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  1. added 2018-11-26
    Proton Gradients at the Origin of Life.Nick Lane - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (6):1600217.
    Chemiosmotic coupling − the harnessing of electrochemical ion gradients across membranes to drive metabolism − is as universally conserved as the genetic code. As argued previously in these pages, such deep conservation suggests that ion gradients arose early in evolution, and might have played a role in the origin of life. Alkaline hydrothermal vents harbour pH gradients of similar polarity and magnitude to those employed by modern cells, one of many properties that make them attractive models for life's origin. Their (...)
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  2. added 2018-11-25
    Mechanical Systems Biology of C. Elegans Touch Sensation.Michael Krieg, Alexander R. Dunn & Miriam B. Goodman - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (3):335-344.
    The sense of touch informs us of the physical properties of our surroundings and is a critical aspect of communication. Before touches are perceived, mechanical signals are transmitted quickly and reliably from the skin's surface to mechano‐electrical transduction channels embedded within specialized sensory neurons. We are just beginning to understand how soft tissues participate in force transmission and how they are deformed. Here, we review empirical and theoretical studies of single molecules and molecular ensembles thought to be involved in mechanotransmission (...)
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  3. added 2018-11-24
    Innovationstheorie Und Die Evolution Menschlicher Fähigkeiten: Beispiel Empathie.Alfred Gierer - 1998 - Nova Acta Leopoldina 77 (304):85-98.
    A summarizing English version on “Theory of Innovation and the Evolution of General Human Capabilities, such as Cognition-based Empathy” is included in the download. Den biologisch modernen Menschentyp charakterisieren sehr allgemeine Fähigkeiten, wie begriffliche Sprache, strategisches Denken und kognitionsgestützte Empathie. Neurobiologisch kann Empathiefähigkeit als eine Verbindung von Repräsentationen von Mitmenschen mit dem je eigenen Gefühlszentren im Gehirn angesehen werden. In Grundzügen ist sie vor vielleicht 100 000 Jahren als Folge von Mutationen der Erbsubstanz DNA entstanden. Für solche genetische Innovationen spielten (...)
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  4. added 2018-11-19
    Script, Code, Information: How to Differentiate Analogies in the "Prehistory" of Molecular Biology.Werner Kogge - 2012 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 34 (4):603-635.
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  5. added 2018-11-12
    Replicating and Cycling Stores of Information Perpetuate Life.Antony M. Jose - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (4):1700161.
    Life is perpetuated through a single-cell bottleneck between generations in many organisms. Here, I highlight that this cell holds information in two distinct stores: in the linear DNA sequence that is replicated during cell divisions, and in the three-dimensional arrangement of molecules that can change during development but is recreated at the start of each generation. These two interdependent stores of information – one replicating with each cell division and the other cycling with a period of one generation – coevolve (...)
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  6. added 2018-11-12
    Surveillance of Retroelement Expression and Nucleic‐Acid Immunity by Histone Methyltransferase SETDB1.Yong‐Kook Kang - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800058.
    In human cancers, histone methyltransferase SETDB1 (SET domain, bifurcated 1) is frequently overexpressed but its significance in carcinogenesis remains elusive. A recent study shows that SETDB1 downregulation induces de‐repression of retroelements and innate immunity in cancer cells. The possibility of SETDB1 functioning as a surveillant of retroelement expression is discussed in this study: the cytoplasmic presence of retroelement‐derived nucleic acids (RdNAs) drives SETDB1 into the nucleus by the RNA‐interference route, rendering the corresponding retroelement transcriptionally inert. These RdNAs could, therefore, be (...)
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  7. added 2018-11-12
    The Light-Driven Sodium Ion Pump: A New Player in Rhodopsin Research.Hideaki E. Kato, Keiichi Inoue, Hideki Kandori & Osamu Nureki - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (12):1274-1282.
    Rhodopsins are one of the most studied photoreceptor protein families, and ion‐translocating rhodopsins, both pumps and channels, have recently attracted broad attention because of the development of optogenetics. Recently, a new functional class of ion‐pumping rhodopsins, an outward Na+ pump, was discovered, and following structural and functional studies enable us to compare three functionally different ion‐pumping rhodopsins: outward proton pump, inward Cl− pump, and outward Na+ pump. Here, we review the current knowledge on structure‐function relationships in these three light‐driven pumps, (...)
