Metaphysics

Edited by Jonathan Schaffer (Rutgers University - New Brunswick)
244 found
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  1. added 2020-05-27
    The Social Ontology of Personhood: A Recognition-Theoretical Account (Co-Authored Monograph).Heikki Ikäheimo, Arto Laitinen, Michael Quante & Italo Testa - manuscript
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  2. added 2020-05-27
    Superexplanations for Counterfactual Knowledge.Antonella Mallozzi - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    I discuss several problems for Williamson’s counterfactual-theory of modal knowledge and argue that they have a common source, in that the theory neglects to elucidate the proper constraints on modal reasoning. Williamson puts forward an empirical hypothesis that rests on the role of counterfactual reasoning for modal knowledge. But he overlooks central questions of normative modal epistemology. In order for counterfactual reasoning to yield correct beliefs about modality, it needs to be suitably constrained. I argue that what is needed is, (...)
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  3. added 2020-05-27
    Ontological Pluralism, Abhidharma Metaphysics, and the Two Truths: A Response to Kris McDaniel.Andrew Brenner - 2020 - Philosophy East and West 70 (2):543-557.
    Kris McDaniel has recently proposed an interpretation of the distinction between conventional truth and ultimate truth, as that distinction is made within Abhidharma metaphysics. According to McDaniel's proposal, the distinction between conventional truth and ultimate truth is closely connected with a similar distinction between conventional existence and ultimate existence. What is more, the distinction between conventional existence and ultimate existence should be interpreted along ontological pluralist lines: the difference between things that ultimately exist and things that merely conventionally exist amounts (...)
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  4. added 2020-05-27
    Rejoinder to Kris McDaniel.Andrew Brenner - 2020 - Philosophy East and West 70 (2):565-569.
    I would like to thank Kris McDaniel for his reply. In my original response to McDaniel I say that, given his interpretation of the distinction between conventional and ultimate truth, we would no longer be able to employ certain powerful arguments in favor of the thesis that persons are merely conventionally existent, and it would turn out that the thesis that persons are merely conventionally existent doesn't have some of the important implications that proponents of that thesis generally take it (...)
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  5. added 2020-05-27
    Why Time Travellers (Still) Cannot Change the Past.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2015 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 71 (70th Anniversary Issue on Metaph):677-94.
    In an earlier paper I argued that time travellers cannot change the past: alleged models of changing the past either fall into contradiction or else involve avoiding, not changing, the past. Goddu has responded to my argument, maintaining that his hypertime model involves time travellers changing (not avoiding) the past. In the present paper I first discuss what would be required to substantiate the claim that a given model involves changing rather than avoiding the past. I then consider Goddu's hypertime (...)
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  6. added 2020-05-26
    Crystallized Regularities.Veronica Gómez Sánchez - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy.
    This essay proposes a reductive account of robust macro-regularities (sometimes called ‘special science laws’). On the view proposed, regularities can earn their elite scientific status by featuring in good summaries of restricted regions in the space of physical possibilities: our ‘modal neighborhoods’. I argue that this view vindicates ‘nomic foundationalism’ (that is, the view that the physical laws sustain all robust regularities), while doing justice to the practice of invoking physically contingent generalizations in higher-level explanations. Moreover, the view suggests an (...)
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  7. added 2020-05-25
    Pegasus Explained Away.Mark Ressler - manuscript
    The consequences of Quine's criterion of ontological commitment epitomized in his treatment of the term 'Pegasus' in "On What There Is" are evaluated in terms of Quine's own work, in particular in "The Variable" and "Variables Explained Away". There is a cost to maintaining this criterion with regard to the empirical consequences of some non-existent objects, given considerations prompted by Quine's holism. This cost can be reduced by adopting a noneist position according to which non-existent objects can be values of (...)
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  8. added 2020-05-25
    Defeated Ambivalence.Hili Razinsky - 2020 - International Philosophical Quarterly 60 (2):173-188.
    Ambivalence is often presented through cases of defeated ambivalence and multivalence, in which opposed attitudes suggest mutual isolation and defeat each other. Properly understood, however, ambivalence implies the existence of poles that are conflictually yet rationally interlinked and are open to non-defeated joint conduct. This paper considers cases that range from indecisiveness and easy adoption of conflicting attitudes, to tragically conflicted deliberation and to cases of shifting between self-deceptively serious attitudes. Analyzing such cases as variants of defeated ambivalence, I argue (...)
