Minor Entities

Edited by Noel Saenz (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)
About this topic
Summary Supposing that holes, reflections, shadows, absences and omissions (minor entities) exist, what is their nature? Are they concrete? If so, are they material or immaterial. Take holes. If they exist, they exist in space and time. After all, the hole in my doughnut persists and is certainly located. But it does not appear to be concrete since it is, it would seem, merely the absence of the doughnut material surrounding it. But do holes, reflections, shadows, etc. even exist? Everyday speak would seem to have it so. After all, we say things like 'There is a hole in my shirt' and 'in a fit of rage, so-and-so punched a hole in the wall'. We also attribute to things like wholes, shadows and reflection causal powers: my shirt is unwearable because it has too many holes; my shadow startled me in the middle of the night; my reflection in a funny mirror made me laugh. Should we take such talk literally?
Key works For some key works on the nature and existence of minor entities, see Lewis & Lewis 1970, Casati & Varzi 1994 and Sorensen 2008.
Introductions For a nice introduction on holes, see Casati & Varzi 2014. For a nice introduction on omissions, see Bernstein 2015. For a nice introduction on nothingness that touches on issues related to minor entities, see Sorensen 2008.
Related categories
Subcategories:

148 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 148
Material to categorize
  1. Shadow in Stone.Janice Mirikitani - 1988 - Feminist Studies 14 (3):422.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. From Falsemakers to Negative Properties.Michele Paolini Paoletti - 2017 - Theoria 83 (1):53-77.
    I shall argue in this article that, if we need to admit of negative facts in our ontology as falsemakers of false propositions, then it is plausible to accept that there are also negative properties conceived of as modes. After having briefly recalled the falsemaker argument, I shall explore five different alternative interpretations of negative facts and I shall demonstrate that each alternative – except for the one involving negative properties – is affected by some problems. Later on, I shall (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  3. In the Shadow of the Muses a View of Akkadian LiteratureBefore the Muses: An Anthology of Akkadian Literature.Joan Goodnick Westenholz & Benjamin R. Foster - 1999 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 119 (1):80.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. 12. Out of the Shadows Into Truth.William Christian - 1996 - In George Grant: A Biography. University of Toronto Press. pp. 168-186.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. Impossible Cast Shadows in Ukyio-E Paintings.Roberto Casati - unknown
    A note on the interpretation of some seeming shadows in Japanese paintings.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. What’s in a Hole?Steven A. Gross - 1994 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 4 (1):76-80.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. Shadows.M. C. Balfour - 1931 - New Blackfriars 12 (130):47-52.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. Hybrids to Fill Holes in Material Property Space.M. F. Ashby * - 2005 - Philosophical Magazine 85 (26-27):3235-3257.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. 15. Escaping the Shadows.H. Donald Forbes - 2007 - In George Grant: A Guide to His Thought. University of Toronto Press. pp. 191-206.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. Epistemic “Holes” in Space-Time.John Byron Manchak - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (2):265-276.
    A number of models of general relativity seem to contain “holes” that are thought to be “physically unreasonable.” One seeks a condition to rule out these models. We examine a number of possibilities already in use. We then introduce a new condition: epistemic hole-freeness. Epistemic hole-freeness is not just a new condition—it is new in kind. In particular, it does not presuppose a distinction between space-times that are “physically reasonable” and those that are not.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  11. A Short History of the Shadow.Victor Ieronim Stoichi÷tæa - 1999
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  12. Shadows and Images: A Novel. By Meriol Trevor. [REVIEW]C. John T. Ford - 2012 - Newman Studies Journal 9 (2):102-103.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13. The Work in a Shadow.Andrzej Mencwel - 1997 - Archiwum Historii Filozofii I Myśli Społecznej 42.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. Ladder of Shadows: Reflecting on Medieval Vestige in Provence and Languedoc. [REVIEW]Robin Vose - 2010 - The Medieval Review 12.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15. Shadows and Images: A Novel. By Meriol Trevor.John T. Ford C. S. C. - 2012 - Newman Studies Journal 9 (2):102-103.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16. Holes in the Role Argument.Graham Nerlich - 1994 - In Dag Prawitz & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic and Philosophy of Science in Uppsala. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 465--482.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17. Part I. Beyond the Doubt of a Shadow.Samuel Todes & Charles Daniels - 1975 - In Don Ihde & Richard M. Zaner (eds.), Dialogues in Phenomenology. Martinus Nijhoff. pp. 86--93.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18. Enigmatic Variations.David Davies - 2012 - The Monist 95 (4):643-662.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  19. Seeing Dark Things, by Roy Sorensen.R. Price - 2012 - Mind 121 (483):849-852.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  20. The Shadow of the Absolute.Gustav E. Mueller - 1952 - Review of Metaphysics 6 (1):45 - 64.
