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  1. Transcendental Idealism and Theistic Commitment in Fichte.Steven Hoeltzel - 2014 - In Matthew C. Altman (ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of German Idealism. pp. 364-85.
    This essay defends an account of Fichte’s philosophy according to which The Vocation of Man’s theological commitments, along with some related metaphysical claims, prove to be not only consistent with, but even strongly supported by, the transcendental idealism of the Jena Wissenschaftslehre. The key to this account is its focus on Fichte’s longstanding commitment to a strong notion of non-epistemic justification, which derives from his post-Kantian conception of the practical dimension of pure reason. On this view, one can have rationally (...)
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  2. Ahlaktan Tanrı'ya Ulaşılabilir mi? Enis Doko'nun “Allah'sız Ahlak Mümkün mü?” Kitabı Üzerine Bir İnceleme. [REVIEW]Hasan G. Bahçekapili - manuscript
    Enis Doko bu kitapta 1) ahlakın doğasından hareketle nesnel ahlaki olguların varlığına (ahlaki gerçekçilik), 2) ahlaki gerçekçilikten hareketle ahlaki olguların doğal olgular olamayacağına, 3) doğal olmayan ahlaki olguların varlığından hareketle de Tanrı'nın varlığına ulaşmaya çalışıyor. Göreceğimiz gibi bu üç adımın her biriyle ilgili ciddi sorunlar var.
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  3. Irreligion and the Impartial Spectator in Smith’s Moral System.Paul Russell - 2021 - In Recasting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy. New York, NY, USA: pp. 384-402.
    A number of commentators on Smith’s philosophy have observed that the relationship between his moral theory and his theological beliefs is “exceedingly difficult to unravel.” The available evidence, as generally presented, suggests that although Smith was not entirely orthodox by contemporary standards, he has no obvious or significant irreligious commitments or orientation. Contrary to this view of things, this essay argues that behind the veneer of orthodoxy that covers Smith’s discussion in The Theory of the Moral Sentiments there are significant (...)
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  4. The Contingency of the Cultural Evolution of Morality, Debunking, and Theism Vs. Naturalism.Matthew Braddock - 2021 - In Johan De Smedt & Helen De Cruz (eds.), Empirically Engaged Evolutionary Ethics. Synthese Library. Springer - Synthese Library. pp. 179-201.
    Is the cultural evolution of morality fairly contingent? Could cultural evolution have easily led humans to moral norms and judgments that are mostly false by our present lights? If so, does it matter philosophically? Yes, or so we argue. We empirically motivate the contingency of cultural evolution and show that it makes two major philosophical contributions. First, it shows that moral objectivists cannot explain the reliability of our moral judgments and thus strengthens moral debunking arguments. Second, it shows that the (...)
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  5. Theistic Moral Realism, Evolutionary Debunking Arguments, and a Catholic Philosophy of Nature.Michael Rauschenbach - 2021 - 2019 Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association.
    Evolutionary debunking arguments, whether defended by Street (2006), Joyce (2006), or others against moral realism, or by Plantinga (1993, 2011) and others against atheism, seek to determine the implications of the still-dominant worldview of naturalism. Examining them is thus a critical component of any defense of a theistic philosophy of nature. Recently, several authors have explored the connection between evolutionary debunking arguments against moral realism (hence: EDAs) and Plantinga’s evolutionary argument against naturalistic atheism (hence: EAAN). Typically, responses in this vein (...)
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  6. Theistic Moral Realism, Evolutionary Debunking Arguments, and a Catholic Philosophy of Nature.Michael Rauschenbach - 2021 - 2019 Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association.
    Evolutionary debunking arguments, whether defended by Street (2006), Joyce (2006), or others against moral realism, or by Plantinga (1993, 2011) and others against atheism, seek to determine the implications of the still-dominant worldview of naturalism. Examining them is thus a critical component of any defense of a theistic philosophy of nature. Recently, several authors have explored the connection between evolutionary debunking arguments against moral realism (hence: EDAs) and Plantinga’s evolutionary argument against naturalistic atheism (hence: EAAN). Typically, responses in this vein (...)
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  7. The Ecclesial Ethics of John Howard Yoder’s Abuse.Isaac Samuel Villegas - 2021 - Modern Theology 37 (1):191-214.
    In the last decade – now that his sexual abuse is no longer deniable – Christian ethicists have had to reconsider John Howard Yoder’s theological contributions in the late twentieth century. This essay considers how the witness of the women who survived his abuse exposes the sexism latent in his development of a framework for moral discernment and community discipline. Yoder designed an ecclesiology that was congruent with his pursuit of unaccountable power over the women he used as subjects for (...)
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  8. Evil and the god of indifference.László Bernáth & Daniel Kodaj - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (3):259-272.