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  9. added 2020-05-25
    Why Anything Rather Than Nothing? The Answer of Quantum Mechanics.Vasil Penchev - 2019 - In Ivan Mladenov & Aleksandar Feodorov (eds.), Non/Cognate Approaches: Relation & Representation. Sofia: "Парадигма". pp. 151-172.
    Many researchers determine the question “Why anything rather than nothing?” as the most ancient and fundamental philosophical problem. Furthermore, it is very close to the idea of Creation shared by religion, science, and philosophy, e.g. as the “Big Bang”, the doctrine of “first cause” or “causa sui”, the Creation in six days in the Bible, etc. Thus, the solution of quantum mechanics, being scientific in fact, can be interpreted also philosophically, and even religiously. However, only the philosophical interpretation is the (...)
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  10. added 2020-05-25
    The Context-Dependency of the Experience of Auditory Succession and Prospects for Embodying Philosophical Models of Temporal Experience.Maria Kon - 2014 - Empirical Musicology Review 9:213-223.
    Recent philosophical work on temporal experience offers generic models that are often assumed to apply to all sensory modalities. I show that the models serve as broad frameworks in which different aspects of cognitive science can be slotted and, thus, are beneficial to furthering research programs in embodied music cognition. Here I discuss a particular feature of temporal experience that plays a key role in such philosophical work: a distinction between the experience of succession and the mere succession of experiences. (...)
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  11. added 2020-05-25
    A Conceptual Analysis of Julian Barbour's Time.Maria Kon - 2012 - Dissertation, University of Leeds
    One of Julian Barbour’s main aims is to solve the problem of time that appears in quantum geometrodynamics (QG). QG involves the application of canonical quantization procedure to the Hamiltonian formulation of General Relativity. The problem of time arises because the quantization of the Hamiltonian constraint results in an equation that has no explicit time parameter. Thus, it appears that the resulting equation, as apparently timeless, cannot describe evolution of quantum states. Barbour attempts to resolve the problem by allegedly eliminating (...)
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  12. added 2020-05-25
    Personhood – Workshop Papers of the Conference ‘Dimensions of Personhood’.Heikki Ikäheimo, Jussi Kotkavirta, Arto Laitinen, Pessi Lyyra & Petteri Niemi (eds.) - 2004 - University of Jyväskylä, Publications in Philosophy.
    This volume contains the workshop papers of the philosophical conference Dimensions of Personhood held in August 13-15, 2004 at University of Jyväskylä, Finland. The conference was organized by the Finnish Academy research project The Concept of Person. In the call for papers, the theme of the conference was formulated as follows. Recent developments in neuroscience and information technology, in medicine and biotechnology, and in society and culture more broadly have made various questions concerning our identity as human beings urgent. As (...)
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  13. added 2020-05-24
    There Are No Fundamental Facts.Roberto Loss - forthcoming - Analysis.
    I present an argument proving that there are no fundamental facts, which is similar to an argument recently presented by Mark Jago for truthmaker maximalism. I suggest that this argument gives us at least some prima facie, defeasible reason to believe that there are no fundamental facts.
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  14. added 2020-05-24
    The New View to Whole and Part in Post-Metaphysical Context.Vasil Penchev - 2008 - In Yvanka B. Raynova & Veselin Petrov (eds.), Being and knowledge in postmetaphysical context. Wien: lnstitut fiir Axiologische Forschungen (IAF). pp. 76-82.
    My departed point is the assessment that plurality in broadest sense characterizing any post- (for example: post-modernity, post-metaphysical, etc.) context is first of all plurality of whole. We may speak about wholes, movement of whole, and lack of any universal whole. Part do not already belongs to whole implicitly granted and common of all other parts. Now we may speak of parts in another relation: non of parts as parts of some common of all parts whole, but parts of difference (...)
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  15. added 2020-05-24
    Relazione affettive e società di massa.Donato Santarcangelo & Carlotta Montinaro - 2004 - Torino TO, Italia: Psiche e Realtà - Tirrenia Stampatori.