    All nations on this little planet earth, in all periods of their self-conscious history, are agreed on relating themselves back to an absolute world-ground which is also the goal of love; the source of existence is responded to in gratitude and awe. "Religio" literally means this "back-tie." Religion is the consensus gentium. The many world-religions appeal to the same Absolute in many linguistic symbols. We call a symbol which appeals to the Absolute a mythical expression. "Tao" or "Central Harmony" in (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21. Persons, Lines, and Shadows.John Kleinig - 1989 - Ethics 100 (1):108-115.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
Holes
  1. Ontological Dependence, Spatial Location, and Part Structure.Friederike Moltmann - 2019 - In Roberta Ferrario, Stefano Borgo, Laure Vieu & Claudio Masolo (eds.), Festschrift for Nicola Guarino. Amsterdam: IOS Publications.
    This paper discusses attributively limited concrete objects such as disturbances (holes, folds, scratches etc), tropes, and attitudinal objects, which lack the sort of spatial location or part structures expected of them as concrete objects. The paper proposes an account in terms of (quasi-Fregean) abstraction, which has so far been applied only to abstract objects.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. Holes and Other Superficialities.Peter Simons - 1997 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (3):734-736.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  3. Counting the Holes.Achille C. Varzi & Roberto Casati - 2004 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (1):23.
    Argle claimed that holes supervene on their material hosts, and that every truth about holes boils down to a truth about perforated things. This may well be right, assuming holes are perforations. But we still need an explicit theory of holes to do justice to the ordinary way of counting holes--or so says Cargle.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  4. Immaterial Beings.Kristie Miller - 2007 - The Monist 90 (3):349-371.
    This paper defends a view that falls somewhere between the two extremes of inflationary and deflationary accounts of holes, and it does so by rejecting the initial conceptualisation of holes in terms of absences. Once we move away from this conception, I argue, we can see that there are no special metaphysical problems associated with holes. Rather, whatever one’s preferred metaphysics of paradigm material objects, that account can equally be applied to holes. This means that like the deflationist, I am (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. On Metaphysical Analysis.David Braddon-Mitchell & Kristie Miller - 2015 - In Jonathan Schaffer & Barry Loewer (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to David Lewis. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Metaphysics is largely an a priori business, albeit a business that is sensitive to the findings of the physical sciences. But sometimes what the physical sciences tell us about our own world underdetermines what we should think about the metaphysics of how things actually are, and even how they could be. This chapter has two aims. The first is to defend a particular conception of the methodology of a priori metaphysics by, in part, exemplifying that methodology and revealing its results. (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. On Space-Time Singularities, Holes, and Extensions.John Byron Manchak - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):1066-1076.
    Here, we clarify the relationship among three space-time conditions of interest: geodesic completeness, hole-freeness, and inextendibility. In addition, we introduce a related fourth condition: effective completeness.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  7. Holes Cannot Be Counted as Immaterial Objects.Phillip John Meadows - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (4):841-852.
    In this paper I argue that the theory that holes are immaterial objects faces an objection that has traditionally been thought to be the principal difficulty with its main rival, which construes holes as material parts of material objects. Consequently, one of the principal advantages of identifying holes with immaterial objects is illusory: its apparent ease of accounting for truths about number of holes. I argue that in spite of this we should not think of holes as material parts of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. The Power of Holes.Daisuke Kachi - 2011 - Ontology Meeting: A Supplementary Volume for 2011, February Meeting:7-11.
    Firstly I define a hole as a dependent matter-less endurant, which is a little modification of Casati and Varzi’s definition. Adopting this definition, holes seem to invite three problems about causation: (1)causal closure, (2)ungrounded disposition and (3)causal overdetermination. I will defend my definition against all these problems by showing that holes are limiting cases of physical endurants rather than their opposition and that they have causal powers in a broad sense.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. Holes and Other Superficialities by Roberto Casati and Achille C. Varzi. [REVIEW]D. M. Armstrong - 1996 - Journal of Philosophy 93 (11):585-586.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. Holes and Other Superficialities.Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi - 1994 - MIT Press.
