Metaphysics

Edited by Jonathan Schaffer (Rutgers University - New Brunswick)
144 found
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  1. added 2017-07-21
    Modal Set Theory.Christopher Menzel - forthcoming - In Otávio Bueno & Scott Shalkowski (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Modality. London and New York: Routledge.
  2. added 2017-07-21
    A Jesuit Against Galileo? The Strange Case of Giovanni Battista Riccioli Cosmology.Alfredo Dinis, Álvaro Balsas & Ricardo Barroso (eds.) - 2017 - Braga: Axioma - Publicações da Faculdade de Filosofia.
    This study aims to contribute to the research in the history of science, specifically, in the area of the seventeenth century cosmology, which had in Riccioli, a contemporary of Galileo, an undeniable protagonist. In many histories of science, Giovanni Battista Riccioli (1598-1671) is either omitted or mentioned only briefly in relation to his main cosmological work, the Almagestum Novum (1651), which is generally taken as little more than a source of useful information. When it comes to evaluating Riccioli’s philosophical views (...)
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  3. added 2017-07-21
    Por que os Físicos Acreditam que as Coisas Existem? Breves comentários a Respeito das Relações entre Ciência e Metafísica.Antonio Augusto Passos Videira - 2017 - Braga: Axioma - Publicações da Faculdade de Filosofia.
    O tema central desta monografia é a noção de realidade, tal como esta foi entendida por alguns cientistas naturais da primeira metade do século XX. Os cientistas-filósofos escolhidos são: Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger e Max Born. À guisa de comentário introdutório, devo observar que o tema da realidade não é o único aqui abordado, e que a presente monografia pode ser tomada como uma primeira introdução às ideias e teses filosóficas dos seis cientistas referidos. (...)
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  4. added 2017-07-21
    Epistemic Luck and Logical Necessities: Armchair Luck Revisited.Guido Melchior - 2017 - In Smiljana Gartner Bojan Borstner (ed.), Thought Experiments between Nature and Society. A Festschrift for Nenad Miščević. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 137-150.
    Modal knowledge accounts like sensitivity or safety face a problem when it comes to knowing propositions that are necessarily true because the modal condition is always fulfilled no matter how random the belief forming method is. Pritchard models the anti-luck condition for knowledge in terms of the modal principle safety. Thus, his anti-luck epistemology faces the same problem when it comes to logical necessities. Any belief in a proposition that is necessarily true fulfills the anti-luck condition and, therefore, qualifies as (...)
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  5. added 2017-07-21
    Irreducible Cognitive Phenomenology and the AHA! Experience.John Joseph Dorsch - 2016 - Phenomenology and Mind 10:108-121.
    Elijah Chudnoff’s case for irreducible cognitive phenomenology hinges on seeming to see the truth of a mathematical proposition (Chudnoff 2015). In the following, I develop an augmented version of Chudnoff’s case, not based on seeming to see, or intuition, but based on being in a state with presentational phenomenology of high-level content. In contrast to other cases for cognitive phenomenology, those based on Strawson’s case (Strawson 2011), I argue that the case presented here is able to withstand counterarguments, which attempt (...)
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  6. added 2017-07-20
    One Self Per Customer? From Disunified Agency to Disunified Self.David Lumsden & Joseph Ulatowski - forthcoming - Southern Journal of Philosophy.
    The notion of an agent and the notion of a self are connected, for agency is one role played by the self. Millgram argues for a disunity thesis of agency on the basis of extreme incommensurability across some major life events. We propose a similar negative thesis about the self, that it is composed of relatively independent threads reflecting the different roles and different mind-sets of the person’s life. Our understanding of those threads is based on theories of the narrative (...)
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  7. added 2017-07-18
    Grounding and the Objection From Accidental Generalizations.Brannon McDaniel - 2017 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 6 (2).
    Monistic grounding says that there is one fundamental ground, while pluralistic grounding says that there are many such grounds. Grounding necessitarianism says that grounding entails, but is not reducible to, necessitation, while grounding contingentism says that there are at least some cases where grounding does not entail necessitation. Pluralistic grounding necessitarianism is a very popular position, but accidental generalizations, such as ‘all solid gold spheres are less than one mile in diameter’, pose well-known problems for this view: the many fundamental (...)