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  8. added 2018-11-12
    Golgi Defects Enhance APP Amyloidogenic Processing in Alzheimer's Disease.Gunjan Joshi & Yanzhuang Wang - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (3):240-247.
    Increased amyloid beta (Aβ) production by sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the β‐ and γ‐secretases contributes to the etiological basis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This process requires APP and the secretases to be in the same subcellular compartments, such as the endosomes. Since all membrane organelles in the endomembrane system are kinetically and functionally linked, any defects in the trafficking and sorting machinery would be expected to change the functional properties of the whole system. The Golgi (...)
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  9. added 2018-11-11
    Oxidative Stress Management in the Hair Follicle: Could Targeting NRF2 Counter Age-Related Hair Disorders and Beyond?Laura Jadkauskaite, Pierre A. Coulombe, Matthias Schäfer, Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova, Ralf Paus & Iain S. Haslam - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (8):1700029.
    Widespread expression of the transcription factor, nuclear factor (erythroid‐derived 2)‐like 2 (NRF2), which maintains redox homeostasis, has recently been identified in the hair follicle (HF). Small molecule activators of NRF2 may therefore be useful in the management of HF pathologies associated with redox imbalance, ranging from HF greying and HF ageing via androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata to chemotherapy‐induced hair loss. Indeed, NRF2 activation has been shown to prevent peroxide‐induced hair growth inhibition. Multiple parameters can increase the levels of reactive (...)
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  10. added 2018-11-11
    Inflammation and Insulin Resistance: New Targets Encourage New Thinking.Andrew M. F. Johnson, Shaocong Hou & Pingping Li - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (9):1700036.
    Galectin-3 and LTB4 are pro-inflammatory molecules recently shown to directly cause insulin resistance in mouse and human cells. They are highly expressed in the obese state, and can be targeted both genetically and pharmacologically to improve insulin sensitivity in vivo. This expands on previous research showing that targeting inflammatory cytokines can be insulin sensitizing in animal models. However, translating these potential therapies into the human setting remains challenging. Here we review this latest research, and discuss how balancing their pleiotropic functions, (...)
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  11. added 2018-11-11
    A Brake for B Cell Proliferation.Julia Jellusova & Robert C. Rickert - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (11):1700079.
    B cell activation is accompanied by metabolic adaptations to meet the increased energetic demands of proliferation. The metabolic composition of the microenvironment is known to change during a germinal center response, in inflamed tissue and to vary significantly between different organs. To sustain cellular homeostasis B cells need to be able to dynamically adapt to changes in their environment. An inability to take up and process available nutrients can result in impaired B cell growth and a diminished humoral immune response. (...)
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  12. added 2018-11-11
    Mutations and Deletions of PRC2 in Prostate Cancer.Payal Jain & Luciano Di Croce - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (5):446-454.
    The Polycomb group of proteins (PcGs) are transcriptional repressor complexes that regulate important biological processes and play critical roles in cancer. Mutating or deleting EZH2 can have both oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions by increasing or decreasing H3K27me3. In contrast, mutations of SUZ12 and EED are reported to have tumor suppressive functions. EZH2 is overexpressed in many cancers, including prostate cancer, which can lead to silencing of tumor suppressors, genes regulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and interferon signaling. In some (...)
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  13. added 2018-11-11
    Histone Chaperones FACT and Spt6 Prevent Histone Variants From Turning Into Histone Deviants.Célia Jeronimo & François Robert - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (5):420-426.
    Histone variants are specialized histones which replace their canonical counterparts in specific nucleosomes. Together with histone post‐translational modifications and DNA methylation, they contribute to the epigenome. Histone variants are incorporated at specific locations by the concerted action of histone chaperones and ATP‐dependent chromatin remodelers. Recent studies have shown that the histone chaperone FACT plays key roles in preventing pervasive incorporation of two histone variants: H2A.Z and CenH3/CENP‐A. In addition, Spt6, another histone chaperone, was also shown to be important for appropriate (...)
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  14. added 2018-11-10
    Loss and Rebirth of the Animal Microtubule Organizing Center: How Maternal Expression of Centrosomal Proteins Cooperates with the Sperm Centriole in Zygotic Centrosome Reformation.Daigo Inoue, Joachim Wittbrodt & Oliver J. Gruss - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (4):1700135.
