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1 — 50 / 171
  1. added 2020-05-07
    Cluster Approach in Innovation and Investment Entrepreneurial Activity in Free Economic Zones Promoting.Igor Britchenko & Peter Jarosz - 2018 - In Igor Britchenko & Yevheniia Polishchuk (eds.), Development of small and medium enterprises: the EU and east-partnership countries experience: collective monograph. pp. 117 - 129.
    In markets globalization and increasing competition context, governments of the world’s leading countries are forced to use complex organizational and economic instruments to support the countries’ economy. One of such instruments is creation of Free Economic Zones (FEZ) with favorable conditions for doing business. Over the last decade activation process of Free Economic Zones mechanism disposal for the economy of a particular country development has been possible to observe. If in 1995 there were approximately 500 zones in the world, now (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-07
    Development of Small and Medium Enterprises: The EU and East-Partnership Countries Experience: Monograph.Igor Britchenko & Ye Polishchuk (eds.) - 2018 - Wydawnictwo Państwowej Wyższej Szkoły Zawodowej im. prof. Stanisława Tarnowskiego w Tarnobrzegu.
    The monograph reveals challenging issues of small and medium enterprises development in the European Union and East-Partnership countries. Special attention is paid to a new paradigm of financing investments and fostering innovations at all levels of legal entities including SMEs, enhancing innovative entrepreneurship in conditions of global social and technological challenges as well as determining priority sectors for small and medium enterprises as drivers of economic growth. The authors of the monograph emphasize on such European approaches to financing SMEs as (...)
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  3. added 2020-03-24
    Why Economists Do Not Convince Folks?Tommaso Ostillio - 2019 - The Digital Scholar: Philosopher's Lab 2 (4):168-174.
    This paper argues that economics is epistemologically limited in at least two main ways: first, economics fails at managing uncertainty as effectively as natural sciences do; second, economics assumes that rational patterns of utility maximization are real just to ensure deduction within economic models. Hence, this paper maintains that the high level of abstraction from reality of economics limits its explanations of its constantly changing ontology, i.e. markets. In particular, this paper shows that the epistemological limitations of economics become evident (...)
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  4. added 2020-03-23
    On the Individuation of Choice Options.Roberto Fumagalli - forthcoming - Philosophy of the Social Sciences.
    Decision theorists have attempted to accommodate several violations of decision theory’s axiomatic requirements by modifying how agents’ choice options are individuated and formally represented. In recent years, prominent authors have worried that these modifications threaten to trivialize decision theory, make the theory unfalsifiable, impose overdemanding requirements on decision theorists and hamper decision theory’s internal coherence. In this paper, I draw on leading descriptive and normative works in contemporary decision theory to address these prominent concerns. In doing so, I articulate and (...)
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  5. added 2020-03-06
    Introduction to Symposium.Magdalena Małecka & Michiru Nagatsu - 2019 - Journal of Economic Methodology 26 (3):177-178.
  6. added 2020-03-06
    Contemporary Philosophy and Social Science: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue.Michiru Nagatsu & Attilia Ruzzene (eds.) - 2019 - London: Bloomsbury Academic.
  7. added 2020-02-18
    Feminism and Economics.Julie Nelson - 1995 - Journal of Economic Perspectives 9 (2):131-148.
    An article in The Chronicle of Higher Education of June 30, 1993, reported, “Two decades after it began redefining debates” in many other disciplines, “feminist thinking seems suddenly to have arrived in economics.” Many economists, of course, did not happen to be in the station when this train arrived, belated as it might be. Many who might have heard rumor of its coming have not yet learned just what arguments are involved or what it promises for the refinement of the (...)
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  8. added 2019-06-14
    Explanatory Value in Context: The Curious Case of Hotelling’s Location Model.Emrah Aydinonat & Emin Köksal - 2019 - European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 26 (5):1-32.
    There is a striking contrast between the significance of Harold Hotelling’s contribution to industrial economics and the fact that his location model was invalid, unrealistic and non-robust. It is difficult to make sense of the explanatory value of Hotelling’s model based on philosophical accounts that emphasize logical validity, representational adequacy, and robustness as determinants of explanatory value. However, these accounts are misleading because they overlook the context within which the explanatory value added of a model is apprehensible. We present Hotelling’s (...)
