Metaphysics

Edited by Jonathan Schaffer (Rutgers University - New Brunswick)
331 found
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  1. added 2022-05-25
    Mary Astell on Neighborly Love.Timothy Yenter - 2022 - Religions 13 (6).
    In discussing the obligation to love everyone, Mary Astell (1666–1731) recognizes and responds to what I call the theocentric challenge: if humans are required to love God entirely, then they cannot fulfill the second requirement to love their neighbor. In exploring how Astell responds to this challenge, I argue that Astell is an astute metaphysician who does not endorse the metaphysical views she praises. This viewpoint helps us to understand the complicated relationship between her views and those of Descartes, Malebranche, (...)
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  2. added 2022-05-25
    Eternalism as Therapy: Mourning the Death of Michael Besso.Paula Sweeney - 2021 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 102 (3):504-514.
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  3. added 2022-05-24
    Modeling Future Indeterminacy in Possibility Semantics.Fabrizio Cariani - manuscript
    I consider the application of possibility semantics to the modeling of the indeterminacy of the future. I argue that interesting problems arise in connection to the addition of object-language determinacy operator. I show that adding a two-dimensional layer to possibility semantics can help solve these problems.
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  4. added 2022-05-24
    Hoffman's Conscious Realism: A Critical Review.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    Donald Hoffman proposed a bold theory—that objects do not exist independently of us perceiving them and that all that really exists is conscious agents. In this critical review, Leslie Allan examines the three core components of Hoffman's new idealism. He proposes solutions to linguistic absurdities suffered by Hoffman's theory before considering its most serious problems. These include oversimplifications of evolutionary theory, self-refutation, heuristic sterility and dependence on scientific realism.
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  5. added 2022-05-24
    Centred Worlds, Personal Identity and Imagination.Andrea Sauchelli - forthcoming - Wiley: Theoria.
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  6. added 2022-05-24
    Moral Topography of Memory, Time Control and Accumulation of Identity.Piotr Machura - 2022 - Studia Philosophica Wratislaviensia 1 (17):27-44.
    The aim of this paper is to analyze the basis for the moral obligation to remember. As the moral relation to the past is primarily a matter of shared identity, the kind of obligation in question splits into two related issues, namely, that of political, state-oriented and state-organized memory on which the political identity rests and that of memory labour grounded in social identities based in shared, time-extended projects. Drawing upon tensions between these two, I discuss time control and the (...)
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  7. added 2022-05-24
    The Infinite: Third Edition.A. W. Moore - 2018 - Routledge.
    This third edition of The Infinite includes a new part 'Infinity Superseded' which contains two new chapters refining Moore's ideas through a re-examination of the ideas of Spinoza, Hegel, and Nietzsche. Much of this is heavily influenced by the work of Deleuze. There is also a new technical appendix on still unresolved issues about different infinite sizes.
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  8. added 2022-05-23
    Centred Worlds, Personal Identity and Imagination.Andrea Sauchelli - forthcoming - Theoria.
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  9. added 2022-05-23
    Replies to De Rizzo & Schnieder, Tegtmeier and Vallicella.Bo R. Meinertsen - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-11.
    In this piece I respond to commentaries by Julio De Rizzo & Benjamin Schnieder, Erwin Tegtmeier and William Vallicella on my book Metaphysics of States of Affairs (Springer, 2018).
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  10. added 2022-05-23
    The Logical Problem of the Incarnation: A New Solution.Joshua R. Sijuwade - 2022 - Religious Studies:1-21.
    This article aims to provide a new solution to the Logical Problem of the Incarnation by proposing a novel metaphysical reconstrual of the method of reduplicative predication. This reconstrual will be grounded upon the metaphysical thesis of ‘Ontological Pluralism, proposed by Kris McDaniel and Jason Turner, and the notion of an ‘aspect’ proposed by Donald L. M. Baxter. Utilising this thesis and notion will enable the method of reduplicative predication to be further clarified, and the central objection that is often (...)
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  11. added 2022-05-23
    In Defense of Explanation-First Truthmaking.Naoaki Kitamura - 2022 - Asian Journal of Philosophy 1 (1).