    The evidential problem of evil involves a rarely discussed challenge, namely the challenge of defending theism against the hypothesis of a morally indifferent creator. Our argument uses a Bayesian framework and it starts by showing that if the only alternative to classical theism is naturalistic atheism, then fine-tuning can render theism virtually certain, even in the face of evil. But if the alternatives include the hypothesis of a morally indifferent creator, theism is defeated even if the fine-tuning premise is accepted. (...)
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  9. Evil and Divine Sovereignty.Jeff Jordan - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (3):273-286.
    Since at least the tenth century, some theists have argued that God’s sovereignty as creator exempts God from moral evaluation, and so any argument employing moral principles or the idea of God as morally perfect is fallacious. In particular, any argument contending that the occurrence of pointless evil presents strong evidence against the existence of God is flawed, as God morally owes his creation nothing. This appeal to divine sovereignty, however, fails to rescue any theistic tradition proclaiming that God loves (...)
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  10. Moral Realism and the Existence of God: Improving Parfit’s Metaethics.Martin Jakobsen - 2020 - Leuven, Belgia: Peeters.
    Can there be an objective morality without God? Derek Parfit argues that it can and offers a theory of morality that is neither theistic nor naturalistic. This book provides a critical assessment of Parfit's metaethical theory. Jakobsen identifies some problems in Parfit’s theory – problems concerning moral normativity, the ontological status of morality, and evolutionary influence on our moral beliefs – and argues that theological resources can help solve them. By showing how Parfit’s theory may be improved by the help (...)
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  11. Beyond Typologies: At the Boundaries of Realist and Ecclesial Ethics.Rebekah Miles - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (3):561-568.
  12. Bridging Scripture and Moral Theology: Essays in Dialogue with Yiu Sing Lúcás Chan, S. J. Edited by Michael B. Cover, S. J. John Thiede, and Joshua Ezra Burns. Pp. Xiv, 253. Lanham, MA, Lexington Books, 2019, US$ 95.00. [REVIEW]Edmund Ryden - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (4):709-710.
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  13. Reaching Across The ‘Deepest Divide’: Moral Acquaintanceship, Religion, And Bioethics.Abram Brummett - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (4):677-688.
  14. Kant’s Religious Ethics: The Ineluctable Link Between Morality and Theism.Raymond E. Perrier - 2021 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 89 (1):3-24.
    Kant’s religious ethics is grounded in a practical philosophy where ‘God’ is subordinated to moral principles. To accomplish this goal, Kant dismantled the onto-theological groundwork of religion and the conventional method of attaching morality to God, as if morality was a consequence of religious belief. In this essay, I will show how Kant replaces the metaphysics of being with the metaphysics of morality. More importantly, I will show how Kant’s thesis of moral theism argues that the practical philosophy does not (...)
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  15. Who’s Right About Rights?William Hasker - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):209-212.
    My comment on Jim Sterba’s bookFootnote1 will consist in a critique of what I take to be the central argument of the book, an argument that a certain kind of evil that is prevalent in our world is logically inconsistent with the existence of a good God. For our purposes here, the argument can be summarized briefly; if my objection as given here succeeds, the entire argument will fail to establish its conclusion. It begins with a statement of an alleged (...)
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  16. Replies.James P. Sterba - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):223-228.
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  17. Afterthoughts.William Hasker, Ronald L. Hall, Michael Tooley & James P. Sterba - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):229-243.
  18. Analyzing Sterba’s Argument.Michael Tooley - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):217-222.
  19. Editorial Preface.R. L. Hall - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):199-200.
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  20. Wojciech Sokołowski SJ (1586-1631) i jego filozofia [Wojciech Sokołowski SJ (1586-1631) et sa Philosophie].Damian Radecki - 1997 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 2:288-290.
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  21. Kant on Nonhuman Animals and God.Ina Goy - 2020 - In John Callanan & Lucy Allais (eds.), Kant and Animals. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 89-104.
    This chapter examines Kant's account of the nature of nonhuman and human animals in the "Critique of the Power of Judgement". It discusses how Kant thought that a complete account of the forms of explanation commit one to belief in God. It concludes, firstly, that Kant's account implies an unhealthy anthropocentrism and an Enlightenment prejudice in the form of the overestimation of reason, and secondly, that the Kantian model of God lacks one of the main characteristics of the Christian conception (...)
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  22. Wile E. Coyote and the Craggy Rocks Below.Tyler Dalton McNabb - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (2):339-346.
    William Lane Craig has defended the following two contentions: If theism is true, we have a sound foundation for morality, and, If theism is false, we do not have a sound foundation for morality. Erik Wielenberg rejects. Specifically, Wielenberg argues that naturalists have resources to make sense of objective moral values, moral duties, and moral knowledge. In response to Wielenberg, I defend Craig’s second contention by arguing that Wielenberg’s theory fails to robustly capture our moral phenomenology as well as make (...)