    Ci chiediamo come l'affettività nella società di massa possa venire considerata, come sia vissuta e con quali possibili valenze e prospettive, da un soggetto che ha visto attenuarsi la sua credenza irriflessivamente adesiva in un esistente fondato e fondante e, conseguentemente, ridimensionata la monoliticità della propria identità soggettuale.
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  16. added 2020-05-23
    Das Potências da Memória. A Afirmação da Transitoriedade Histórica E da Eternidade Das Ideias.Augusto B. De Carvalho Dias Leite - 2020 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 61 (145):107-129.
    RESUMO A partir do exame da tradição heraclitiana e platônica sobre a transitoriedade e a imortalidade - conceitos compreendidos como universais - este artigo defende a seguinte antinomia como tese: para haver temporalidade é preciso haver eternidade. Essa tese é demonstrada por meio do estudo e atualização das noções de alma, espírito, ideia e memória, as quais estão conectadas invariavelmente ao tempo passado como princípio ontológico do fenômeno histórico. Para além do ponto de vista filosófico, portanto, da perspectiva específica do (...)
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  17. added 2020-05-23
    On McTaggart’s Theory of Time.Edward Freeman - 2010 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 27 (4):389-401.
    J. McTaggart argues that the philosophical conception of time is constituted by the notions of fluid and static time. Since, on his view, neither notion is philosophically viable, he concludes that time is nothing but an illusion that arises from our distorted perception of essentially atemporal reality. In the paper, I argue that despite McTaggart’s failure to prove the unreality of time as such, he does succeed in establishing his lesser claim that the concept of fluid time is without any (...)
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  18. added 2020-05-23
    Verifikation, Manifestation und Verstehen: Bemerkungen zum Manifestationsargument.Thorsten Sander - 2006 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 113:336-358.
    Dem "Manifestationsargument" zufolge steht eine realistische Semantik der Wahrheitsbedingungen im Widerspruch zu dem Gedanken, dass das Verstehen von Sätzen eine Fähigkeit ist, die sich im Handeln manifestieren können muss. – Der Aufsatz zeigt, dass sowohl Realisten als auch Anti-Realisten die These aufzugeben haben, dass das Verstehen eines Satzes im Erfassen der jeweiligen Wahrheitsbedingungenbesteht. Die realistische Annahme der Existenz verifikationstranszendenter Wahrheiten steht – unabhängig vom Manifestationsprinzip – im Widerspruch zu einer wahrheitskonditionalen Semantik. Die von heutigen Anti-Realisten vertretenen Theorien des Verstehens sind (...)
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  19. added 2020-05-22
    A Theory of Structured Propositions.Andrew Bacon - manuscript
    This paper argues that the theory of structured propositions is not undermined by the Russell-Myhill paradox. I develop a theory of structured propositions in which the Russell-Myhill paradox doesn't arise: the theory does not involve ramification or compromises to the underlying logic, but rather rejects common assumptions, encoded in the notation of the $\lambda$-calculus, about what properties and relations can be built. I argue that the structuralist had independent reasons to reject these underlying assumptions. The theory is given both a (...)
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  20. added 2020-05-21
    Motivation and Synopsis of the New Theory of Time.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    The motivation comes from the analogy (equivalence?) of the A-series to ontologically private qualia in Dualism. This leads to the proposal that two quantum systems, no matter how small, mutually observe each other when and only when they come to share the same A-series. McTaggart's A-series and B-series can be varied independently so they cannot be the same temporal variable.
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  21. added 2020-05-21
    Fichte and Recognition (Handbuch Anerkennung).Heikki Ikäheimo - 2020 - Handbuch Anerkennung.
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  22. added 2020-05-21
    Humans with Reduced Person-Making Capacities (Handbuch Anerkennung).Heikki Ikäheimo - 2020 - Handbuch Anerkennung.
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  23. added 2020-05-21
    Personhood and Recognition (Handbuch Anerkennung).Heikki Ikäheimo - 2020 - Handbuch Anerkennung.
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  24. added 2020-05-21
    Hegel's Psychology.Heikki Ikäheimo - 2017 - In Dean Moyar (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Hegel. pp. 424-449.