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  8. added 2017-07-17
    Francisco Suárez on Eternal Truths, Eternal Essences, and Extrinsic Being.Brian Embry - forthcoming - Ergo, an Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    It is necessarily true that water is H2O, but it is a contingent fact that there is any water at all. Water therefore seems ill suited to ground the necessary truth that water is H2O. One view traditionally attributed to Scotus and Henry of Ghent was that while water is contingent, the essence of water is necessary; hence, the essence of water can ground the so-called eternal truth that water is H2O. Francisco Suárez rejects this view on the grounds that (...)
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  9. added 2017-07-17
    Trope Theories and the Problem of Universals.Markku Keinänen - 2005 - Dissertation, University of Helsinki
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  10. added 2017-07-14
    Absolute Time: The Limit of Kant's Idealism.Marius Stan - forthcoming - Noûs.
    I examine here if Kant can explain our knowledge of duration by showing that time has metric structure. To do so, I spell out two possible solutions: time’s metric could be intrinsic or extrinsic. I argue that Kant’s resources are too weak to secure an intrinsic, transcendentally-based temporal metrics; but he can supply an extrinsic metric, based in a metaphysical fact about matter. I conclude that Transcendental Idealism is incomplete: it cannot account for the durative aspects of experience—or it can (...)
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  11. added 2017-07-13
    Ruyer and Simondon on Technological Inventiveness.Philippe Gagnon - forthcoming - Deleuze Studies 11 (4).
    A summary is provided of Ruyer's important contribution, also a reversal from some conclusions held in his secondary doctoral dissertation, about the limits inherent in technological progress, and an attempt is made to show the coherence of this position to Ruyer's metaphysics. Simondon's response is also presented, and subsequently analyzed especially as it culminates in a concept of concretizations. As Simondon indicated, and with a displacement in Ruyer's limitating framework on unconditional growth, we end up searching for what represents the (...)
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  12. added 2017-07-13
    An Ontological Solution to the Mind-Body Problem.B. Kastrup - 2017 - Philosophies 2 (2):doi:10.3390/philosophies2020010.
    I argue for an idealist ontology consistent with empirical observations, which seeks to explain the facts of nature more parsimoniously than physicalism and bottom-up panpsychism. This ontology also attempts to offer more explanatory power than both physicalism and bottom-up panpsychism, in that it does not fall prey to either the ‘hard problem of consciousness’ or the ‘subject combination problem’, respectively. It can be summarized as follows: spatially unbound consciousness is posited to be nature’s sole ontological primitive. We, as well as (...)
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  13. added 2017-07-13
    On the Plausibility of Idealism: Refuting Criticisms.Bernardo Kastrup - 2017 - Disputatio 9 (44):13-34.
    Several alternatives vie today for recognition as the most plausible ontology, from physicalism to panpsychism. By and large, these ontologies entail that physical structures circumscribe consciousness by bearing phenomenal properties within their physical boundaries. The ontology of idealism, on the other hand, entails that all physical structures are circumscribed by consciousness in that they exist solely as phenomenality in the first place. Unlike the other alternatives, however, idealism is often considered implausible today, particularly by analytic philosophers. A reason for this (...)
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  14. added 2017-07-13
    More Than Allegory: On Religious Myth, Truth and Belief.Bernardo Kastrup - 2016 - Winchester, UK: Iff Books.
    This book is a three-part journey into the rabbit hole we call the nature of reality. Its ultimate destination is a plausible, living validation of transcendence. Each of its three parts is like a turn of a spiral, exploring recurring ideas through the prisms of religious myth, truth and belief, respectively. With each turn, the book seeks to convey a more nuanced and complete understanding of the many facets of transcendence. Part I puts forward the controversial notion that many religious (...)
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  15. added 2017-07-13
    The Idealist View of Consciousness After Death.Bernardo Kastrup - 2016 - Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research 7 (11):900-909.
    To make educated guesses about what happens to consciousness upon bodily death, one has to have some understanding of the relationship between body and consciousness during life. This relationship, of course, reflects an ontology. In this brief essay, the tenability of both the physicalist and dualist ontologies will be assessed in view of recent experimental results in physics. The alternative ontology of idealism will then be discussed, which not only can be reconciled with the available empirical evidence, but also overcomes (...)
