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Summary The articles in this category look at the science used to generate claims about animal mind, behavior, and sociality. The articles take a philosophy of science approach to the sciences of comparative psychology, cognitive ecology, and relevant parts of biology dealing with animal behavior and sociality. Key topics include anthropomorphism, anthropocentrism, bias, interpretation, Morgan's Canon, null hypothesis, objectivity, and value-laden science.
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  1. added 2020-07-13
    Anthropomorphism in Science.Joseph Agassi - manuscript
    ANTHROPOMORPHISM is an inveterate tendency to project human qualities into natural phenomena—consciously or not. The standard and most important variant of anthropomorphism is animism which sees a soul in everything in nature. Before entering into the role of anthropomorphism in the history of science, let us consider a few important and usually neglected logical aspects of the idea.
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  2. added 2020-07-13
    Conditioned Anti-Anthropomorphism.Colin Allen - unknown
    How should scientists react to anthropomorphism (defined for the purposes of this paper as the attribution of mental states or properties to nonhuman animals)? Many thoughtful scientists have attempted to accommodate some measure of anthropomorphism in their approaches to animal behavior. But Wynne will have none of it. We reject his argument against anthropomorphism and argue that he does not pay sufficient attention to the historical facts or to the details of alternative approaches.
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  3. added 2020-07-13
    The Animal Mind: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Animal Cognition, Second Edition.Kristin Andrews - 2020 - New York: Routledge.
    The philosophy of animal minds addresses profound questions about the nature of mind and the relationships between humans and other animals. In this fully revised and updated introductory text, Kristin Andrews introduces and assesses the essential topics, problems, and debates as they cut across animal cognition and philosophy of mind, citing historical and cutting-edge empirical data and case studies throughout. The second edition includes a new chapter on animal culture. There are also new sections on the evolution of consciousness and (...)
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  4. added 2020-07-13
    How to Study Animal Minds.Kristin Andrews - 2020 - Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Comparative psychology, the multidisciplinary study of animal behavior and psychology, confronts the challenge of how to study animals we find cute and easy to anthropomorphize, and animals we find odd and easy to objectify, without letting these biases negatively impact the science. In this Element, Kristin Andrews identifies and critically examines the principles of comparative psychology and shows how they can introduce other biases by objectifying animal subjects and encouraging scientists to remain detached. Andrews outlines the scientific benefits of treating (...)
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  5. added 2020-07-13
    Philosophical Primatology: Reflections on Theses of Anthropological Difference, the Logic of Anthropomorphism and Anthropodenial, and the Self-Other Category Mistake Within the Scope of Cognitive Primate Research.Hannes Wendler - 2020 - Biological Theory 15 (2):61-82.
    This article investigates the deep-rooted logical structures underlying our thinking about other animals with a particular focus on topics relevant for cognitive primate research. We begin with a philosophical propaedeutic that makes perspicuous how we are to differentiate ontological from epistemological considerations regarding primates, while also accounting for the many perplexities that will undoubtedly be encountered upon applying this difference to concrete phenomena. Following this, we give an account of what is to be understood by the assertion of a thesis (...)
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  6. added 2020-07-13
    Morgan's Canon is Not Evidence.Steven Samuel & Nicola Clayton - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
  7. added 2020-07-13
    Three Types of Anthropocentrism.Ben Mylius - 2018 - Environmental Philosophy 15 (2):159-194.
    This paper develops a language for distinguishing more rigorously between various senses of the term ‘anthropocentrism.’ Specifically, it differentiates between:1. Perceptual anthropocentrism ;2. Descriptive anthropocentrism 3. Normative anthropocentrism.
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  8. added 2020-07-13
    “Other minds than ours”: a controversial discussion on the limits and possibilities of comparative psychology in the light of C. Lloyd Morgan’s work.Martin Böhnert & Christopher Hilbert - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (3):44.