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  23. No Creaturely Intrinsic Value.Mark C. Murphy - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (2):347-355.
    In Robust Ethics, Erik Wielenberg criticizes all theistic ethical theories that explain creaturely value in terms of God on the basis that all such formulations of theistic ethics are committed to the denial of the existence of creaturely intrinsic value. Granting Wielenberg’s claim that such theistic theories are committed to the denial of creaturely intrinsic value, this article considers whether theists should take such a denial to be an objectionable commitment of their views. I argue that theists should deny the (...)
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  24. Science and Religion in Nineteenth‐Century Europe: Non‐Anglo‐American Perspectives.Jaume Navarro & Kostas Tampakis - 2019 - Zygon 54 (4):1045-1049.
    This is an introduction to the thematic section on “The Historiography of Science and Religion in Europe,” which resulted from a symposium held at the eighth Conference of the European Society for the History of Science, University College London, UK, from September 14–17, 2018. The introduction provides a brief argument for the decentering of science and religion from the Anglo‐American discourse. It concludes by previewing the contributions of the section's essays.
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  25. The Prior Obligations Objection to Theological Stateism.Frederick Choo - 2019 - Faith and Philosophy 36 (3):372-384.
    Theological stateist theories, the most well-known of which is Divine Command Theory (DCT), ground our moral obligations directly in some state of God. The prior obligations objection poses a challenge to theological stateism. Is there a moral obligation to obey God’s commands? If no, it is hard to see how God’s commands can generate any moral obligations for us. If yes, then what grounds this prior obligation? To avoid circularity, the moral obligation must be grounded independent of God’s commands; and (...)
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  26. Theodicy in a Suffering World: Glory and Longing. By Christopher Southgate. Pp. Ix, 281, Cambridge University Press, 2018. [REVIEW]Terrance Klein - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 60 (5):809-810.
  27. Two Sorts of Natural Theology.Martin Jakobsen - 2018 - Studia Theologica 72 (2):173-197.
    Usually, natural theology is understood as the project of providing arguments for the existence of God. This project is endorsed by Moreland and Craig. McGrath, on the other hand, says that this project fails. In the first part of this article, I show how McGrath’s dismissal of arguments for the existence of God follows from his view of natural theology. In the second part, I argue that McGrath’s natural theology contains an accurate critique of Moreland and Craig’s way of doing (...)
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  28. Value and Virtue in a Godless Universe.Erik J. Wielenberg - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    Suppose there is no God. This might imply that human life is meaningless, that there are no moral obligations and hence people can do whatever they want, and that the notions of virtue and vice and good and evil have no place. Erik J. Wielenberg believes this view to be mistaken and in this book he explains why. He argues that even if God does not exist, human life can have meaning, we do have moral obligations, and virtue is possible. (...)
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  29. La Demostración de la Existencia de Dios a Partir de la Libertad.Enrique Moros - 1996 - Anuario Filosófico 29 (55):805-814.
    In this paper I analyse an argument for God's existence from the liberty proposed by Prof. Polo. I think that an examination of his transcendental antropology wild yield some important insights concerning of person and liberty. I argue this argument is sound and illuminating of our concept of God.
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  30. "Can There Be an Objective Morality Without God?" By.Raymond D. Bradley - unknown
    The question before us is "Can there be an objective morality without God?" By the term "God" we shall mean the God in whom Christians believe, the God of the Bible, not some abstract Higher Power or New Age deity. Dr. Chamberlain believes that the biblical God exists, and that if he didn't exist, there could be no objective moral truths. For myself, I once believed in such a God, but no longer do. My non-belief, however, doesn't mean that I (...)
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  31. In Defense of Non-Natural, Non-Theistic Moral Realism.Erik J. Wielenberg - 2009 - Faith and Philosophy 26 (1):23-41.
    Many believe that objective morality requires a theistic foundation. I maintain that there are sui generis objective ethical facts that do not reduce to natural or supernatural facts. On my view, objective morality does not require an external foundation of any kind. After explaining my view, I defend it against a variety of objections posed by William Wainwright, William Lane Craig, and J. P. Moreland.
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  32. The Virtue of Faith and Other Essays in Philosophical Theology.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1987 - Oxford University Press.
    Robert Merrihew Adams has been a leader in renewing philosophical respect for the idea that moral obligation may be founded on the commands of God. This collection of Adams' essays, two of which are previously unpublished, draws from his extensive writings on philosophical theology that discuss metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical issues surrounding the concept of God--whether God exists or not, what God is or would be like, and how we ought to relate ourselves to such a being. Adams studies the (...)
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  33. A New Look at Moral Arguments for Theism.William Lad Sessions - 1985 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 18 (1/2):51 - 67.