    Holes are a good example of the sort of entity that down-to-earth philosophers would be inclined to expel from their ontological inventory. In this work we argue instead in favor of their existence and explore the consequences of this liberality—odd as they might appear. We examine the ontology of holes, their geometry, their part-whole relations, their identity and their causal role, the ways we perceive them. We distinguish three basic kinds of holes: blind hollows, perforating tunnels, and internal cavities, treating (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   63 citations  
  11. The Magic of Holes.Achille C. Varzi - 2019 - In Pina Marsico & Luca Tateo (eds.), Ordinary Things and Their Extraordinary Meanings. Charlotte (NC): Information Age Publishing. pp. 21-33.
    There is no doughnut without a hole, the saying goes. And that’s true. If you think you can come up with an exception, it simply wouldn’t be a doughnut. Holeless doughnuts are like extensionless color, or durationless sound—nonsense. Does it follow, then, that when we buy a doughnut we really purchase two sorts of thing—the edible stuff plus the little chunk of void in the middle? Surely we cannot just take the doughnut and leave the hole at the grocery store, (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12. Review of Roberto Casati and Achille Varzi, Holes and Other Superficialities. [REVIEW]David Lewis & Stephanie Lewis - 1996 - Philosophical Review 105 (1):77-79.
    Argle. I’ve said it before and I’ll say it again: all things are material. Either holes are somehow material, or else there are no such things. Maybe a hole is the material hole-lining that, as we so misleadingly say, “surrounds” the hole; or else whatever ostensible reference we make to holes is secretly some other sort of language-game altogether, or it’s fictitious reference, or it’s just plain mistaken.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  13. Surfaces, Holes, Shadows.Roberto Casati - 2009 - In Robin Le Poidevin (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics. Routledge. pp. 382--388.
    Minor entities provide an interesting testbed for metaphysical theories, but also for investigating the structure of concepts, as their concepts appear to be tributary of different representational systems.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. Seeing Dark Things, by Roy Sorensen. New York, NY: OUP, 2008. Pp. Ix Roy Sorensen's Book, Seeing Dark Things, Begins with 'The Eclipse Riddle'. Suppose That One is Viewing In Between Oneself and the Sun Are Two Planets, One Smaller and Closer, Called. [REVIEW]Woodhouse Lane - 2012 - Mind 121 (483):483.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15. What Angles Can Tell Us About What Holes Are Not.Phillip John Meadows - 2013 - Erkenntnis 78 (2):319-331.
    In this paper I argue that holes are not objects, but should instead be construed as properties or relations. The argument proceeds by first establishing a claim about angles: that angles are not objects, but properties or relations. It is then argued that holes and angles belong to the same category, on the grounds that they share distinctive existence and identity conditions. This provides an argument in favour of categorizing holes as one categorizes angles. I then argue that a commitment (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  16. Slots in Universals.Cody Gilmore - 2013 - Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 8:187-233.
    Slot theory is the view that (i) there exist such entities as argument places, or ‘slots’, in universals, and that (ii) a universal u is n-adic if and only if there are n slots in u. I argue that those who take properties and relations to be abundant, fine-grained, non-set-theoretical entities face pressure to be slot theorists. I note that slots permit a natural account of the notion of adicy. I then consider a series of ‘slot-free’ accounts of that notion (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  17. Compositional Pluralism and Composition as Identity.Kris McDaniel - 2014 - In Donald Baxter & Aaron Cotnoir (eds.), Composition as Identity. Oxford University Press.
    Let’s start with compositional pluralism. Elsewhere I’ve defended compositional pluralism, which we can provisionally understand as the doctrine that there is more than one basic parthood relation. (You might wonder what I mean by “basic”. We’ll discuss this in a bit.) On the metaphysics I currently favor, there are regions of spacetime and material objects, each of which enjoy bear a distinct parthood relation to members of their own kind. Perhaps there are other kinds of objects that enjoy a kind (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  18. Antirealism and Holes in the World.Michael Hand - 1990 - Philosophy 65 (252):218 - 224.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19. Foreword to ''Lesser Kinds''.Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi - 2007 - The Monist 90 (3):331-332.