    C. Lloyd Morgan is mostly known for Morgan’s canon, still a popular and frequently quoted principle in comparative psychology and ethology. There has been a fair amount of debate on the canon’s interpretation, function, and value regarding the research on animal minds, usually referring to it as an isolated principle. In this paper we rather shed light on Morgan’s overall scientific program and his vision for comparative psychology. We argue that within his program Morgan identified crucial conceptual, ontological, and methodical (...)
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  9. added 2020-07-13
    Anthropomorphism as Cognitive Bias.Mike Dacey - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (5):1152-1164.
    Philosophers and psychologists have long worried that the human tendency to anthropomorphize leads us to err in our understanding of nonhuman minds. This tendency, which I call intuitive anthropomorphism, is a heuristic used by our unconscious folk psychology to understand nonhuman animals. The dominant understanding of intuitive anthropomorphism underestimates its complexity. If we want to understand and control intuitive anthropomorphism, we must treat it as a cognitive bias and look to the empirical evidence. This evidence suggests that the most common (...)
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  10. added 2020-07-13
    Interpretations Without Justification: A General Argument Against Morgan’s Canon.Tobias Starzak - 2017 - Synthese 194 (5).
    In this paper I critically discuss and, in the end, reject Morgan’s Canon, a popular principle in comparative psychology. According to this principle we should always prefer explanations of animal behavior in terms of lower psychological processes over explanations in terms of higher psychological processes, when alternative explanations are possible. The validity of the principle depends on two things, a clear understanding of what it means for psychological processes to be higher or lower relative to each other and a justification (...)
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  11. added 2020-07-13
    Commentary: Interpretations Without Justification: A General Argument Against Morgan's Canon.Eduardo Mercado - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  12. added 2020-07-13
    The Varieties of Parsimony in Psychology.Mike Dacey - 2016 - Mind and Language 31 (4):414-437.
    Philosophers and psychologists make many different, seemingly incompatible parsimony claims in support of competing models of cognition in nonhuman animals. This variety of parsimony claims is problematic. Firstly, it is difficult to justify each specific variety. This problem is especially salient for Morgan's Canon, perhaps the most important variety of parsimony claimed. Secondly, there is no systematic way of adjudicating between particular claims when they conflict. I argue for a view of parsimony in comparative psychology that solves these problems, based (...)
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  13. added 2020-07-13
    Beyond Motivation and Metaphor:'Scientific Passions' and Anthropomorphism.Lisa M. Osbeck & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2013 - In Vassilios Karakostas & Dennis Dieks (eds.), Epsa11 Perspectives and Foundational Problems in Philosophy of Science. Springer. pp. 455--466.
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  14. added 2020-07-13
    Morgan’s Canon, Meet Hume’s Dictum: Avoiding Anthropofabulation in Cross-Species Comparisons.Cameron Buckner - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (5):853-871.
    How should we determine the distribution of psychological traits—such as Theory of Mind, episodic memory, and metacognition—throughout the Animal kingdom? Researchers have long worried about the distorting effects of anthropomorphic bias on this comparative project. A purported corrective against this bias was offered as a cornerstone of comparative psychology by C. Lloyd Morgan in his famous “Canon”. Also dangerous, however, is a distinct bias that loads the deck against animal mentality: our tendency to tie the competence criteria for cognitive capacities (...)
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  15. added 2020-07-13
    Critical Anthropomorphism and Animal Ethics.Fredrik Karlsson - 2012 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (5):707-720.
    Anthropomorphism has long been considered a cardinal error when describing animals. Ethicists have feared the consequences of misrepresenting animals in their reasoning. Recent research within human- animal studies, however, has sophisticated the notion of anthropomorphism. It is suggested that avoiding anthropomorphism merely creates other morphisms, such as mechanomorphism. Instead of avoiding anthropomorphism, it is argued that it is a communicative strategy that should be used critically. Instances of anthropomorphism in animal ethics are analyzed in this paper. Some analogies made between (...)
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  16. added 2020-07-13
    Parsimony and Models of Animal Minds.Elliott Sober - 2009 - In Robert W. Lurz (ed.), The Philosophy of Animal Minds. Cambridge University Press. pp. 237.