    One of the most characteristic cornerstones of Asay’s book, A Theory of Truthmaking, is the defense of what he calls the ontology-first perspective on what the truthmaker project is all about. He distinguishes it from and defends it over what he calls the explanation-first perspective, and he bases his overall theorizing about truthmaking on it. This critical notice aims to counter Asay’s challenges for the explanation-first perspective and reveal its theoretical advantages over its rival. First, I show how to escape (...)
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  12. added 2022-05-23
    Replies to Critics (Replies to Critics Re "Ultimate Meaning: We Don't Have It, We Can't Get It, and We Should Be Very, Very Sad").Rivka Weinberg - 2022 - Journal of Controversial Ideas 2 (2).
    This article responds to the two replies, published in this issue, to my article “Ultimate Meaning: We Don’t Have It, We Can’t Get It, and We Should Be Very, Very Sad,” published in the first issue of this journal. In the first reply, Turp, Hollinshead, and Rowe present an internalist challenge to my account of value, and a relational conception of the self as a challenge to my premise that leading a life includes everything you do and aim at within (...)
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  13. added 2022-05-23
    Contextos Abstractos, Escenas y Poesía.J. Aparicio de Soto - 2015 - ISBN: 978-1-326-51369-6. North Carolina, USA: Lulu Press Incorporated.
    Critical view of images regarding how we usually see, understand, and how we experience, outlining analytical alternatives inviting to investigate philosophically around the socioeconomic ordering, speech, religion, science and democracy, among others. More than laying down each one of the difficulties inherent to every ontological sphere, the book looks at how we usually construct speech and realities to board them.
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  14. added 2022-05-22
    What is the Difference Between Conceptual and Moral Relativism? Rejecting the Nature-Value Contrast, with Help From Joseph Raz.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    I aim to undermine an account of the difference between conceptual and moral relativism according to which conceptual relativism focuses on the description of nature and moral relativism on values. I do so with some help from Joseph Raz.
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  15. added 2022-05-22
    Interpersonal Opposition.Ilexa Yardley - 2022 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
  16. added 2022-05-22
    Discurso Social y Reformulación Identitaria.J. Aparicio de Soto, F. Lain, S. Cornejo & P. Mallegas - 2021 - Revista Pensamiento Académico 4 (1):44-58; DOI: 10.33264/rpa.202101.
    Using semi-structured interviews and an analytic approach based on the grounded theory, this research took on constructing an understanding of the socio-emotional relevance, and the meaning that a group of elder participants of CIAM «Lucía Salas Romo» of Quilicura (Santiago, Chile) ascribe to social discourses regarding aging. Findings showed that, mobilizing the semantic dissonance between what society promotes and the effective opportunities it allows for the elderly, there are two crucial components of the social discourse: social injustice and fear of (...)
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  17. added 2022-05-22
    What the Metaverse has to Do with Physics.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Why the metaverse is taking over technology. And, physics. (And, therefore, philosophy.) It’s all about the meme.
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  18. added 2022-05-22
    Circular Thinking.Ilexa Yardley - 2020 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    Circular Thinking is essential (required) in order to understand ‘reality’ (Nature in general)… including the relationship between mind and matter (abstraction and representation).
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  19. added 2022-05-21
    An Active Externalism About Personality.Federico Burdman - manuscript
    People display recognizably characteristic behavioral patterns across time and situations, with a given degree of regularity, and these patterns may justify the attribution of personality traits. It is arguably the common-sense view that the proper explanation of these behavioral regularities is given by intrinsic properties of the agent’s psychology. In this paper, however, I argue for an externalistic view of the causal basis of personality-characteristic behaviors. According to the externalistic view, the relevant behavioral regularities are better understood as the result (...)
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  20. added 2022-05-21
    Hegel and Wittgenstein on Difficulties of Beginning at the Beginning.Jakub Mácha - forthcoming - Topoi:1-15.