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  16. added 2017-07-13
    Brief Peeks Beyond: Critical Essays on Metaphysics, Neuroscience, Free Will, Skepticism and Culture.Bernardo Kastrup - 2015 - Winchester, UK: Iff Books.
    This book is a multi-faceted exploration and critique of the human condition as it is presently manifested. It addresses science and philosophy, explores the underlying nature of reality, the state of our society and culture, the influence of the mainstream media, the nature of free will and a number of other topics. Each of these examinations contributes an angle to an emerging idea gestalt that challenges present mainstream views and behaviors and offers a sane alternative. The book is organized as (...)
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  17. added 2017-07-13
    Why Materialism Is Baloney: How True Skeptics Know There is No Death and Fathom Answers to Life, the Universe, and Everything.Bernardo Kastrup - 2014 - Winchester, UK: Iff Books.
    The present framing of the cultural debate in terms of materialism versus religion has allowed materialism to go unchallenged as the only rationally-viable metaphysics. This book seeks to change this. It uncovers the absurd implications of materialism and then, uniquely, presents a hard-nosed non-materialist metaphysics substantiated by skepticism, hard empirical evidence, and clear logical argumentation. It lays out a coherent framework upon which one can interpret and make sense of every natural phenomenon and physical law, as well as the modalities (...)
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  18. added 2017-07-13
    Concrete Causation: About the Structures of Causal Knowledge.Roland Poellinger - 2012 - Dissertation, LMU Munich
    Concrete Causation centers about theories of causation, their interpretation, and their embedding in metaphysical-ontological questions, as well as the application of such theories in the context of science and decision theory. The dissertation is divided into four chapters, that firstly undertake the historical-systematic localization of central problems (chapter 1) to then give a rendition of the concepts and the formalisms underlying David Lewis' and Judea Pearl's theories (chapter 2). After philosophically motivated conceptual deliberations Pearl's mathematical-technical framework is drawn on for (...)
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  19. added 2017-07-13
    Meaning in Absurdity: What Bizarre Phenomena Can Tell Us About the Nature of Reality.Bernardo Kastrup - 2012 - Winchester, UK: Iff Books.
    This book is an experiment. Inspired by the bizarre and uncanny, it is an attempt to use logic to expose the illogical foundations of logic; an attempt to use science to peek beyond the limits of science; an attempt to use rationality to lift the veil off the irrational. Its ways are unconventional: weaving along its path one finds UFOs and fairies, quantum mechanics, analytic philosophy, history, mathematics, and depth psychology. The enterprise of constructing a coherent story out of these (...)
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  20. added 2017-07-13
    Rationalist Spirituality: An Exploration of the Meaning of Life and Existence Informed by Logic and Science.Bernardo Kastrup - 2011 - Winchester, UK: Iff Books.
    Why does the universe exist and what are you supposed to do in it? This question has been addressed by religions since time immemorial, but popular answers often fail to account for obvious aspects of reality. Indeed, if God knows everything, why do we need to learn through pain and suffering? If God is omnipotent, why are we needed to do good? If the universe is fundamentally good, why are wars, crime, and injustice all around us? In modern society, orthodox (...)
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  21. added 2017-07-13
    Dreamed Up Reality: Diving Into Mind to Uncover the Astonishing Hidden Tale of Nature.Bernardo Kastrup - 2011 - Winchester, UK: Iff Books.
    A strong and growing intuition in society today is the idea that our thoughts create our own reality. Yet it seems obvious that, try as we might, our lives are not quite what we fantasize. Is the intuition thus wrong? Through a rational, methodic interpretation of meditative insights, the validity of which is substantiated with a compelling scientific literature review, the author constructs hypotheses that reconcile facts with intuition. Mesmerizing narratives of his expeditions into the unconscious suggest an amazing possibility: (...)
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  22. added 2017-07-11
    Backwards Causation and the Chancy Past.John Cusbert - forthcoming - Mind:fzw053.