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  25. added 2020-05-21
    Hegel's Concept of Recognition - What is It?Heikki Ikäheimo - 2014 - In Christian Krijnen (ed.), Recognition - German Idealism as an Ongoing Challenge. pp. 11-38.
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  26. added 2020-05-21
    Dimensions of Personhood.Heikki Ikäheimo & Arto Laitinen - 2007 - Imprint Academic.
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  27. added 2020-05-21
    Self-Consciousness and Intersubjectivity.Heikki Ikäheimo - 2000 - University of Jyväskylä Press.
  28. added 2020-05-20
    Momentum and Context.Hans Halvorson - manuscript
    A sentence's meaning may depend on the state of motion of the speaker. I argue that this context-sensitivity blocks the inference from special relativity to four-dimensionalism.
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  29. added 2020-05-20
    You Survive Teletransportation.Javier Hidalgo - forthcoming - Think.
    Suppose that it was possible to teletransport. The teletransporter would destroy your old brain and body and construct an identical brain and body at a new location. Would you survive teletransportation? Many people think that teletransportation would kill you. On their view, the person that emerges from the teletransporter would be a replica of you, but it wouldn’t be you. In contrast, I argue that there’s no relevant difference between teletransportation and ordinary survival. So, if you survive ordinary life, then (...)
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  30. added 2020-05-20
    Введение в структурно-онтологическую методологию: анализ предметной области социализации личности (Introduction to Structural-Ontological Methodology: Analysis of the Subject Matter Field of Personality Socialization).Vitalii Shymko - 2020 - SSRN Electronic Journal.
    Russian Abstract: Данный документ является сборником «заметок на полях», раскрывающих состав и содержание метода структурно-онтологического анализа. Указанный метод разработан для системного описания предметной области изучаемых явлений. Он включает специальную процедуру по построению структурно-онтологических матриц и алгоритм их описания. Междисциплинарная направленность метода продемонстрирована на примере анализа процесса социализации личности. -/- English Abstract: This document is a collection of `marginal notes` revealing the composition and content of the structural ontological analysis method. The specified method is developed for a systemic description of the (...)
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  31. added 2020-05-19
    Ontology and Cognitive Outcomes (Preprint).David Limbaugh, David Kasmier, Ronald Rudnicki, James Llinas & Barry Smith - 2020 - In arXiv.
    The intelligence community relies on human-machine-based analytic strategies that 1) access and integrate vast amounts of information from disparate sources, 2) continuously process this information, so that, 3) a maximally comprehensive understanding of world actors and their behaviors can be developed and updated. Herein we describe an approach to utilizing outcomes-based learning (OBL) to support these efforts that is based on an ontology of the cognitive processes performed by intelligence analysts.
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  32. added 2020-05-18
    A Problem for Immanent Universals in States of Affairs.Michael J. Raven - forthcoming - American Philosophical Quarterly.
    This paper raises a problem for the pair of views that universals are immanent in their instantiations and that these instantiations, or states of affairs, are somehow constructed from the instantiated universals. It is argued that the pair is inconsistent. The first view implies that universals are prior to states of affairs, whereas the second view implies that states of affairs are prior to universals. This paper does not attempt to solve this problem, but rather to formulate it precisely. That (...)
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  33. added 2020-05-18
    Is Logic Out of This World?Michael J. Raven - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy.
    Is logic out of this world? This elusive question reveals a tension in our thinking about the basis of logic: both worldly and unworldly answers get something right and yet they conflict. My aim is to clarify the question and explore a conciliatory answer. I focus on a characterization of unworldliness in terms of ground. This allows for a distinction between proximal and distal unworldliness. That in turn reconfigures our approach to the question. It may now be taken as asking (...)
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  34. added 2020-05-18
    What Is the Essence of an Essence? Comparing Afro-Relational and Western-Individualist Ontologies (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Adeshina Afolayan, Olajumoke Yacob-Haliso & Samuel Ojo Oloruntoba (eds.), Pathways to Alternative Epistemologies in Africa. Springer.
    Reprint of an article that first appeared in the journal Synthesis Philosophica (2018).
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  35. added 2020-05-18
    Spatiotemporal Analogies: Are Space and Time Similar?Edward Slowik - 2002 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 40:123-134.