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  9. added 2019-06-06
    Idealization and the Aims of Economics: Three Cheers for Instrumentalism: Julian Reiss.Julian Reiss - 2012 - Economics and Philosophy 28 (3):363-383.
    This paper aims to provide characterizations of realism and instrumentalism that are philosophically interesting and applicable to economics; and to defend instrumentalism against realism as a methodological stance in economics. Starting point is the observation that ‘all models are false’, which, or so I argue, is difficult to square with the realist's aim of truth, even if the latter is understood as ‘partial’ or ‘approximate’. The three cheers in favour of instrumentalism are: Once we have usefulness, truth is redundant. There (...)
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    Review of Representation and Structure in Economics. The Methodology of Econometric Models of the Consumption Function. [REVIEW]Federica Russo - 2010 - Economics and Philosophy 26 (1):114-118.
  11. added 2019-06-06
    Coping Rationally with Ambiguity: Robustness Versus Ambiguity-Aversion: Klaus Nehring.Klaus Nehring - 2009 - Economics and Philosophy 25 (3):303-334.
    Al-Najjar and Weinstein argue that the extant literature on ambiguity aversion is not successful in accounting for Ellsberg choices as rational responses to ambiguity. We concur, and propose that rational choice under ambiguity aims at robustness rather than avoidance of ambiguity. A central argument explains why robust choice is intrinsically context-dependent and legitimately violates standard choice consistency conditions. If choice consistency is forced, however, ambiguity-aversion emerges as a semi-rational response to ambiguity.
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  12. added 2019-06-06
    Method and Appraisal in Economics, 1976–20061.Uskali Mäki - 2008 - Journal of Economic Methodology 15 (4):409-423.
    No abstractThe Lakatosian stage in the progress of the philosophy and methodology of economics has served a useful role in helping launch a systematic and collective field of inquiry. In the course of the thirty years between 1976 and 2006, the field has advanced beyond that stage, but much of the spirit of the original ambitions had better be retained. As much as ever, if not more than ever, we need economic methodologies for normatively appraising assumptions, models, theories, explanations, research (...)
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  13. added 2019-06-06
    Review of William Stanley Jevons and the Making of Modern Economics. [REVIEW]D. Wade Hands - 2007 - Economics and Philosophy 23 (2):252-256.
  14. added 2019-06-06
    Building Economic Machines: The FCC Auctions.Francesco Guala - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32 (3):453-477.
    The auctions of the Federal Communication Commission, designed in 1994 to sell spectrum licences, are one of the few widely acclaimed and copied cases of economic engineering to date. This paper includes a detailed narrative of the process of designing, testing and implementing the FCC auctions, focusing in particular on the role played by game theoretical modelling and laboratory experimentation. Some general remarks about the scope, interpretation and use of rational choice models open and conclude the paper.
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  15. added 2019-06-06
    Marco Del Seta, Review of On the Reliability of Economic Models by Daniel Little. [REVIEW]Marco Del Seta - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (4):730-732.
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  16. added 2019-06-06
    Persuasion and Economic Efficiency: The Cost-Benefit Analysis of Banning Abortion: Julianne Nelson.Julianne Nelson - 1993 - Economics and Philosophy 9 (2):229-252.
    How do economists persuade their readers that one policy is superior to another? A glance at the literature on welfare economics quickly provides the answer to this question: Economists enter policy debates armed with mathematical models, evaluating options on the basis of their consequences. Economists typically classify a policy change as a welfare improvement with respect to the status quo if the gain realized by the winners exceeds the harm sustained by the losers. The best policy becomes the one that (...)
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  17. added 2019-06-06
    Lakatosian Perspectives on General Equilibrium Analysis.Roger E. Backhouse - 1993 - Economics and Philosophy 9 (2):271-282.
  18. added 2019-06-06
    Lakatosian Perspectives on General Equilibrium Analysis: Roger E. Backhouse.Roger E. Backhouse - 1993 - Economics and Philosophy 9 (2):271-282.
  19. added 2019-06-05
    Models in Economics Are Not Nomological Machines.Cyril Hédoin - 2014 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44 (4):424-459.