    I argue that the past can be objectively chancy in cases of backwards causation, and defend a view of chance that allows for this. Using a case, I argue against the popular temporal view of chance, according to which chances are defined relative to times, and all chancy events must lie in the future. I then state and defend the causal view of chance, according to which chances are defined relative to causal histories, and all chancy events must lie causally (...)
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  23. added 2017-07-11
    Emerson's Metaphysics: A Song of Laws and Causes, Joseph Urbas, Lanham: Lexington Books, 2016. [REVIEW]Frederic Tremblay - 2017 - The Pluralist 12 (2):120-124.
  24. added 2017-07-11
    Psychological Continuity and the Necessity of Identity.Robert Francescotti - 2010 - American Philosophical Quarterly 47 (4):337-349.
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  25. added 2017-07-10
    “Spinoza’s Metaphysics of Substance” in Don Garrett (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza. 2nd Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Forthcoming.Yitzhak Melamed - forthcoming - In Don Garrett (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza. 2nd edition. Cambriddge University Press.
    ‘Substance’ (substantia, zelfstandigheid) is a key term of Spinoza’s philosophy. Like almost all of Spinoza’s philosophical vocabulary, Spinoza did not invent this term, which has a long history that can be traced back at least to Aristotle. Yet, Spinoza radicalized the traditional notion of substance and made a very powerful use of it by demonstrating – or at least attempting to demonstrate -- that there is only one, unique substance -- God (or Nature) -- and that all other things are (...)
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  26. added 2017-07-06
    Le pouvoir.Hichem Naar - forthcoming - In Emma Tieffenbach & Julien Deonna (eds.), Dictionnaire des valeurs. Edition d'Ithaque.
    A short entry on the nature of social power, in particular on the question whether it can be understood in terms of powers as discussed in the metaphysics literature (in French).
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  27. added 2017-07-06
    Sentiments.Hichem Naar - forthcoming - In Hichem Naar & Fabrice Teroni (eds.), The Ontology of Emotions. Cambridge University Press.
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  28. added 2017-07-06
    The Philosophical Foundations of Ecological Civilization: A Manifesto for the Future.Arran Gare - 2017 - London and New York: Routledge.
    The global ecological crisis is the greatest challenge humanity has ever had to confront, and humanity is failing. The triumph of the neo-liberal agenda, together with a debauched ‘scientism’, has reduced nature and people to nothing but raw materials, instruments and consumers to be efficiently managed in a global market dominated by corporate managers, media moguls and technocrats. The arts and the humanities have been devalued, genuine science has been crippled, and the quest for autonomy and democracy undermined. The resultant (...)
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  29. added 2017-07-06
    Only Explanation Can Reinflate Emergence.Elanor Taylor - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly.
    In a recent exchange in this journal, I argue that accounts of emergence face the collapse problem, and I defend an explanatory approach to emergence as a solution to this problem. Alexander Skiles objects to my account, and proposes an alternative solution to the collapse problem. In this discussion note I take up this conversation, defending the explanatory account of emergence against Skiles’ critique, and arguing that his alternative approach fails to solve the collapse problem.
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  30. added 2017-07-06
    A Naturalistic Account of Content and an Application to Modal Epistemology.Manolo Martínez - 2010 - Dissertation, Universitat de Barcelona
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  31. added 2017-07-05
    La Multiplicidad de los Entes según Tomás de Aquino.Fernando Riofrío Zúñiga (ed.) - 2017 - Saarbrüken, Germany: Editorial Académica Española. OmniScriptum.
    These PhD Dissertation published as a book is a research on Metaphysics about the problem of Multiplicity explained by its principles on the grounds of Aristotle's Metaphysics focused on substance and metaphysical thought of Aquinas. According to Aquinas the multitude of forms are the cause of multiplicity of beings. Super Boethium De Trinitate has an importan treatment of matter and form as causes of substantial identity, of substance's non-being and something else and be a this. Therefore the multiplicity of beings (...)
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  32. added 2017-07-04
    «El Día de Dios». Acerca Del Tiempo, Según Franz Rosenzweig.Esteban J. Beltrán Ulate - 2017 - Open Insight 8 (14):117-136.