    Centrosomes are the main microtubule organizing centers in animal cells. In particular during embryogenesis, they ensure faithful spindle formation and proper cell divisions. As metazoan centrosomes are eliminated during oogenesis, they have to be reassembled upon fertilization. Most metazoans use the sperm centrioles as templates for new centrosome biogenesis while the egg's cytoplasm re-prepares all components for on-going centrosome duplication in rapidly dividing embryonic cells. We discuss our knowledge and the experimental challenges to analyze zygotic centrosome reformation, which requires genetic (...)
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  15. added 2018-11-10
    The Microbiota‐Inflammasome Hypothesis of Major Depression.Antonio Inserra, Geraint B. Rogers, Julio Licinio & Ma‐Li Wong - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800027.
    We propose the “microbiota‐inflammasome” hypothesis of major depressive disorder (MDD, a mental illness affecting the way a person feels and thinks, characterized by long‐lasting feelings of sadness). We hypothesize that pathological shifts in gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis) caused by stress and gut conditions result in the upregulation of pro‐inflammatory pathways mediated by the Nod‐like receptors family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome (an intracellular platform involved in the activation of inflammatory processes). This upregulation exacerbates depressive symptomatology and further compounds gut (...)
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  16. added 2018-11-05
    Microtubule Inner Proteins: A Meshwork of Luminal Proteins Stabilizing the Doublet Microtubule.Muneyoshi Ichikawa & Khanh Huy Bui - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (3):1700209.
    Motile eukaryotic cilia and flagella are hair-like organelles responsible for cell motility and mucociliary clearance. Using cryo-electron tomography, it has been shown that the doublet microtubule, the cytoskeleton core of the cilia and flagella, has microtubule inner protein structures binding periodically inside its lumen. More recently, single-particle cryo-electron microscopy analyses of isolated doublet microtubules have shown that microtubule inner proteins form a meshwork inside the doublet microtubule. High-resolution structures revealed new types of interactions between the microtubule inner proteins and the (...)
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  17. added 2018-11-05
    Primary Cilia Reconsidered in the Context of Ciliopathies: Extraciliary and Ciliary Functions of Cilia Proteins Converge on a Polarity Theme?Kiet Hua & Russell J. Ferland - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (8):1700132.
    Once dismissed as vestigial organelles, primary cilia have garnered the interest of scientists, given their importance in development/signaling, and for their implication in a new disease category known as ciliopathies. However, many, if not all, “cilia” proteins also have locations/functions outside of the primary cilium. These extraciliary functions can complicate the interpretation of a particular ciliopathy phenotype: it may be a result of defects at the cilium and/or at extraciliary locations, and it could be broadly related to a unifying cellular (...)
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  18. added 2018-11-03
    Developmental Roles and Evolutionary Significance of AMPA‐Type Glutamate Receptors.Shinobu Hirai, Kohji Hotta & Haruo Okado - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800028.
    Organogenesis and metamorphosis require the intricate orchestration of multiple types of cellular interactions and signaling pathways. Glutamate (Glu) is an excitatory extracellular signaling molecule in the nervous system, while Ca2+ is a major intracellular signaling molecule. The first Glu receptors to be cloned are Ca2+‐permeable receptors in mammalian brains. Although recent studies have focused on Glu signaling in synaptic mechanisms of the mammalian central nervous system, it is unclear how this signaling functions in development. Our recent article demonstrated that Ca2+‐permeable (...)
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  19. added 2018-11-03
    The Future of Ancient DNA: Technical Advances and Conceptual Shifts.Michael Hofreiter, Johanna L. A. Paijmans, Helen Goodchild, Camilla F. Speller, Axel Barlow, Gloria G. Fortes, Jessica A. Thomas, Arne Ludwig & Matthew J. Collins - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (3):284-293.
    Technological innovations such as next generation sequencing and DNA hybridisation enrichment have resulted in multi‐fold increases in both the quantity of ancient DNA sequence data and the time depth for DNA retrieval. To date, over 30 ancient genomes have been sequenced, moving from 0.7× coverage (mammoth) in 2008 to more than 50× coverage (Neanderthal) in 2014. Studies of rapid evolutionary changes, such as the evolution and spread of pathogens and the genetic responses of hosts, or the genetics of domestication and (...)
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  20. added 2018-11-03
    Synchronous tRNA Movements During Translocation on the Ribosome Are Orchestrated by Elongation Factor G and GTP Hydrolysis.Wolf Holtkamp, Wolfgang Wintermeyer & Marina V. Rodnina - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (10):908-918.