    This paper evaluates Nancy Cartwright’s critique of economic models. Cartwright argues that economics fails to build relevant “nomological machines” able to isolate capacities. In this paper, I contend that many economic models are not used as nomological machines. I give some evidence for this claim and build on an inferential and pragmatic approach to economic modeling. Modeling in economics responds to peculiar inferential norms where a “good” model is essentially a model that enhances our knowledge about possible worlds. As a (...)
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  20. added 2019-04-07
    Userization.Andrej Poleev - 2012 - Enzymes 10.
    100 years after creating the Federal Reserve System (FED), whose legality and modus operandi remains questionable, there is time to rethink the national and also international payment system as a whole. The key element of existing economic relationships is the money that makes barter-free exchange possible. But monetary economics is only one aspect of more common political framework designed and established for retention of power. Such egoistic political interest proves its own relevancy and exerts ideological pressure on economic thought that (...)
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  21. added 2019-02-19
    A Puzzle About Economic Explanation: Examining the Cournot and Bertrand Models of Duopoly Competition.Jonathan Nebel - 2017 - Dissertation, Kansas State University
    Economists use various models to explain why it is that firms are capable of pricing above marginal cost. In this paper, we will examine two of them: the Cournot and Bertrand duopoly models. Economists generally accept both models as good explanations of the phenomenon, but the two models contradict each other in various important ways. The puzzle is that two inconsistent explanations are both regarded as good explanations for the same phenomenon. This becomes especially worrisome when the two models are (...)
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  22. added 2018-07-14
    Ethics of the Scientist Qua Policy Advisor: Inductive Risk, Uncertainty, and Catastrophe in Climate Economics.David Frank - 2019 - Synthese:3123-3138.
    This paper discusses ethical issues surrounding Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of the economic effects of climate change, and how climate economists acting as policy advisors ought to represent the uncertain possibility of catastrophe. Some climate economists, especially Martin Weitzman, have argued for a precautionary approach where avoiding catastrophe should structure climate economists’ welfare analysis. This paper details ethical arguments that justify this approach, showing how Weitzman’s “fat tail” probabilities of climate catastrophe pose ethical problems for widely used IAMs. The main (...)
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  23. added 2018-06-13
    The Diversity of Models as a Means to Better Explanations in Economics.Emrah Aydinonat - forthcoming - Journal of Economic Methodology 25.
    In Economics Rules, Dani Rodrik (2015) argues that what makes economics powerful despite the limitations of each and every model is its diversity of models. Rodrik suggests that the diversity of models in economics improves its explanatory capacities, but he does not fully explain how. I offer a clearer picture of how models relate to explanations of particular economic facts or events, and suggest that the diversity of models is a means to better economic explanations.
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  24. added 2018-03-01
    What Does Interdisciplinarity Look Like in Practice: Mapping Interdisciplinarity and its Limits in the Environmental Sciences.Miles MacLeod & Michiru Nagatsu - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 67:74-84.
    In this paper we take a close look at current interdisciplinary modeling practices in the environmental sciences, and suggest that closer attention needs to be paid to the nature of scientific practices when investigating and planning interdisciplinarity. While interdisciplinarity is often portrayed as a medium of novel and transformative methodological work, current modeling strategies in the environmental sciences are conservative, avoiding methodological conflict, while confining interdisciplinary interactions to a relatively small set of pre-existing modeling frameworks and strategies (a process we (...)
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  25. added 2018-02-16
    Overmathematisation in Game Theory: Pitting the Nash Equilibrium Refinement Programme Against the Epistemic Programme.Boudewijn de Bruin - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (3):290-300.
    The paper argues that the Nash Equilibrium Refinement Programme was less successful than its competitor, the Epistemic Programme. The prime criterion of success is the extent to which the programmes were able to reach the key objective guiding non-cooperative game theory for much of the twentieth century, namely, to develop a complete characterisation of the strategic rationality of economic agents in the form of the ultimate solution concept for any normal form and extensive game. The paper explains this in terms (...)
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  26. added 2018-02-02
    10 Truthlikeness and Economic Theories.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2002 - In Uskali Mäki (ed.), Fact and Fiction in Economics: Models, Realism and Social Construction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 214.
