest in Russell's philosophical approach, presenting the best guide to research in Russell studies today. -/- Bringing new insights into Russell's relationship with his contemporaries, a team of experts explore his life-long battles with important philosophical issues. They consider how he influenced (...)
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  22. added 2019-08-23
    The Explanatory Link Account of Normality.Andrew Lavin - forthcoming - Philosophy.
    Few have given an extended treatment of the non-statistical sense of normality: a sense captured in sentences like “dogs have four legs,” or “hammers normally have metal heads,” or “it is normal for badgers to take dust baths.” The most direct extant treatment is Bernhard Nickel’s Between Logic and the World, where he claims that the normal or characteristic for a kind is what we can explain by appeal to the right sorts of explanations. Just which explanatory strategies can ground (...)
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  23. added 2019-08-13
    Wittgenstein's Ways.Nikolay Milkov - 2020 - In Shyam Wuppuluri and Newton da Costa (ed.), Wittgensteinian (adj.) Looking at the World from the Viewpoint of Wittgenstein's Philosophy. Berlin: Springer Verlag. pp. 7-19.
    Aristotle first investigated different modes, or ways of being. Unfortunately, in the modern literature the discussion of this concept has been largely neglected. Only recently, the interest towards the concept of ways increased. Usually, it is explored in connection with the existence of universals and particulars. The approach we are going to follow in this chapter is different. It discusses Wittgenstein’s conception of higher ontological levels as ways of arranging elements of lower ontological levels. In the Tractatus, Wittgenstein developed his (...)
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  24. added 2019-07-19
    Nietzsche's Will to Power as Naturalist Critical Ontology.Donovan Miyasaki - 2013 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 30 (3):251-69.
    In this paper, I argue that Nietzsche’s published works contain a substantial, although implicit, argument for the will to power as ontology—a critical and descriptive, rather than positive and explanatory, theory of reality. Further, I suggest this ontology is entirely consistent with a naturalist methodology. The will to power ontology follows directly from Nietzsche’s naturalist rejection of three metaphysical presuppositions: substance, efficient causality, and final causality. I show that a number of interpretations, including those of Clark, Schacht, Reginster, and Richardson, (...)
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  25. added 2019-07-02
    Alvin Plantinga.Michele Paolini Paoletti - 2019 - Aphex 2019.
    Alvin Plantinga è uno dei più importanti metafisici e filosofi della religione viventi. In questo profilo, dopo aver brevemente narrato la sua formazione intellettuale, considererò alcuni aspetti del suo pensiero: la teoria di Plantinga dei mondi possibili; la sua teoria della garanzia epistemica delle credenze, fondata sul concetto di funzione propria; la versione di Plantinga dell’argomento ontologico per provare l’esistenza di Dio; la sua critica dell’argomento del male per provare l'inesistenza di Dio; l’argomento di Plantinga contro il naturalismo.
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  26. added 2019-06-07
    Zur Metaphysik der Erkenntnis. Zu Nicolai Hartmanns „Grundzüge einer Metaphysik der Erkenntnis“. 2. Aufl. Berlin, de Gruyter 1925. XV u. 551 S. [REVIEW]Hinrich Knittermeyer - 1925 - Kant-Studien 30 (1-2):495-514.
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  27. added 2019-06-06
    Metaphysical Rationalism.Martin Lin - 2019 - In Charles Ramond & Jack Stetter (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy. London, UK: pp. 121-143.
    Material from this paper appears in Chap. 7 of my book Reason and Being, but there is also stuff here that isn't in the book. In particular, it discusses the claims that, for Spinoza, conceiving implies explaining and that existence is identical to or reducible to conceivability. So, if you're interested in those issues, this paper might be worth a read.
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  28. added 2019-06-06
    What is Mathematics?S. M. Antakov - 2015 - Liberal Arts in Russiaроссийский Гуманитарный Журналrossijskij Gumanitarnyj Žurnalrossijskij Gumanitaryj Zhurnalrossiiskii Gumanitarnyi Zhurnal 4 (5):358.
    This article does not give the answer to the title question, but is only limited to studying the possibility of giving it. In particular, the author defends that it is legitimate to pose the fundamental question of the philosophy of mathematics and offers several criteria for such a question. As a first approach we propose the question which is incorrect and requires rectification, but is understandable: ‘What is Mathematics?‘. We consider three groups of strategies of responding to it: 1) the (...)
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  29. added 2019-06-06
    Oxford Studies in Metaphysics: Vol. 5.Graeme A. Forbes - 2010 - Analysis 70 (3):571-577.
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  30. added 2019-06-06
    The Metaphysics of Everyday Life: An Essay in Practical Realism – Lynne Rudder Baker.Jens Johansson - 2009 - Philosophical Quarterly 59 (235):365-368.