    This issue of The Monist is devoted to the metaphysics of lesser kinds, which is to say those kinds of entity that are not generally recognized as occupying a prominent position in the categorial structure of the world. Why bother? We offer two sorts of reason. The first is methodological. In mathematics, it is common practice to study certain functions (for instance) by considering limit cases: What if x = 0? What if x is larger than any assigned value? Physics, (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. Holes.Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi - 2014 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    A brief introduction to the main philosophical problems and theories about the nature of holes and such-like nothingnesses.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  21. Minor Entities : Surfaces, Holes, and Shadows.Roberto Casati - 2009 - In Robin Le Poidevin (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics. Routledge.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22. Perché i buchi sono importanti. Problemi di rappresentazione spaziale.Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi - 1997 - Sapere 63 (2):38–43.
    The methodological anarchy that characterizes much recent research in artificial intelligence and other cognitive sciences has brought into existence (sometimes resumed) a large variety of entities from a correspondingly large variety of (sometimes dubious) ontological categories. Recent work in spatial representation and reasoning is particularly indicative of this trend. Our aim in this paper is to suggest some ways of reconciling such a luxurious proliferation of entities with the sheer sobriety of good philosophy.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. Topological Essentialism.Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi - 2000 - Philosophical Studies 100 (3):217-236.
    Considering topology as an extension of mereology, this paper analyses topological variants of mereological essentialism (the thesis that an object could not have different parts than the ones it has). In particular, we examine de dicto and de re versions of two theses: (i) that an object cannot change its external connections (e.g., adjacent objects cannot be separated), and (ii) that an object cannot change its topological genus (e.g., a doughnut cannot turn into a sphere). Stronger forms of structural essentialism, (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24. Holes.David K. Lewis & Stephanie Lewis - 1970 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 48 (2):206 – 212.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   60 citations  
  25. Immaterial Beings.Kristie Miller - 2007 - The Monist 90 (3):349-371.
    This paper defends a view that falls somewhere between the two extremes of inflationary and deflationary accounts, and it does so by rejecting the initial conceptualisation of holes in terms of absences. Once we move away from this conception, I argue, we can see that there are no special metaphysical problems associated with holes. Rather, whatever one’s preferred metaphysics of paradigm material objects, that account can equally be applied to holes. This means that like the deflationist, I am entity monist: (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  26. Doughnuts.Achille C. Varzi - 2004 - Reports on Philosophy 22:49–59.
    In classical topology the only part of a doughnut that matters is the edible part. Here I review some good reasons for reversing the order and focusing on the hole instead. By studying the topology of the hole one can learn interesting things about the morphology of the doughnut (its shape), and by studying the morphology of the hole in turn one can learn a lot about the doughnut’s dynamic properties (its patterns of interaction with the environment). The price--of course--is (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. Reasoning About Space: The Hole Story.Achille C. Varzi - 1996 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 4:3-39.
    This is a revised and extended version of the formal theory of holes outlined in the Appendix to the book "Holes and Other Superficialities". The first part summarizes the basic framework (ontology, mereology, topology, morphology). The second part emphasizes its relevance to spatial reasoning and to the semantics of spatial prepositions in natural language. In particular, I discuss the semantics of ‘in’ and provide an account of such fallacious arguments as “There is a hole in the sheet. The sheet is (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  28. Holes as Regions of Spacetime.Andrew Wake, Joshua Spencer & Gregory Fowler - 2007 - The Monist 90 (3):372-378.
    We discuss the view that a hole is identical to the region of spacetime at which it is located. This view is more parsimonious than the view that holes are sui generus entities located at those regions surrounded by their hosts and it is more plausible than the view that there are no holes. We defend the spacetime view from several objections.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
Reflections
  1. Relocating the Figure of Jikaku (Self-Consciousness) in Nishida’s Intuition and Reflection in Self-Consciousness (1917).Montserrat Crespin Perales - 2012 - In Toru Arakawa (ed.), Practicing Japanese Philosophy. Mind and Activity. Tokio, Japón: pp. 34-57.
    Relocating the figure of Jikaku (Self-Consciousness) in Nishida’s Intuition and Reflection in Self-consciousness.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 148