    In a series of carefully argued and stimulating papers on realism, Usakli Maki has pointed out that economic theories typically are unrealistic in two senses: by violating "the-whole-truth" and "nothing-but-the-truth" (Maki 1989, 1992b, 1994b). He suggests that realism in economics can still be rescued by regarding theories as partially true descriptions of essences and as lawlike statements about tendencies. In this chapter, I defend realism by an alternative strategy: idealizational (or "isolational") statements are counterfactual conditional (Niiniluoto 1986), and the concepts (...)
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  27. added 2017-09-18
    Les explications partielles potentielles : entre capacités et possibilités.Philippe Verreault-Julien - 2010 - Ithaque 7:69-87.
    N. Emrah Aydinonat offre une caractérisation des explications par la main invisible. Celles-ci seraient des explications partielles potentielles et seraient en mesure de nous indiquer des capacités à l’œuvre dans le monde et élargiraient notre horizon intellectuel en conceptualisant des possibilités jusqu’alors inédites. Je montre que Nancy Cartwright offre un argument permettant de douter de cette première possibilité. La science économique n’ayant que peu de principes sûrs à sa disposition et reposant ainsi sur des hypothèses auxiliaires, il est impossible d’effectuer (...)
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  28. added 2017-02-15
    Neural Findings and Economic Models: Why Brains Have Limited Relevance for Economics.Roberto Fumagalli - 2014 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44 (5):606-629.
    Proponents of neuroeconomics often argue that better knowledge of the human neural architecture enables economists to improve standard models of choice. In their view, these improvements provide compelling reasons to use neural findings in constructing and evaluating economic models. In a recent article, I criticized this view by pointing to the trade-offs between the modeling desiderata valued by neuroeconomists and other economists, respectively. The present article complements my earlier critique by focusing on three modeling desiderata that figure prominently in economic (...)
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  29. added 2017-02-15
    The "Model Reader" and the Thermodynamic Model.Robert Artigiani - 1985 - Substance 14 (2):64.
  30. added 2017-02-14
    Review: Embryos in Wax: Models From the Ziegler Studio (Review). [REVIEW]Scott F. Gilbert & Jonathan Bard - 2003 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46 (1):156.
  31. added 2017-02-14
    Biology, Economics, and Models of Humanity's Future: What Have We Learnedsince Malthus?Donald B. Marron - 1999 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 42 (2):195-206.
  32. added 2017-02-13
    Idealization in Economics Modeling.Demetris Portides - 2013 - In Hanne Andersen, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao González, Thomas Uebel & Gregory Wheeler (eds.), New Challenges to Philosophy of Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 253--263.
  33. added 2017-02-07
    Economic Models and Practice in Africa.A. Mafeje - 1998 - Diogenes 46 (184):117-127.
  34. added 2017-02-02
    A Realist Model of Knowledge: With a Phenomenological Deconstruction of its Model of Man.O'Neill John - 1986 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 16 (1):1-19.
  35. added 2017-02-01
    Imagination and Imaging in Model Building.Mary S. Morgan - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):753-766.
    Modelling became one of the primary tools of mathematical economic research in the twentieth century, but when we look at examples of how nonanalogical models were first built in economics, both the process of making representations and aspects of the representing relation remain opaque. Like early astronomers, economists have to imagine how the hidden parts of their world are arranged and to make images, that is, create models, to represent how they work. The case of the Edgeworth Box, a model (...)
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  36. added 2017-01-31
    Paradox and Explanation: A Reply to Mr. Skorupski I.Robin Horton - 1973 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 3 (3):231-256.
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  37. added 2017-01-31
    Paradox and Explanation: A Reply to Mr. Skorupski II.Robin Horton - 1973 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 3 (4):289-312.
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  38. added 2017-01-30
    How Economists Model the World Into Numbers.Marcel Boumans - 2005 - Routledge.
    Economics is dominated by model building, therefore a comprehension of how such models work is vital to understanding the discipline. This book provides a critical analysis of the economist's favourite tool, and as such will be an enlightening read for some, and an intriguing one for others.