    The chapter discusses the principle of conservatism and traces how the general principle is related to the specific one. This tracing suggests that the principle of conservatism needs to be refined. Connecting the principle in cognitive science to more general questions about scientific inference also allows us to revisit the question of realism versus instrumentalism. The framework deployed in model selection theory is very general; it is not specific to the subject matter of science. The chapter outlines some non-Bayesian ideas (...)
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  17. added 2020-07-13
    Doing Away with Morgan’s Canon.Simon Fitzpatrick - 2008 - Mind and Language 23 (2):224–246.
    Morgan’s Canon is a very widely endorsed methodological principle in animal psychology, believed to be vital for a rigorous, scientific approach to the study of animal cognition. In contrast I argue that Morgan’s Canon is unjustified, pernicious and unnecessary. I identify two main versions of the Canon and show that they both suffer from very serious problems. I then suggest an alternative methodological principle that captures all of the genuine methodological benefits that Morgan’s Canon can bring but suffers from none (...)
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  18. added 2020-07-13
    Examining the How and Why of Anthropomorphism. [REVIEW]Chad Gonnerman - 2008 - Metascience 17 (3):419-423.
    A review of Lorraine Daston and Gregg Mitman (Eds.), Thinking with Animals: New Perspectives on Anthropomorphism, 2005.
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  19. added 2020-07-13
    Lorraine Daston and Gregg Mitman , Thinking with Animals: New Perspectives on Anthropomorphism. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005. Pp. VII+230. Isbn 0-231-13038-4. £32.00, $49.50. [REVIEW]Tania Munz - 2007 - British Journal for the History of Science 40 (2):277-279.
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  20. added 2020-07-13
    Morgan’s Canon Revisited.Sean Allen‐Hermanson - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (4):608-31.
    The famous ethological maxim known as “Morgan’s Canon” continues to be the subject of interpretive controversy. I reconsider Morgan’s canon in light of two questions: First, what did Morgan intend? Second, is this, or perhaps some re-interpretation of the canon, useful within cognitive ethology? As for the first issue, Morgan’s distinction between higher and lower faculties is suggestive of an early supervenience concept. As for the second, both the canon in its original form, and various recent re-readings, offer nothing useful (...)
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  21. added 2020-07-13
    What Use is Morgan's Canon?Martin Montminy - 2005 - Philosophical Psychology 18 (4):399-414.
    Morgan's canon can be construed as claiming that an intentional explanation of a behavior should be ruled out if there exists an explanation of this behavior in terms of 'lower' mechanisms. Unfortunately, Morgan's conception of higher and lower faculties is based on dubious evolutionary considerations. I examine alternative interpretations of the terms 'higher' and 'lower', and show that none can turn the canon into a principle that is both correct and useful in drawing the line between thinkers and non-thinkers. In (...)
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  22. added 2020-07-13
    Anthropomorphism: Cross-Species Modeling.Sandra D. Mitchell - unknown
    There has been a recent resurgence of interest in anthropomorphism, attributable to both the rise of cognitive ethology and the requirements of various forms of expanded, environmental ethics. The manner and degree to which non-human animals are similar to human beings has thus become a focus of scientific research and a necessary component to our decisions to act morally. At its basis, anthropomorphism involves claims about the similarity of non-human objects or beings to humans. Critics of anthropomorphism often attack the (...)
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  23. added 2020-07-13
    Morgan's Canon, Garner's Phonograph, and the Evolutionary Origins of Language and Reason.Gregory Radick - 2000 - British Journal for the History of Science 33 (1):3-23.
    ‘Morgan's canon’ is a rule for making inferences from animal behaviour about animal minds, proposed in 1892 by the Bristol geologist and zoologist C. Lloyd Morgan, and celebrated for promoting scepticism about the reasoning powers of animals. Here I offer a new account of the origins and early career of the canon. Built into the canon, I argue, is the doctrine of the Oxford philologist F. Max Müller that animals, lacking language, necessarily lack reason. Restoring the Müllerian origins of the (...)
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  24. added 2020-07-13
    Anthropomorphism and Anthropodenial: Consistency in Our Thinking About Humans and Other Animals.Frans B. M. de Waal - 1999 - Philosophical Topics 27 (1):255-280.