    This paper investigates a famous argument, first introduced by Richard Taylor, that attempts to establish a radical similarity in the concepts of space and time. The argument contends that the spatial and temporal aspects of material bodies are much more alike, or analogous, than has been hitherto acknowledged. As will be demonstrated, most of the previous investigations of Taylor and company have failed to pinpoint the weakest link in their complex of analogies. By concentrating on their most fundamental cases, however, (...)
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  36. added 2020-05-17
    Mentalizing Objects.David Rose - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy 4.
    We have a mentalistic view of objects. This is due to the interdependence of folk psychology and folk physics, where these are interconnected by what I call Teleological Commingling. When considering events that don’t involve agents, we naturally default to tracking intentions, goal-directed processes, despite the fact that agents aren’t involved. We have a deep-seated intentionality bias which is the result of the pervasive detection of agency cues, such as order or non-randomness. And this gives rise to the Agentive Worldview: (...)
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  37. added 2020-05-17
    Free Will, Control, and the Possibility to Do Otherwise From a Causal Modeler's Perspective.Alexander Gebharter, Maria Sekatskaya & Gerhard Schurz - forthcoming - Erkenntnis.
    Strong notions of free will are closely connected to the possibility to do otherwise as well as to an agent's ability to causally influence her environment via her decisions controlling her actions. In this paper we employ techniques from the causal modeling literature to investigate whether a notion of free will subscribing to one or both of these requirements is compatible with naturalistic views of the world such as non-reductive physicalism to the background of determinism and indeterminism. We argue that (...)
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  38. added 2020-05-17
    Мислене и стихотворене.Vasil Penchev - 2007 - Sofia: "М. Михайлов".
    Heidegger has created a new philosophical genre: poetric and philosophical thought by his paters on Hölderlin and other poets. Philosophy and poetry a two tops of human thought, each of which can be seen from the other one. The book contains essays in that genre and tradition.
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  39. added 2020-05-17
    Toward a Scotistic Modal Metaphysics.Woosuk Park - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 9:48-54.
    The problem I tackle in this article is: Do we have in Scotus a modal logic or a counterpart theory? We need to take a rather roundabout path to handle this problem. This is because, whether it be in Lewis's original formulation or in others' applications, the crucial concept of 'counterpart' has never been clearly explicated. In section two, I shall therefore examine the recent controversy concerning Leibniz's views on modalities which centers around the counterpart relation. By fully exploiting the (...)
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  40. added 2020-05-16
    The Flexibility of Reality: An Essay on Modality, Representation, and Powers.David Limbaugh - 2018 - Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo
    This dissertation is about flexibility as a dimension of reality, an objective—independent of mind and language—phenomenon typically referred to as ‘metaphysical modality’. It develops a novel modal account of why reality could be different: that is, why claims like “Possibly, there are talking donkeys,” or “Humphrey could have won the election” are true or false. I contend that primitive dispositional properties called ‘powers’ explain such claims, and do so better than possible-world accounts of modality. The problem with possible-world accounts is (...)
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  41. added 2020-05-15
    Reality and the Meaning of Evil: On the Moral Causality of Signs.Kirk G. Kanzelberger - 2020 - Reality 1 (1):146-204.
    ABSTRACT: “Evil is really only a privation.” This philosophical commonplace reflects an ancient solution to the problem of theodicy in one of its dimensions: is evil of such a nature that it must have God as its author? Stated in this particular way, it also reflects the commonplace identification of the real with natural being—the realm of what exists independently of human thought and perspectives—as opposed to all that is termed, by comparison, “merely subjective” and “unreal”. If we stick with (...)
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  42. added 2020-05-13
    A Mathematical Definition of the Present and its Duration.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    We give a mathematical definition of the present or 'what is real' and its duration on McTaggart's A-series future/present/past. This is applicable to at least one conception of the block-world, the growing-block, and presentism.
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  43. added 2020-05-13
    The Status and Prospects of Community Education Workers in China.Lixin Sun, Shuo Li & Yuxin Song - manuscript
    Professionalization, career development prospects, and social value are the three basic components of the status and prospects of community education workers, which influence their choice to continue their careers or not. In China, these problems are complex and lacking in systematic research, and the current situation does not meet the needs of community education. This study interviewed 24 community workers regarding their salaries, working conditions, and training and career advancement opportunities to evaluate this situation in Ningbo City. The findings highlight (...)