    The translocation of tRNAs through the ribosome proceeds through numerous small steps in which tRNAs gradually shift their positions on the small and large ribosomal subunits. The most urgent questions are: (i) whether these intermediates are important; (ii) how the ribosomal translocase, the GTPase elongation factor G (EF‐G), promotes directed movement; and (iii) how the energy of GTP hydrolysis is coupled to movement. In the light of recent advances in biophysical and structural studies, we argue that intermediate states of translocation (...)
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  21. added 2018-11-02
    Temporal and Spatial Regulation of mRNA Export: Single Particle RNA-Imaging Provides New Tools and Insights.Stephanie Heinrich, Carina Patrizia Derrer, Azra Lari, Karsten Weis & Ben Montpetit - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (2):1600124.
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  22. added 2018-11-02
    Bacterial Translocation Ratchets: Shared Physical Principles with Different Molecular Implementations.Christof Hepp & Berenike Maier - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (10):1700099.
    Secretion systems enable bacteria to import and secrete large macromolecules including DNA and proteins. While most components of these systems have been identified, the molecular mechanisms of macromolecular transport remain poorly understood. Recent findings suggest that various bacterial secretion systems make use of the translocation ratchet mechanism for transporting polymers across the cell envelope. Translocation ratchets are powered by chemical potential differences generated by concentration gradients of ions or molecules that are specific to the respective secretion systems. Bacteria employ these (...)
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  23. added 2018-11-02
    Temporal and Spatial Regulation of mRNA Export: Single Particle RNA-Imaging Provides New Tools and Insights.Stephanie Heinrich, Carina Patrizia Derrer, Azra Lari, Karsten Weis & Ben Montpetit - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (2):1600124.
    The transport of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) from the nucleus to cytoplasm is an essential step in the gene expression program of all eukaryotes. Recent technological advances in the areas of RNA‐labeling, microscopy, and sequencing are leading to novel insights about mRNA biogenesis and export. This includes quantitative single molecule imaging (SMI) of RNA molecules in live cells, which is providing knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the export process. As this information becomes available, it leads to new questions, (...)
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  24. added 2018-11-02
    Local Sampling Paints a Global Picture: Local Concentration Measurements Sense Direction in Complex Chemical Gradients.Björn Hegemann & Matthias Peter - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (7):1600134.
    Detecting and interpreting extracellular spatial signals is essential for cellular orientation within complex environments, such as during directed cell migration or growth in multicellular development. Although the molecular understanding of how cells read spatial signals like chemical gradients is still lacking, recent work has revealed that stochastic processes at different temporal and spatial scales are at the core of this gradient sensing process in a wide range of eukaryotes. Fast biochemical reactions like those underlying GTPase activity dynamics form a functional (...)
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  25. added 2018-11-02
    Insider Trading: Extracellular Matrix Proteins and Their Non-Canonical Intracellular Roles.Andrew L. Hellewell & Josephine C. Adams - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (1):77-88.
    In metazoans, the extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a dynamic, heterogeneous microenvironment that has important supportive and instructive roles. Although the primary site of action of ECM proteins is extracellular, evidence is emerging for non‐canonical intracellular roles. Examples include osteopontin, thrombospondins, IGF‐binding protein 3 and biglycan, and relate to roles in transcription, cell‐stress responses, autophagy and cancer. These findings pose conceptual problems on how proteins signalled for secretion can be routed to the cytosol or nucleus, or can function in environments with (...)
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  26. added 2018-11-02
    Enhancer Deregulation in Cancer and Other Diseases.Hans-Martin Herz - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (10):1003-1015.
    Mutations in enhancer‐associated chromatin‐modifying components and genomic alterations in non‐coding regions of the genome occur frequently in cancer, and other diseases pointing to the importance of enhancer fidelity to ensure proper tissue homeostasis. In this review, I will use specific examples to discuss how mutations in chromatin‐modifying factors might affect enhancer activity of disease‐relevant genes. I will then consider direct evidence from single nucleotide polymorphisms, small insertions, or deletions but also larger genomic rearrangements such as duplications, deletions, translocations, and inversions (...)
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  27. added 2018-11-02
    The Dual Role of a Yeast Metacaspase: What Doesn't Kill You Makes You Stronger.Sandra Malmgren Hill & Thomas Nyström - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (5):525-531.