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  25. added 2020-07-13
    Anthropomorphism and Anthropodenial.Frans B. M. De Waal - 1999 - Philosophical Topics 27 (1):255-280.
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  26. added 2020-07-13
    Anthropomorphism in Mother-Infant Interaction: Cultural Imperative or Scientific Acumen?Robert L. Russell - 1997 - In R. Mitchell, Nicholas S. Thompson & H. L. Miles (eds.), Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals. Suny Press. pp. 116--22.
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  27. added 2020-07-13
    Anthropomorphism and the Study of Animal Language.J. Kiriazis & C. Slobodchikoff - 1997 - In R. Mitchell, Nicholas S. Thompson & H. L. Miles (eds.), Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals. Suny Press. pp. 365--369.
  28. added 2020-07-13
    Why Anthropomorphism is Not Metaphor: Crossing Concepts and Cultures in Animal Behavior Studies.Pamela J. Asquith - 1997 - In R. Mitchell, Nicholas S. Thompson & H. L. Miles (eds.), Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals. Suny Press. pp. 22--34.
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  29. added 2020-07-13
    Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals.R. Mitchell, Nicholas S. Thompson & H. L. Miles (eds.) - 1997 - SUNY Press.
    This is the first book to evaluate the significance and usefulness of the practices of anthropomorphism and anecdotalism for understanding animals.
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  30. added 2020-07-13
    Pinnipeds, Porpoises and Parsimony: Animal Language Research Viewed From a Bottom-Up Perspective.Ronald J. Schusterman & R. Gisiner - 1997 - In R. Mitchell, Nicholas S. Thompson & H. L. Miles (eds.), Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals. Suny Press. pp. 370--382.
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  31. added 2020-07-13
    Anthropomorphism Without Anthropocentrism: A Wittgensteinian Ecofeminist Alternative to Deep Ecology.Wendy Lee-Lampshire - 1996 - Ethics and the Environment 1 (2):91-102.
    While articulating a philosophy of ecology which reconciles deep ecology with ecofeminism may be a laudable project, it remains at best unclear whether this attempt will be successful. I argue that one recent attempt, Carol Bigwood 's feminized deep ecology, fails in that, despite disclaimers, it reproduces important elements of some deep ecologist's essentializing discourse which ecofeminists argue are responsible for the identification with and dual oppression of women and nature. I then propose an alternative model for conceiving and describing (...)
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  32. added 2020-07-13
    The Many Perils of Ejective Anthropomorphism.Nicholas S. Thompson - 1994 - Behavior and Philosophy 22 (2):59 - 70.
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  33. added 2020-07-13
    Comments on Anthropomorphism.David Hilbert - 1993 - Philosophical Studies 69 (2-3):123-127.
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  34. added 2020-07-13
    Anthropomorphism.Sarah Stebbins - 1993 - Philosophical Studies 69 (2-3):113-122.
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  35. added 2020-07-13
    Animal Suffering, Critical Anthropomorphism, and Reproductive Rights.Gordon M. Burghardt - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):14-15.
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  36. added 2020-07-13
    The Distant Blast of Lloyd Morgan's Canon.Cecilia Heyes - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (2):256-257.
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  37. added 2020-07-13
    Anecdotes and Critical Anthropomorphism.Gordon M. Burghardt - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (2):248-249.
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  38. added 2020-07-13
    Lloyd Morgan's Canon in Evolutionary Context.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):362.
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  39. added 2020-07-13
    Morgan's Canon and Anthropomorphism.R. H. Waters - 1939 - Psychological Review 46 (6):534-540.
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  40. added 2020-07-13
    Concerning the Anthropocentrism of Psychology.Robert M. Yerkes - 1933 - Psychological Review 40 (2):209-212.
  41. added 2020-03-19
    Zoomorphism.Bence Nanay - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-16.