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  31. added 2019-06-06
    Getting Substance to Go All the Way: Norris Clarke’s Neo-Thomism and the Process Turn.Brian Henning - 2004 - Modern Schoolman 81 (3):215-225.
    Perhaps more than any other aspect of his thought, Alfred North Whitehead’s rejection of the notion of “independent existence” or substance has been taken to define his philosophy of organism. Moreover, it is this rejection of substances which has been the source of some of the most significant objections to Whitehead’s thought. Many commentators often indicate sympathy with Whitehead’s project but ask, if the world is composed exclusively of microscopic events which neither endure nor have histories, then how can Whitehead (...)
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  32. added 2019-05-24
    Leibniz’s Theory of Universal Expression Explicated.Ari Maunu - 2008 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 38 (2):247-267.
    According Leibniz's thesis of universal expression, each substance expresses the whole world, i.e. all other substances, or, as Leibniz frequently states, from any given complete individual notion (which includes, in internal terms, everything truly attributable to a substance) one can "deduce" or "infer" all truths about the whole world. On the other hand, in Leibniz's view each (created) substance is internally individuated, self-sufficient and independent of other (created) substances. What may be called Leibniz's expression problem is, how to reconcile these (...)
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  33. added 2019-05-24
    Extrinsic Denominations and Universal Expression in Leibniz.Ari Maunu - 2004 - Dialogue 43 (1):83-97.
    The paper discusses Leibniz's theory of denominations, expression, and individual notions, the central claim being that the key to many of Leibniz's fundamental theses is to consider his argument, starting from his predicate-in-subject account of truth (that in a true statement the notion of the predicate is contained in that of the subject), against purely extrinsic denominations: this argument shows why there is an internal foundation for all denominations, why everything in the world is interconnected, why each substance expresses all (...)
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  34. added 2019-05-14
    Cartesian Holenmerism and Its Discontents: Or, on the "Dislocated" Relationship of Descartes's God to the Material World.Edward Slowik - 2019 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 57 (2):235-254.
    This essay examines recent attempts to defend holenmerism, or the ‘whole in every part’ doctrine, as the preferred view of God’s relationship to the material world in the work of Descartes. By focusing on the interrelationship between space, matter, and immaterial entities in Cartesian philosophy, I will demonstrate that the textual evidence not only fails to provide support for the holenmerist revival, but that holenmerism also runs counter to many of Descartes’s concepts regarding space and bodily extension.
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  35. added 2019-05-13
    Design Inferences in an Infinite Universe.Bradley Monton - 2010 - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion 2:208.
    This paper addresses two main questions. How does one determine that something has the features it does as a result of design, as opposed to for example chance? How are inferences to design affected when one makes the assumption that the universe is spatially infinite? I will show that arguments for the existence of God based on the improbable development of life don’t go through under the supposition that the universe is spatially infinite. I will also show that the model (...)
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  36. added 2019-05-13
    How Probable is an Infinite Sequence of Heads? A Reply to Williamson.Ruth Weintraub - 2008 - Analysis 68 (299):247-250.
    It is possible that a fair coin tossed infinitely many times will always land heads. So the probability of such a sequence of outcomes should, intuitively, be positive, albeit miniscule: 0 probability ought to be reserved for impossible events. And, furthermore, since the tosses are independent and the probability of heads (and tails) on a single toss is half, all sequences are equiprobable. But Williamson has adduced an argument that purports to show that our intuitions notwithstanding, the probability of an (...)
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  37. added 2019-05-12
    "Forms of life" as "forms" of life ("Формы жизни" как "формы" жизни).Francois-Igor Pris - 2018 - Философия И Общество 4 (89):28-47.
  38. added 2019-05-04
    Deleuze and Evolutionary Theory.Michael James Bennett & Tano S. Posteraro (eds.) - 2019 - Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Deleuze and Evolutionary Theory gathers together contributions by many of the central theorists in Deleuze studies who have led the way in breaking down the boundaries between philosophical and biological research. They focus on the significance of Deleuze and Guattari’s engagements with evolutionary theory across the full range of their work, from the interpretation of Darwin in Difference and Repetition to the symbiotic alliances of wasp and orchid in A Thousand Plateaus. In this way, they explore the anthropological, social and (...)
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  39. added 2019-04-02
    Natural Name Theory and Linguistic Kinds.J. T. M. Miller - 2019 - Journal of Philosophy 116 (9):494-508.
    The natural name theory, recently discussed by Johnson (2018), is proposed as an explanation of pure quotation where the quoted term(s) refers to a linguistic object such as in the sentence ‘In the above, ‘bank’ is ambiguous’. After outlining the theory, I raise a problem for the natural name theory. I argue that positing a resemblance relation between the name and the linguistic object it names does not allow us to rule out cases where the natural name fails to resemble (...)
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  40. added 2019-03-26
    Leading Article.Pietro Angelo Casati & Mattia Sorgon - 2014 - Rivista Italiana di Filosofia Analitica Junior 5 (2).