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  39. added 2017-01-27
    Theories and Models.Axel Leijonhufvud - forthcoming - Journal of Economic Methodology.
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  40. added 2017-01-27
    Understanding with Theoretical Models.Petri Ylikoski & N. Emrah Aydinonat - 2014 - Journal of Economic Methodology 21 (1):19-36.
    This paper discusses the epistemic import of highly abstract and simplified theoretical models using Thomas Schelling’s checkerboard model as an example. We argue that the epistemic contribution of theoretical models can be better understood in the context of a cluster of models relevant to the explanatory task at hand. The central claim of the paper is that theoretical models make better sense in the context of a menu of possible explanations. In order to justify this claim, we introduce a distinction (...)
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  41. added 2017-01-26
    18 Two Models of Idealization in Economics.Alan Nelson - 2001 - In Uskali Mäki (ed.), The Economic World View: Studies in the Ontology of Economics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 359.
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  42. added 2017-01-26
    Steven Rappaport, Models and Reality in Economics Reviewed By.Piers Rawling - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20 (4):279-281.
  43. added 2017-01-25
    Measure for Measure: How Economists Model the World Into Numbers.Marcel Boumans - 2001 - Social Research 68.
    The practice of economic science is dominated by model building. To evaluate economic policy, models are built and used to produce numbers to inform us about economic phenomena. Although phenomena are detected through the use of observed data, they are in general not directly observable. To 'see' them we need instruments. More particularly, to obtain numerical facts of the phenomena we need measuring instruments. This paper will argue that in economics models function as such instruments of observation, more specific as (...)
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  44. added 2017-01-21
    Book Review:On the Reliability of Economic Models Daniel Little. [REVIEW]Marco Setdela - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (4):730-.
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  45. added 2017-01-20
    Credibility as a Criterion for Model Appraisal in Economics.Till Grüne-Yanoff - unknown
    Economists evaluate their models in terms of credibility. For example, Rothschild and Stiglitz argued from a model of a completive insurance market that under the “plausible” (632) assumption of information asymmetry, one can “credibly” infer the non-existence of equilibria in specific situations – despite the fact that, as they admit, the real ‘market … for insurance is probably not competitive’ (648).1 Another example is Richard Thaler’s column on anomalies of (micro-) economic theory. From 1987 to 2001, he headed every article (...)
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  46. added 2017-01-20
    Preface to 'Economic Models as Credible Worlds or as Isolating Tools?'.Till Grüne-Yanoff - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):1 - 2.
    It is argued that one can learn from minimal economic models. Minimal models are models that are not similar to the real world, do not resemble some of its features, and do not adhere to accepted regularities. One learns from a model if constructing and analysing the model affects one’s confidence in hypotheses about the world. Economic models, I argue, are often assessed for their credibility. If a model is judged credible, it is considered to be a relevant possibility. Considering (...)
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  47. added 2017-01-20
    Economic Models and Historical Explanation.Steven Rappaport - 1995 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 25 (4):421-441.
    In investigating their models, economists do not appear to engage much in the activities many philosophers take to be essential to scientific understanding of the world, activities such as testing hypotheses and establishing laws. How, then, can economic models explain anything about the real world? Borrowing from William Dray, an explanation of what something really is, as opposed to an explanation of why something happens, is the subsumption of the explanandum under a suitable concept. One way economic models explain real-world (...)
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  48. added 2017-01-20
    Comment on Professor Horton's 'Paradox and Explanation'.John Skorupski - 1975 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 5 (1):63-70.
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  49. added 2017-01-19
    Imagination and Imaging in Economic Model Building.Mary Morgan - unknown
    Modelling became one of the primary tools of economic research in the 20th century and economists understand their mathematical models as giving some kind of representation of the economic world, one adequate enough for the purpose of reasoning about that world. But when we look at examples of how non-analogical models were first built in economics, both the process of making representations and aspects of the representing relation remain opaque. Like early astronomers, economists have to imagine how the hidden parts (...)
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  50. added 2017-01-16
    Arthurian Legend and Literature, an Annotated Bibliography. Edmund Reiss, Louise Horner Reiss, Beverly Taylor.Valerie M. Lagorio - 1986 - Speculum 61 (4):991-992.
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