    Both Hegel and the later Wittgenstein were concerned with the problem of how to begin speculation, or the problem of beginning. I argue that despite many differences, there are surprising similarities between their thinking about the beginning. They both consider different kinds of beginnings and combine them into complex analogies. The beginning has a subjective and an objective moment. The philosophizing subject has to begin with something, with an object. For Hegel, the objective moment is pure being. For Wittgenstein, the (...)
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  21. added 2022-05-21
    Centred Worlds, Personal Identity and Imagination.Andrea Sauchelli - forthcoming - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 1.
    The Centred View offers an account of the connection between imagination and possibility that combines the centred world framework with some allegedly appealing intuitions regarding our persistence over time. In particular, Dilip Ninan suggests that the Centred View has the theoretical advantage of respecting our intuitions about cases of personal identity in certain imaginative scenarios while also being compatible with physicalism. Unfortunately, the Centred View faces a series of serious objections and should ultimately be rejected.
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  22. added 2022-05-21
    Brutalist fundamentalism: radical and moderate.Joaquim Giannotti - 2022 - Synthese 200 (3):1-19.
    In contemporary metaphysics, the doctrine that the fundamental facts are those which are wholly ungrounded is the received view or something near enough. Against this radical brutalism, several metaphysicians argued in favour of the existence of fundamental facts that are moderately brute or merely partially grounded. However, the arguments for moderately brute facts rely on controversial metaphysical scenarios. This paper aims to counteract the tendency in favour of radical brutalism on scientific grounds. It does so by showing that naturalistic metaphysicians (...)
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  23. added 2022-05-20
    Pitagorejczycy, albo pochwała metafizyki.Jerzy Gołosz - 2021 - Filozofia i Nauka 1 (9):251-276.
    This paper attempts to demonstrate that the conviction about the harmony and order of the world was a fundamental metaphysical principle of the Pythagoreans. This harmony and order were primarily sought in the structures of arithmetics, yet following the discovery of incommensurable magnitudes (irrational numbers, as we now call them), the Pythagoreans began to see geometrical structure as a fundamental part of the world. On the example of the Pythagoreans’ metaphysics and science, the paper shows the mutual relations between metaphysics (...)
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  24. added 2022-05-19
    Memetics.Ilexa Yardley - 2022 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Meme means ‘copy.’ Bio means ‘two.’ Biomemetics is (the study of) (the belief that) the tokenization of reality is a (continual) (and perpetual) copy of the number ‘two.’ Explaining, fundamentality, universals, abstraction, representation, tokenization, the 'self' in any discipline. Identity, Complementarity, Reality.
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  25. added 2022-05-19
    Choosing for Changing Selves. [REVIEW]L. A. Paul - 2022 - Philosophical Review 131 (2):230-235.
    Review of Richard Pettigrew, Choosing for Changing Selves.
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  26. added 2022-05-19
    Does Everything Resemble Everything Else to the Same Degree?Ben Blumson - 2022 - Asian Journal of Philosophy 1 (1).
    According to Satosi Watanabe’s “theorem of the ugly duckling”, the number of predicates satisfied by any two different particulars is a constant, which does not depend on the choice of the two particulars. If the number of predicates satisfied by two particulars is their number of properties in common, and the degree of resemblance between two particulars is a function of their number of properties in common, then it follows that the degree of resemblance between any two different particulars is (...)
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  27. added 2022-05-18
    God Under All: Divine Simplicity, Omni-Parthood, and the Problem of Principality in Islamic Philosophy (Online First).Joshua Kelleher - forthcoming - Essays in Philosophy.
    In this paper, I defend an unconventional mereological framework involving the doctrine of divine simplicity, to surmount a significant yet neglected dilemma resulting from that long-standing view of God as absolutely, and uniquely, simple. This framework establishes God as literally a part of everything—an “omni-part.” Although consequential for the many prominent religious traditions featuring divine simplicity, my analysis focuses on potential implications for an important formative issue in medieval Islamic philosophy. This problem of principality, with regards to metaphysical primacy and (...)
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  28. added 2022-05-18
    How to Get Out of the Labyrinth of Time? Lessons Drawn From Callender.Jerzy Gołosz - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1-24.