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  44. added 2020-05-13
    Phenomenal Relations and Collective Essence.Yannic Kappes - forthcoming - The Philosophical Quarterly.
    Antonin Broi (2019) argues that the thesis of phenomenal revelation is in tension with the best available accounts of similarity and certain other relations between phenomenal properties and should hence be rejected. In the following, I investigate Broi’s argument, show how the notion of collective essence can be used to withstand it, and consider a corresponding “collective” version of the revelation thesis.
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  45. added 2020-05-12
    Modal Realism and the Possibility of Island Universes: Why There Are No Possible Worlds.Jiri Benovsky - forthcoming - Metaphysica.
    I defend Lewisian modal realism against objections arising from the possibility of 'Island Universes' and other similar cases. The problem comes from Lewis' claim that possible worlds are spatio-temporally isolated. I suggest a modification of Lewisian modal realism in order to avoid this family of objections. This modification may sound quite radical since it amounts to abandoning the very notion of a possible world, but as radical as it may sound it in fact remains well in the spirit of Lewis' (...)
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  46. added 2020-05-12
    Toward the Absolute Ultimate End.Satoshi Suganuma - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 23:95-100.
    In general, the ultimate end is the end beyond which there can be no further end. However, almost all the ultimate ends considered so far— “a man’s ultimate end”, “humanity’s ultimate end”, “the ultimate end of the universe”, and so on—are relative, in that they can in fact have a further end. Additionally, many of the ideas are based on dubious presuppositions such as teleology. Can there, then, be a meaningful idea of the absolute ultimate end without dubious presuppositions, beyond (...)
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  47. added 2020-05-12
    Simulation, Folk Psychological Explanation, and Causal Laws.Angela J. Arkway - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:27-33.
    The assumption that commonsense psychological explanations of behavior are causal underlies current debate between simulation theory and theory theory regarding the nature of cognitive mechanism responsible for our folk psychological practices. Theory theorists claim that these explanations are subsumed by the covering law model of causal explanation. Simulationists are not explicit about the nature of the explanations produced by simulation. In what follows, I propose a set of plausible conditions that a correct causal simulation-produced folk psychological explanation will satisfy and (...)
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  48. added 2020-05-11
    Idealism and Illusions.Robert Smithson - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    According to the idealist, facts about phenomenal experience determine facts about the physical world. Any such view must account for illusions: cases where there is a discrepancy between the physical world and our experiences of it. In this paper, I critique some recent idealist treatments of illusions before presenting my own preferred account. I then argue that, initial impressions notwithstanding, it is actually the realist who has difficulties properly accounting for illusions.
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  49. added 2020-05-11
    Antropologia pragmatista. Padova Lectures.Michael Quante & Armando Manchisi (eds.) - 2020 - Padova PD, Italia: Padova University Press.
    What does it mean to be a person? And in what way is this connected to our finitude, i.e. to the properly human aspect of our existence? By analyzing some of the core features of our form of life (personal identity, self-consciousness, freedom, autonomy, responsibility), Michael Quante answers these questions arguing that it is possible to be a person and lead an authentically human life only within social relationships of recognition: only in these relationships, it is possible to know oneself (...)
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  50. added 2020-05-11
    «Il lato attivo dell'esistenza umana». La riflessione etica di Michael Quante tra filosofia classica tedesca e pragmatismo.Armando Manchisi - 2020 - In Antropologia pragmatista. Padova Lectures. Padova PD, Italia: pp. 17-35.
    The essay introduces Michael Quante's pragmatistic anthropology, focusing on three main ethical issues, namely: (1) the problem of realism, (2) the problem of particularism, and (3) the question about personal identity and its social conditions. By also emphasizing Quante's historical-philosophical debts, the essay thus aims to present the project of the pragmatistic anthropology as a worthwhile alternative to some of the fundamental assumptions of modern ethics. The essay is the Editor's Introduction to the volume: Michael Quante, "Antropologia pragmatista. Padova Lectures" (...)
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