    Recent reports suggest that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae caspase‐related metacaspase, Mca1, is required for cell‐autonomous cytoprotective functions that slow cellular aging. Because the Mca1 protease has previously been suggested to be responsible for programmed cell death (PCD) upon stress and aging, these reports raise the question of how the opposing roles of Mca1 as a protector and executioner are regulated. One reconciling perspective could be that executioner activation may be restricted to situations where the death of part of the population (...)
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  28. added 2018-11-02
    Deciphering the Protein-RNA Recognition Code: Combining Large-Scale Quantitative Methods with Structural Biology.Janosch Hennig & Michael Sattler - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (8):899-908.
    RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are key factors for the regulation of gene expression by binding to cis elements, i.e. short sequence motifs in RNAs. Recent studies demonstrate that cooperative binding of multiple RBPs is important for the sequence‐specific recognition of RNA and thereby enables the regulation of diverse biological activities by a limited set of RBPs. Cross‐linking immuno‐precipitation (CLIP) and other recently developed high‐throughput methods provide comprehensive, genome‐wide maps of protein‐RNA interactions in the cell. Structural biology gives detailed insights into (...)
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  29. added 2018-11-02
    Glycosaminoglycan-Protein Interactions: Definition of Consensus Sites in Glycosaminoglycan Binding Proteins.Ronald E. Hileman, Jonathan R. Fromm, John M. Weiler & Robert J. Linhardt - 1998 - Bioessays 20 (2):156-167.
    Although interactions of proteins with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparin and heparan sulphate, are of great biological importance, structural requirements for protein‐GAG binding have not been well‐characterised. Ionic interactions are important in promoting protein‐GAG binding. Polyelectrolyte theory suggests that much of the free energy of binding comes from entropically favourable release of cations from GAG chains. Despite their identical charges, arginine residues bind more tightly to GAGs than lysine residues. The spacing of these residues may determine protein‐GAG affinity and specificity. (...)
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  30. added 2018-11-02
    Stereochemical Recognition in Nucleic Acid-Amino Acid Interactions and its Implications in Biological Coding: A Model Approach.Lawrence B. Hendry & Francis H. Witham - 1979 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 22 (3):333-345.
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  31. added 2018-11-02
    Gene Regulation: The Involvement of Stereochemical Recognition in DNA-Small Molecule Interactions.Lawrence B. Hendry, Francis H. Witham & Orville L. Chapman - 1977 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 21 (1):120-130.
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  32. added 2018-11-02
    Protoplasmic Activity.L. V. Heilbrunn - 1941 - Philosophy of Science 8 (2):280-286.
  33. added 2018-11-01
    Placental Endogenous Retrovirus : Structural, Functional, and Evolutionary Significance.J. Robin Harris - 1998 - Bioessays 20 (4):307-316.
    That endogenous retrovirus (ERV) is present within the placenta of humans and other mammals has been known for the past 25 years, but the significance of this observation is still not fully understood. Much molecular biological data have emerged in recent years to support the earlier electron microscopic data on the presence of placental ERV. The evidence for ERV in animal and human placental tissue is presented, then integrated with data on the the presence of ERV in a range of (...)
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  34. added 2018-10-31
    Human Endogenous Formaldehyde as an Anticancer Metabolite: Its Oxidation Downregulation May Be a Means of Improving Therapy.Yuri L. Dorokhov, Ekaterina V. Sheshukova, Tatiana E. Bialik & Tatiana V. Komarova - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (12):1800136.
    Malignant cells are characterized by an increased content of endogenous formaldehyde formed as a by‐product of biosynthetic processes. Accumulation of formaldehyde in cancer cells is combined with activation of the processes of cellular formaldehyde clearance. These mechanisms include increased ALDH and suppressed ADH5/FDH activity, which oncologists consider poor and favorable prognostic markers, respectively. Here, the sources and regulation of formaldehyde metabolism in cancer cells are reviewed. The authors also analyze the participation of oncoproteins such as fibulins, FGFR1, HER2/neu, FBI‐1, and (...)
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  35. added 2018-10-29
    Membrane Transport at an Organelle Interface in the Early Secretory Pathway: Take Your Coat Off and Stay a While.Michael G. Hanna, Jennifer L. Peotter, E. B. Frankel & Anjon Audhya - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (7):1800004.
    Most metazoan organisms have evolved a mildly acidified and calcium diminished sorting hub in the early secretory pathway commonly referred to as the Endoplasmic Reticulum‐Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). These membranous vesicular‐tubular clusters are found tightly juxtaposed to ER subdomains that are competent for the production of COPII‐coated transport carriers. In contrast to many unicellular systems, metazoan COPII carriers largely transit just a few hundred nanometers to the ERGIC, prior to COPI‐dependent transport on to the cis‐Golgi. The mechanisms underlying formation and (...)