    Callender [2017] claims that contemporary science demonstrates that there is no objective present and no objective flow of time, especially since all sensed events come from the past, our various senses need different amounts of time to react, and there are enough asymmetries in the physical world to explain our experience of time. This paper holds that, although Callender’s arguments for the subjectivity of the flow of time are unconvincing, the scientific discoveries and arguments he indicates can still be applied (...)
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  29. added 2022-05-18
    IN DEFENCE OF A DYNAMIC VIEW OF REALITY.Jerzy Gołosz - 2022 - Kraków: Jagiellonian University Press.
    This collection of papers consists of mostly previously published articles which develop a scientific research program designed to defend a dynamic view of reality, which is founded on the assumption of the existence of the flow of time. The vindication makes use of a metaphysical theory of the flow of time developed by the author which is based on the notion of dynamic existence. In this book, the author analyzes different aspects of the problem of the flow of time and (...)
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  30. added 2022-05-18
    Ṣadrā on Metaphysical Essentialism.Kamal Shlbei - 2021 - Journal of Islamic Philosophy 12:45-74.
  31. added 2022-05-18
    Book Review: The Sense of Antirationalism: The Religious Thought of Zhuangzi and Kierkegaard. [REVIEW]Robert Allinson - 2003 - Journal of Religion 83:477-479.
    This book is co-written in a lively, engaging form by Karen Carr, from the discipline of religious studies and Philip Ivanhoe, whose background is in the disciplines of religious studies and Asian languages and philosophy. Unlike typical co-authorship, these two authors write separate pieces about Zhuangzi and Soren Kierkegaard and then together offer a combined vision. Refreshingly, the emphasis is on contrast of exemplars of two different and irreconcilable ways instead of comparison between similar thinkers. The two authors are to (...)
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  32. added 2022-05-17
    Absence and Abnormality.Bram Vaassen - forthcoming - Analysis.
    Absences pose a dilemma for theories of causation. Allowing them to be causes seems to make theories too permissive (Lewis, 2000). Banning them from being causes seems to make theories too restrictive (Schaffer, 2000, 2004). An increasingly popular approach to this dilemma is to acknowledge that norms can affect which absences count as causes (e.g., Thomson, 2003; McGrath, 2005; Henne et al., 2017; Willemsen, 2018). In this article, I distinguish between two influential implementations of such ‘abnormality’ approaches and argue that (...)
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  33. added 2022-05-17
    Essentialist Non-Reductivism.Taylor-Grey Miller - forthcoming - Philosophers' Imprint.
    According to many contemporary metaphysicians, we ought to theorize in terms of grounding because of its promise to explicate the idea of reality having a layered structure. However, a tension emerges when one combines the layered structure view with the view that higher-level facts are not reducible to lower-level facts. This tension emerges from two problems. The first problem arises from the fact that grounding explanations entail true universal generalizations. In order to satisfy this constraint, we will face serious pressure (...)
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  34. added 2022-05-17
    Reality in Perspectives.Mahdi Khalili - 2022 - Dissertation, VU University Amsterdam
    This dissertation is about human knowledge of reality. In particular, it argues that scientific knowledge is bounded by historically available instruments and theories; nevertheless, the use of several independent instruments and theories can provide access to the persistent potentialities of reality. The replicability of scientific observations and experiments allows us to obtain explorable evidence of robust entities and properties. The dissertation includes seven chapters. It also studies three cases – namely, Higgs bosons and hypothetical Ϝ-particles (section 2.4), the Ptolemaic and (...)
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  35. added 2022-05-16
    Essentialist Non-Reductivism.Taylor-Grey Miller - forthcoming - Philosophers' Imprint.
    According to many contemporary metaphysicians, we ought to theorize in terms of grounding because of its promise to explicate the idea of reality having a layered structure. However, a tension emerges when one combines the layered structure view with the view that higher-level facts are not reducible to lower level facts. This tension emerges from two problems. The first problem arises from the fact that grounding explanations entail true universal generalizations. In order to satisfy this constraint, we will face serious (...)
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  36. added 2022-05-16
    Modal Metaphysics and the Existence of God.Joshua R. Sijuwade - 2022 - Metaphysica:1-70.