    Este artículo acomete el análisis de la concepción de temporalidad desarrollada por el filósofo alemán Franz Rosenzweig (1886-1929), a partir del escrutinio de su principal obra Der Stern der Erlösung (1921), desde una perspectiva fenomenológica. El tiempo, ahí, se comprende en una tridimensionalidad, a la luz de la noción del «Día de Dios». El planteamiento del pensador judío evidencia una ruptura con las tesis filosóficas modernas, que presentan el tiempo como absoluto. En oposición a esta creencia, establece una relación entre (...)
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  33. added 2017-07-03
    Logical and Epistemic Modality.Hasen Khudairi - manuscript
    This paper examines the interaction between the philosophy and psychology of concepts and the modal characterization of the deductive concept of logical validity. The concept of logical consequence on which I focus is model-theoretic, where the concept records the property of necessary truth-preservation from the premise of an argument to its conclusion, as well as the condition that, in the class of all possible worlds in which a premise is true, a consequent formula or succedent set of formulas is true, (...)
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  34. added 2017-07-03
    Conceivability, Plural Quantification, and Haecceitism.Hasen Khudairi - manuscript
    This essay aims to redress the contention that epistemic possibility cannot be a guide to the principles of modal metaphysics. I argue that the interaction between the multi-dimensional intensional framework and intensional plural quantification enables epistemic possibilities to target the haecceitistic properties of individuals. I outline the elements of plural logic, and I specify, then, a multi-dimensional intensional formula encoding the relation between the epistemic possibility of haecceity comprehension and its metaphysical possibility. I conclude by addressing objections from the indeterminacy (...)
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  35. added 2017-07-03
    The Source of Modal Truth.P. Cameron Ross - unknown
    This thesis concerns the source of modal truth. I aim to answer the question: what is it in virtue of which there are truths concerning what must have been the case as a matter of necessity, or could have been the case but isn't. I begin by looking at a dilemma put forward by Simon Blackburn which attempts to show that any realist answer to this question must fail, and I conclude that either horn of his dilemma can be resisted. (...)
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  36. added 2017-07-03
    Boring Ontological Realism.Meghan Sullivan - 2017 - Res Philosophica 94 (3):399-413.
    Boring ontological realists hold that objects exist at times and persist over time without having substantive essences. Boring realism is a consequence of the minimal A-theory of time and the most sensible formulations of necessitism. This kind of realism is at odds with a ubiquitous realist thesis, which I call the persistenceessence link. This essay surveys some examples of the persistence-essence link and argues that it is best understood as a thesis about grounding. If we understand the link in terms (...)
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  37. added 2017-07-03
    Max Cresswell, Edwin Mares, and Adriane Rini, Eds., Logical Modalities From Aristotle to Carnap: The Story of Necessity. Reviewed By.Katalin Bimbo - 2017 - Philosophy in Review 37 (3):100-102.
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  38. added 2017-07-03
    EXISTENCE(s) – Short Deep-Forage Chapters.István Király V. - 2017 - Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.
    The chapters of the book are seemingly short, but deep explorations on the various fields and possibilities of human being and existence. Such explorations of course reorder and reformulate the timely and essential possibilities of philosophy and philosophizing. These together convey the true weight and stakes of things. For it is indeed so that: „Philosophy is destined to deal with the Deepest and most disturbing questions. It would hardly survive, if they were definitively solved.”.
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  39. added 2017-07-03
    Modality as a Subject for Science.Timothy Williamson - 2017 - Res Philosophica 94 (3):415-436.
    Section 1 introduces the category of objective modality, closely related to linguists’ category of circumstantial or dynamic modals, and explains metaphysical modality as its maximal element. Section 2 discusses various kinds of skepticism about modality, as in Hume and recent authors, and argues that it is illmotivated to apply such skepticism to metaphysical modality but not to more restricted objective modalities, including nomic modality. Section 3 suggests that the role of counterfactual conditionals in applications of scientific theories involves an objective (...)