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  36. added 2018-10-29
    Epigenetic Modifications of Cytosine: Biophysical Properties, Regulation, and Function in Mammalian DNA.Jack S. Hardwick, Andrew N. Lane & Tom Brown - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (3):1700199.
    To decode the function and molecular recognition of several recently discovered cytosine derivatives in the human genome – 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine – a detailed understanding of their effects on the structural, chemical, and biophysical properties of DNA is essential. Here, we review recent literature in this area, with particular emphasis on features that have been proposed to enable the specific recognition of modified cytosine bases by DNA-binding proteins. These include electronic factors, modulation of base-pair stability, flexibility, and radical changes (...)
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  37. added 2018-10-29
    Polyamine Signal Through Gap Junctions: A Key Regulator of Proliferation and Gap-Junction Organization in Mammalian Tissues?Loic Hamon, Philippe Savarin & David Pastré - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (6):498-507.
    We propose that interaction rules derived from polyamine exchange in connected cells may explain the spatio‐temporal organization of gap junctions observed during tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis. We also hypothesize that polyamine exchange can be considered as signal that allows cells to sense the proliferation status of their neighbors. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are indeed small aliphatic polycations that serve as fuels to sustain elevated proliferation rates of the order observed in cancer cells. Based on recent reports, we consider here (...)
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  38. added 2018-10-29
    Single Neuron Transcriptome Analysis Can Reveal More Than Cell Type Classification.Lise J. Harbom, William D. Chronister & Michael J. McConnell - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (2):157-161.
    A recent single cell mRNA sequencing study by Dueck et al. compares neuronal transcriptomes to the transcriptomes of adipocytes and cardiomyocytes. Single cell ‘omic approaches such as those used by the authors are at the leading edge of molecular and biophysical measurement. Many groups are currently employing single cell sequencing approaches to understand cellular heterogeneity in cancer and during normal development. These single cell approaches also are beginning to address long‐standing questions regarding nervous system diversity. Beyond an innate interest in (...)
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  39. added 2018-10-29
    Intracellular Evolution of Mitochondrial DNA and the Tragedy of the Cytoplasmic Commons.David Haig - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (6):549-555.
    Mitochondria exist in large numbers per cell. Therefore, the strength of natural selection on individual mtDNAs for their contribution to cellular fitness is weak whereas the strength of selection in favor of mtDNAs that increase their own replication without regard for cellular functions is strong. This problem has been solved for most mitochondrial genes by their transfer to the nucleus but a few critical genes remain encoded by mtDNA. Organisms manage the evolution of mtDNA to prevent mutational decay of essential (...)
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  40. added 2018-10-29
    Transposable Elements: Self-Seekers of the Germline, Team-Players of the Soma.David Haig - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (11):1158-1166.
    The germ track is the cellular path by which genes are transmitted to future generations whereas somatic cells die with their body and do not leave direct descendants. Transposable elements (TEs) evolve to be silent in somatic cells but active in the germ track. Thus, the performance of most bodily functions by a sequestered soma reduces organismal costs of TEs. Flexible forms of gene regulation are permissible in the soma because of the self‐imposed silence of TEs, but strict licensing of (...)
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  41. added 2018-10-29
    Going Retro: Transposable Elements, Embryonic Stem Cells, and the Mammalian Placenta.David Haig - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (11):1154-1154.
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  42. added 2018-10-28
    Glycogen at the Crossroad of Stress Resistance, Energy Maintenance, and Pathophysiology of Aging.Ivan Gusarov & Evgeny Nudler - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800033.
    Glycogen is synthesized and stored to maintain postprandial blood glucose homeostasis and to ensure an uninterrupted energy supply between meals. Although the regulation of glycogen turnover has been well studied, the effects of glycogen on aging and disease development have been largely unexplored. In Caenorhabditis elegans fed a high sugar diet, glycogen potentiates resistance to oxidants, but paradoxically, shortens lifespan. Depletion of glycogen by oxidants or inhibition of glycogen synthesis extends the lifespan of worms by an AMPK‐dependent mechanism. Thus, glycogen (...)