    In this article, I seek to assess the extent to which Theism, the claim that there is a God, can provide a true fundamental explanation for the existence of the infinite plurality of concrete and abstract possible worlds, posited by David K. Lewis and Alvin Plantinga. This assessment will be carried out within the (modified) explanatory framework of Richard Swinburne, which will lead to the conclusion that the existence of God provides a true fundamental explanation for these specific entities. And (...)
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  37. added 2022-05-16
    Thinking About Thought.Ilexa Yardley - 2022 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    A thought is not possible without the conservation of a circle. Thus, the representation of a thought is, also, not possible without (the conservation of) a circle.
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  38. added 2022-05-16
    Materialism: A Historical and Philosophical Inquiry.Robin Gordon Brown & James Ladyman - 2019 - Routledge.
    "The doctrine of materialism is one of the perennial and most controversial ideas in the arts and sciences. Throughout history it has aroused strong passions, and in the Sixteenth and Twentieth centuries was a doctrine over which people were persecuted and killed. Yet it has been equally aligned with empirical, enlightened and tolerant thinking. This book explores the fascinating and important philosophy of materialism in an engaging and thought-provoking way. Opening with an overview of the ideas of some of the (...)
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  39. added 2022-05-15
    Augustine on the Existence of the Past and the Future.David Anzalone - forthcoming - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie.
    In the eleventh book of the Confessiones Augustine puts forward several considerations about the nature of time. The received view is that he held that only the present exists, while the past and the future do not exist. This received view has recently been attacked by Paul Helm and Katherin Rogers, who have offered alternative interpretations according to which Augustine held that the present has no privileged ontological status, and that past, present and future all equally exist. The aim of (...)
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  40. added 2022-05-15
    Dispositional realism without dispositional essences.Matthew Tugby - 2022 - Synthese 200 (3):1-27.
    Dispositional realism, as we shall use the term, is a non-reductive, anti-Humean approach to dispositions which says that natural properties confer certain dispositions as a matter of metaphysical necessity. A strong form of dispositional realism is known as pan-dispositionalism, which is typically interpreted as the view that all natural properties are identical with, or essentially dependent on, dispositions. One of the most serious problems facing pan-dispositionalism is the conceivability objection, and the solution commonly offered by essentialists employs the so-called redescription (...)
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  41. added 2022-05-15
    Mathematics is Ontology? A Critique of Badiou's Ontological Framing of Set Theory.Roland Bolz - 2020 - Filozofski Vestnik 2 (41):119-142.
    This article develops a criticism of Alain Badiou’s assertion that “mathematics is ontology.” I argue that despite appearances to the contrary, Badiou’s case for bringing set theory and ontology together is problematic. To arrive at this judgment, I explore how a case for the identification of mathematics and ontology could work. In short, ontology would have to be characterised to make it evident that set theory can contribute to it fundamentally. This is indeed how Badiou proceeds in Being and Event. (...)
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  42. added 2022-05-13
    Emptying Fine's Paradox with Grounding Pluralism.Zhaohui Wen - manuscript
    [This is a conference paper accepted by “The Luojia Undergraduate Philosophy Conference: Themes and Problems in Analytic Philosophy” (2022) held in School of Philosophy, Wuhan University.] -/- Fine’s Paradox, an insider critique of philosophical grounding, suggests that everything is grounded in its own existence. If it obtained, the project of philosophical grounding would be both ideologically and technically problematic. Given previous attempts targeting either on Fine’s argumentation or logical features of grounding, I will argue for one proposal citing the notion (...)
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  43. added 2022-05-13
    Conventionalising Rebirth: Buddhist Agnosticism and the Doctrine of Two Truths.Bronwyn Finnigan - forthcoming - In Yujin Nagasawa & Mohammad Saleh Zarepour (eds.), Global Dialogues in the Philosophy of Religion: from Religious Experience to the Afterlife. Oxford University Press.