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  40. added 2017-07-03
    The Impossibility of Natural Necessity.Oderberg David - unknown
    I build a case for the impossibility of natural necessity as anything other than a species of metaphysical necessity – the necessity obtaining in virtue of the essences of natural objects. Aristotelian necessitarianism about the laws of nature is clarified and defended. I contrast it with E.J. Lowe’s contingentism about the laws. I examine Lowe’s solution to the circularity/triviality problem besetting natural necessity understood as relative necessity. Lowe’s way out is subject to serious problems unless it is given an essentialist (...)
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  41. added 2017-07-01
    Ontologie und Autonomie. Zur reflexiven Vertiefung von Ontologie nach Heidegger und Brandom.Thomas Khurana - 2011 - In Mario Grizelj & Oliver Jahraus (eds.), TheorieTheorie. München: Fink. pp. 397–416.
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  42. added 2017-06-30
    Grounding, Essence, and Identity.Fabrice Correia & Alexander Skiles - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Recent metaphysics has turned its focus to two notions that are—as well as having a common Aristotelian pedigree—widely thought to be intimately related: grounding and essence. Yet how, exactly, the two are related remains opaque. We develop a unified and uniform account of grounding and essence, one which understands them both in terms of a generalized notion of identity examined in recent work by Fabrice Correia, Cian Dorr, Agustín Rayo, and others. We argue that the account comports with antecedently plausible (...)
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  43. added 2017-06-30
    Idealism and the Mind-Body Problem.David Chalmers - forthcoming - In William Seager (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Panpsychism. Routledge.
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  44. added 2017-06-30
    Un'esile significanza: Eugenio Lecaldano sul senso della vita.Lorenzo Greco - 2017 - Etica E Politica 19 (2):315–322.
    In this paper I examine Eugenio Lecaldano’s way of tackling the issue of the meaning of life. I highlight the dependence of his individualistic approach on the specific character of the person who inquires into the meaning of life. I also sketch a weaker way of understanding the meaning of life as an attempt to provide reasons which are valid from the standpoint of the present, and which will make us continue living.
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  45. added 2017-06-28
    Appropriate Emotions and the Metaphysics of Time.Olley Pearson - unknown - Philosophical Studies:1-17.
    Prior used our emotions to argue that tensed language cannot be translated by tenseless language. However, it is widely accepted that Mellor and Mac- Beath have shown that our emotions do not imply the existence of tensed facts. I criticise this orthodoxy. There is a natural and plausible view of the appropriateness of emotions which in combination with Prior’s argument implies the existence of tensed facts. The Mellor/MacBeath position does nothing to upset this natural view and therefore is not sufficient (...)
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  46. added 2017-06-27
    Entiteettien kategorioiden onttisesta statuksesta.Markku Keinänen - 2012 - Maailma.
    This paper (in Finnish) concerns the ontological status of categories of entities. I argue that categories are not be considered as further entities. Rather, it is suffcient for entities belonging to the same category that they are in exactly the same formal ontological relations and have the same general category features.
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  47. added 2017-06-24
    Minimal Aristotelian Ontology.Luc Schneider - 2017 - Cosmos + Taxis 4 (4):27-37.
  48. added 2017-06-24
    Causes As Difference‐Makers For Processes.Christian Loew - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 94 (3).
    It is natural to think of causes as difference-makers. What exact difference causes make, however, is an open question. In this paper, I argue that the right way of understanding difference-making is in terms of causal processes: causes make a difference to a causal process that leads to the effect. I will show that this way of understanding difference-making nicely captures the distinction between causing an outcome and helping determine how the outcome happens and, thus, explains why causation is not (...)
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  49. added 2017-06-24
    Strongly Millian Second-Order Modal Logics.Bruno Jacinto - 2017 - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-58.
    The most common first- and second-order modal logics either have as theorems every instance of the Barcan and Converse Barcan formulae and of their second-order analogues, or else fail to capture the actual truth of every theorem of classical first- and second-order logic. In this paper we characterise and motivate sound and complete first- and second-order modal logics that successfully capture the actual truth of every theorem of classical first- and second-order logic and yet do not possess controversial instances of (...)
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  50. added 2017-06-23
    The Age of Informatics and the End of Communication?Raymond Aaron Younis - forthcoming - In Michael A. Brown Sr & Leigh Nanney Hersey (eds.), Returning to Interpersonal Dialogue and Understanding Human Communication in the Digital Age.
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