    This special issue of RIFAJ is dedicated to Metaphysics. First Philosophy, as Aristotle called it, is certainly the most theoretical enterprise undertaken by our philosophical tradition. Among the huge amount of topics inquired within the last two millennia, this issue aims to provide an outline of this attractive discipline following three different themes.
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  41. added 2019-03-20
    'Yep, I'm Gay': Understanding Agential Identity.Robin Dembroff & Cat Saint-Croix - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6:571-599.
    What’s important about ‘coming out’? Why do we wear business suits or Star Trek pins? Part of the answer, we think, has to do with what we call agential identity. Social metaphysics has given us tools for understanding what it is to be socially positioned as a member of a particular group and what it means to self-identify with a group. But there is little exploration of the general relationship between self-identity and social position. We take up this exploration, developing (...)
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  42. added 2019-03-17
    Sellars and the Stereoscopic Vision of Madhyamaka.Douglas Duckworth - 2019 - In Jay Garfield (ed.), Wilfrid Sellars and Buddhist Philosophy. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 67-79.
    This chapter puts Sellars' project of unifying his two images in conversation with that of understanding how the two truth, the conventional and ultimate truth, are related in Buddhism, and in Madhyamaka in particular.
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  43. added 2019-03-14
    Muss Philosophie nachmetaphysisch sein?Björn Freter - 2016 - Fiph-Journal 28:39.
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  44. added 2019-03-08
    Contingentism in Metaphysics.Kristie Miller - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (11):965-977.
    In a lot of domains in metaphysics the tacit assumption has been that whichever metaphysical principles turn out to be true, these will be necessarily true. Let us call necessitarianism about some domain the thesis that the right metaphysics of that domain is necessary. Necessitarianism has flourished. In the philosophy of maths we find it held that if mathematical objects exist, then they do of necessity. Mathematical Platonists affirm the necessary existence of mathematical objects (see for instance Hale and Wright (...)
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  45. added 2019-03-07
    O Desinteresse.Tito Palmeiro - 1995 - O Que Nos Faz Pensar 9:60-72.
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  46. added 2019-03-06
    The Idea of the World: A Multi-Disciplinary Argument for the Mental Nature of Reality.Bernardo Kastrup - 2019 - Winchester, UK: Iff Books.
    The Idea of the World offers a grounded alternative to the frenzy of unrestrained abstractions and unexamined assumptions in philosophy and science today. This book examines what can be learned about the nature of reality based on conceptual parsimony, straightforward logic and empirical evidence from fields as diverse as physics and neuroscience. It compiles an overarching case for idealism - the notion that reality is essentially mental - from ten original articles the author has previously published in leading academic journals. (...)
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  47. added 2019-03-01
    On the Reality of the Continuum Discussion Note: A Reply to Ormell, ‘Russell's Moment of Candour’, Philosophy: Anne Newstead and James Franklin.Anne Newstead - 2008 - Philosophy 83 (1):117-127.
    In a recent article, Christopher Ormell argues against the traditional mathematical view that the real numbers form an uncountably infinite set. He rejects the conclusion of Cantor’s diagonal argument for the higher, non-denumerable infinity of the real numbers. He does so on the basis that the classical conception of a real number is mys- terious, ineffable, and epistemically suspect. Instead, he urges that mathematics should admit only ‘well-defined’ real numbers as proper objects of study. In practice, this means excluding as (...)
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  48. added 2019-02-15
    A Problem for Christian Materialism.Elliot Jon Knuths - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10 (3):205.
    This piece raises a new challenge for Christian materialist accounts of human persons. Revisiting one of the perennial challenges for Christian materialism, explaining the metaphysical compatibility of resurrection and the life everlasting with materialist metaphysics, I argue that resuscitation phenomena reported in scripture undermine van Inwagen’s and Zimmerman’s attempts to reconcile resurrection and materialism. Although this challenge to Christian materialism is not insurmountable, it provides good reason to reject several of the most serious Christian materialist projects and offers a reason (...)
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  49. added 2019-02-05
    To See a City Come Into Being in Speech: Genus and Analogy in Plato’s Republic.Steven Barmore - 2018 - Studia Gilsoniana 7 (2):159-179.
    An understanding of the philosophical genus contributes to the perfection of the act of the philosophical habit of the human soul because reality is constituted by a multitude of overlapping genera. Because genera are constituted by a multitude of species unequally related to their generic aim, St. Thomas’s teaching on virtual quantity facilitates an understanding of the diversity of being. Analogy is an act of judgment that expresses an unequally proportionate relationship between beings. Like genus, analogy has to do with (...)
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  50. added 2019-02-02
    Philosophy of Money and Finance.Boudewijn De Bruin, Lisa Maria Herzog, Martin O'Neill & Joakim Sandberg - 2018 - In Edward Zalta (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Palo Alto: Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
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