    What should the Buddhist attitude be to rebirth if one accepts that it is inconsistent with current science? This chapter critically engages forms of Buddhist agnosticism that adopt a position of uncertainty about rebirth but nevertheless recommend ‘behaving as if’ it were true. What does it mean to behave as if rebirth were true, and are Buddhist agnostics justified in adopting this position? This chapter engages this question in dialogue with Mark Siderits’ reductionist analysis of the Buddhist doctrine of the (...)
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  44. added 2022-05-13
    Heads, Bodies, Brains, and Selves: Personal Identity and the Ethics of Whole-Body Transplantation.Ana Iltis - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):257-278.
    Plans to attempt what has been called a head transplant, a body transplant, and a head-to-body transplant in human beings raise numerous ethical, social, and legal questions, including the circumstances, if any, under which it would be ethically permissible to attempt whole-body transplantation in human beings, the possible effect of WBT on family relationships, and how families should shape WBT decisions. Our assessment of many of these questions depends partially on how we respond to sometimes centuries-old philosophical thought experiments about (...)
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  45. added 2022-05-13
    Whole-Body/Head Transplantation: Personal Identity, Experimental Surgery, and Bioethics.Mark J. Cherry & Ruiping Fan - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):179-188.
    This issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy brings together an international group of scholars from Hong Kong, Mainland China, and North America, critically to explore whole-body/head transplantation. The proposed procedure raises significant philosophical, ethical, and social/political questions. For example, assuming transplant is successful, who survives the surgery? Does personal identity necessarily follow the head? The contributors to this special thematic issue explore the nature and ground of personal identity, what it would mean to preserve personal identity, given such (...)
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  46. added 2022-05-13
    Can Thought Experiments Solve Problems of Personal Identity?Lukas J. Meier - 2022 - Synthese 200 (3):1-23.
    Good physical experiments conform to the basic methodological standards of experimental design: they are objective, reliable, and valid. But is this also true of thought experiments? Especially problems of personal identity have engendered hypothetical scenarios that are very distant from the actual world. These imagined situations have been conspicuously ineffective at resolving conflicting intuitions and deciding between the different accounts of personal identity. Using prominent examples from the literature, I argue that this is due to many of these thought experiments (...)
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  47. added 2022-05-13
    Analyticity.Tom Donaldson - 2020 - In Michael J. Raven (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Metaphysical Grounding. New York, USA: pp. 288-299.
    I consider the claim that analytic statements are "true in virtue meaning", giving the claim a ground-theoretic interpretation.
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  48. added 2022-05-12
    Criteria of Identity Without Sortals.Justin Mooney - forthcoming - Noûs.
    Many philosophers believe that the criteria of identity over time for ordinary objects entail that such objects are permanent members of certain sortal kinds. The sortal kinds in question have come to be known as substance sortal kinds. But in this article, I defend a criterion of identity that is suited to phasalism, the view that alleged substance sortals are in fact phase sortals. The criterion I defend is a sortal-weighted version of a change-minimizing criterion first discussed by Eli Hirsch. (...)
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  49. added 2022-05-12
    Teleological Essentialism Across Development.Rose David, Sara Jaramillo, Shaun Nichols & Zachary Horne - forthcoming - Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
    Do young children have a teleological conception of the essence of natural kinds? We tested this by examining how the preservation or alteration of an animal’s purpose affected children’s persistence judgments (N = 40, ages 4 - 12, Mean Age = 7.04, 61% female). We found that even when surface-level features of an animal (e.g., a bee) were preserved, if the entity’s purpose changed (e.g., the bee now spins webs), children were more likely to categorize the entity as a member (...)
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  50. added 2022-05-12
    Bias Towards the Future.Kristie Miller, Preston Greene, Andrew J. Latham, James Norton, Christian Tarsney & Hannah Tierney - forthcoming - Philosophy Compass.
    All else being equal, most of us typically prefer to have positive experiences in the future rather than the past and negative experiences in the past rather than the future. Recent empirical evidence tends not only to support the idea that people have these preferences, but further, that people tend to prefer more painful experiences in their past rather than fewer in their future (and mutatis mutandis for pleasant experiences). Are such preferences rationally permissible, or are they, as time-neutralists contend, (...)
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1 — 50 / 331