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  43. added 2018-10-28
    PROTACs: An Emerging Targeting Technique for Protein Degradation in Drug Discovery.Shanshan Gu, Danrui Cui, Xiaoyu Chen, Xiufang Xiong & Yongchao Zhao - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (4):1700247.
    Proteolysis-targeting chimeric molecules represent an emerging technique that is receiving much attention for therapeutic intervention. The mechanism is based on the inhibition of protein function by hijacking a ubiquitin E3 ligase for protein degradation. The hetero-bifunctional PROTACs contain a ligand for recruiting an E3 ligase, a linker, and another ligand to bind with the protein targeted for degradation. Thus, PROTACs have profound potential to eliminate “undruggable” protein targets, such as transcription factors and non-enzymatic proteins, which are not limited to physiological (...)
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  44. added 2018-10-28
    Transmembrane Signal Transduction in Two-Component Systems: Piston, Scissoring, or Helical Rotation?Ivan Gushchin & Valentin Gordeliy - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (2):1700197.
    Allosteric and transmembrane signaling are among the major questions of structural biology. Here, we review and discuss signal transduction in four-helical TM bundles, focusing on histidine kinases and chemoreceptors found in two-component systems. Previously, piston, scissors, and helical rotation have been proposed as the mechanisms of TM signaling. We discuss theoretically possible conformational changes and examine the available experimental data, including the recent crystallographic structures of nitrate/nitrite sensor histidine kinase NarQ and phototaxis system NpSRII:NpHtrII. We show that TM helices can (...)
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  45. added 2018-10-28
    ZC3H12A/MCPIP1/Regnase-1-Related Endonucleases: An Evolutionary Perspective on Molecular Mechanisms and Biological Functions. [REVIEW]Cornelia Habacher & Rafal Ciosk - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (9):1700051.
    The mammalian Zc3h12a/MCPIP1/Regnase-1, an extensively studied regulator of inflammatory response, is the founding member of a ribonuclease family, which includes proteins related by the presence of the so-called Zc3h12a-like NYN domain. Recently, several related proteins have been described in Caenorhabditis elegans, allowing comparative evaluation of molecular functions and biological roles of these ribonucleases. We discuss the structural features of these proteins, which endow some members with ribonuclease activity while others with auxiliary or RNA-independent functions. We also consider their RNA specificity (...)
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  46. added 2018-10-28
    Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence: Understanding the Link and its Consequences for Prophylaxis and Therapy.Thomas Guillard, Stéphanie Pons, Damien Roux, Gerald B. Pier & David Skurnik - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (7):682-693.
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  47. added 2018-10-28
    Promoting Microtubule Assembly: A Hypothesis for the Functional Significance of the+TIP Network.Kamlesh K. Gupta, Emily O. Alberico, Inke S. Näthke & Holly V. Goodson - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (9):818-826.
    Regulation of microtubule (MT) dynamics is essential for many cellular processes, but the machinery that controls MT dynamics remains poorly understood. MT plus‐end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are a set of MT‐associated proteins that dynamically track growing MT ends and are uniquely positioned to govern MT dynamics. +TIPs associate with each other in a complex array of inter‐ and intra‐molecular interactions known as the “+TIP network.” Why do so many +TIPs bind to other +TIPs? Typical answers include the ideas that these (...)
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  48. added 2018-10-28
    New Insights Into Structure-Function Relationships Between Archeal ATP Synthase and Vacuolar Type ATPase.Gerhard Grüber & Vladimir Marshansky - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (11-12):1096-1109.
    Adenosine triphosphate, ATP, is the energy currency of living cells. While ATP synthases of archae and ATP synthases of pro‐ and eukaryotic organisms operate as energy producers by synthesizing ATP, the eukaryotic V‐ATPase hydrolyzes ATP and thus functions as energy transducer. These enzymes share features like the hydrophilic catalytic‐ and the membrane‐embedded ion‐translocating sector, allowing them to operate as nano‐motors and to transform the transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient into ATP or vice versa. Since archaea are rooted close to the origin (...)
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  49. added 2018-10-28
    The Sorting Enigma.Protein Transport and Secretion, Edited by Mary-Jane Gething. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Pp. 215. $30 ; $36. [REVIEW]Jun-Lin Guan - 1986 - Bioessays 5 (4):188-188.
  50. added 2018-10-28
    Regulation of Protein Synthesis: An Alternative to the Repressor-Operator Hypothesis.M. Gruber & R. N. Campagne - 1966 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 10 (1):125-132.
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