    Anthropomorphism is the methodology of attributing human-like mental states to animals. Zoomorphism is the converse of this: it is the attribution of animal-like mental states to humans. Zoomorphism proceeds by first understanding what kind of mental states animals have and then attributing these mental states to humans. Zoomorphism has been widely used as scientific methodology especially in cognitive neuroscience. But it has not been taken seriously as a philosophical explanatory paradigm: as a way of explaining the building blocks of the (...)
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  42. added 2019-06-04
    The Farmer, the Hunter, and the Census Taker: Three Distinct Views of Animal Behavior.Mark E. Borrello - 2010 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32 (1).
  43. added 2019-06-04
    Encounters with Animal Minds.Barbara Smuts - 2001 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (5-7):5-7.
    In this article I draw on personal experience to explore the kinds of relationships that can develop between human and nonhuman animals. The first part of the article describes my encounters with wild baboons, whom I studied in East Africa over the course of many years. The baboons treated me as a social being, and to gain their trust I had to learn the troop's social conventions and behave in accordance with them. This process gave me a feeling for what (...)
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  44. added 2019-05-13
    The Semantic Problem(s) with Research on Animal Mind‐Reading.Cameron Buckner - 2014 - Mind and Language 29 (5):566-589.
    Philosophers and cognitive scientists have worried that research on animal mind-reading faces a ‘logical problem’: the difficulty of experimentally determining whether animals represent mental states (e.g. seeing) or merely the observable evidence (e.g. line-of-gaze) for those mental states. The most impressive attempt to confront this problem has been mounted recently by Robert Lurz. However, Lurz' approach faces its own logical problem, revealing this challenge to be a special case of the more general problem of distal content. Moreover, participants in this (...)
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  45. added 2019-05-13
    Anthropomorphism.A. Horowitz - 2007 - In M. Bekoff (ed.), Encyclopedia of Human-Animal Relationships. Greenwood Press. pp. 60--66.
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  46. added 2019-05-13
    Methodological Reflections on Exploring Beliefs in Animals.Manuel Bremer - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (2):347-356.
    A theory of the beliefs of non-human animals is not closed to us, only because we do not have beliefs of their kind. Starting from a theory of human beliefs and working on a building block model of propositional attitudes a theory of animal beliefs is viable. Such a theory is an example of the broader conception of a heterophenomenological approach to animal cognition. The theory aims at outlining the crucial differences between human and animal beliefs as well as the (...)
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  47. added 2019-05-13
    Social Narratives Surrounding Dolphins: Q Method Study.Paul Boyle, Sarah Gruber, Thomas Webler, Heidi Lyn, Jessica Sickler, Diana Reiss, John Fraser & Katherine Lemcke - 2006 - Society and Animals 14 (4):351-382.
    In preparation for development of an exhibit on the cognitive abilities of dolphins, the Wildlife Conservation Society sought to determine potential visitor's social perspectives about dolphin intelligence, and how these beliefs might influence acceptance of scientific information. The study reported here used Q methodology to identify these underlying social perspectives. The study of adults and the study of children each revealed three distinct perspectives. While consensus emerged among adults on points about dolphins' high intelligence and communication abilities, the three perspectives (...)
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  48. added 2019-05-13
    Colin Allen and Marc Bekoff Species of Mind: The Philosophy and Biology of Cognitive Ethology.Gary Purpura & Richard Samuels - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (2):375-380.
  49. added 2019-05-13
    Beyond Anecdotes: An Empirical Study of "Anthropomorphism".Paul Morris, Alan Costall & Margaret Fidler - 2000 - Society and Animals 8 (2):151-165.
    The status of "anthropomorphic" descriptions of animals in terms of intentions and emotions has been generally regarded as a prescriptive methodological concern. In contrast, in the study of human social psychology the nature of psychological descriptions of other people has been approached as a substantive empirical issue. Following this lead, the present study investigated the nature of people's descriptions of short videotaped episodes of animal behavior. The descriptions obtained were predominantly anthropomorphic and structured according to a limited set of "event (...)
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  50. added 2019-05-13
    Anthropomorphism.John Andrew Fisher - 1998 - In Marc Bekoff & Carron A. Meaney (eds.), Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood Press.
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