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  34. Coherence, Proper Basicality and Moral Arguments for Theism.William Lad Sessions - 1987 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 22 (3):119 - 137.
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Arguments from Moral Normativity
  1. Godless Conscience.Tom O'Shea - forthcoming - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion.
    John Cottingham suggests that “only a traditional theistic framework may be adequate for doing justice to the role of conscience in our lives.” Two main reasons for endorsing this proposition are assessed: the religious origins of conscience, and the need to explain its normative authority. I argue that Graeco-Roman conceptions of conscience cast doubt on this first historical claim, and that secular moral realisms can account for the obligatoriness of conscience. Nevertheless, the recognition of the need for an objective foundation (...)
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  2. Newman’s Argument From Conscience: Why He Needs Paley and Natural Theology After All.Logan Paul Gage - 2020 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 94 (1):141-157.
    Recent authors, emphasizing Newman’s distaste for natural theology—especially William Paley’s design argument—have urged us to follow Newman’s lead and reject design arguments. But I argue that Newman’s own argument for God’s existence (his argument from conscience) fails without a supplementary design argument or similar reason to think our faculties are truth-oriented. In other words, Newman appears to need the kind of argument he explicitly rejects. Finding Newman’s rejection of natural theology to stem primarily from factors other than worries about cogency, (...)
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  3. Wiley Coyote and the Craggy Rocks Below: The Perils of a Godless Ethic.Tyler McNabb - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (18):339-346.
    William Lane Craig has defended the following two contentions: (1) If theism is true, we have a sound foundation for morality, and, (2) If theism is false, we do not have a sound foundation for morality. Erik Wielenberg rejects (2). Specifically, Wielenberg argues that naturalists have resources to make sense of objective moral values, moral duties, and moral knowledge. In response to Wielenberg, I defend Craig’s second contention by arguing that Wielenberg’s theory fails to robustly capture our moral phenomenology as (...)
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  4. Plutarch's Epicurean Justification of Religious Belief.Jason W. Carter - 2018 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 56 (3):385-412.
    In his dialogue, 'Non posse suaviter vivi secundum Epicurum', Plutarch of Chaeronea criticizes Epicurus for not believing that the gods are provident over human affairs and for not believing that our souls survive death. However, Plutarch’s arguments are striking in that they do not offer any theoretical justification for believing either of these religious claims to be true; rather, they aim to establish that we are practically justified in adopting them if we follow Epicurus’s rule that the goal of belief (...)
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  5. Review of God and Cosmos: Moral Truth and Human Meaning. [REVIEW]Christian Miller - 2017 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 1.
  6. In Defense of a Supernatural Foundation to Morality: Reply to Shermer.Christian Miller - 2016 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences:91-96.
    In my original paper, I claimed that our moral obligations are real, objective, and grounded in the supernatural. In particular, I endorsed the claim that God's will is the basis or source of our moral obligations, where “God” is to be understood as the theistic being who is omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent, who created the universe, and who is still actively involved in the universe after creating it. In his critical article, Michael Shermer has raised a number of important challenges (...)
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  7. On Shermer On Morality.Christian Miller - 2016 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences:63-68.
    This paper is part of a six paper exchange with Michael Shermer. This is my critical commentary on Michael Shermer's paper “Morality is real, objective, and natural.” Shermer and I agree that morality is both real and objective. Here I raise serious reservations about both Shermer's account of where morality comes from and his account of what morality tells us to do. His approach to the foundations of morality would allow some very disturbing behaviors to count as moral, and his (...)
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  8. Morality is Real, Objective, and Supernatural.Christian Miller - 2016 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences:74-82.
    This paper is part of a six paper exchange with Michael Shermer. Section one explains how “God” is meant to be understood. Section two then introduces the position that morality depends in some way upon God. Section three turns to some of the leading arguments for this view. Finally, we will conclude with the most powerful challenge to this approach, namely what has come to be called the Euthyphro Dilemma.
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  9. From Game Theoretical Accounts of Cooperation to Meta-Ethical Choices.Arif Ahmed - 2013 - Studies in Christian Ethics 26 (2):176-183.
    Evolutionary game theory is ethically neutral: its assumption of ‘rationality’ has nothing to do with selfishness but is in fact entirely compatible with altruism. If altruism has an evolutionary explanation then this fact is of no theological relevance: in particular it is not any sort of evidence of a divine plan etc.
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  10. God and the Ontological Foundation of Morality.Wes Morriston - 2012 - Religious Studies 48 (1):15 - 34.
    In recent years, William Lane Craig has vigorously championed a moral argument for God's existence. The backbone of Craig's argument is the claim that only God can provide a ' sound foundation in reality' for morality. The present article has three principal aims. The first is to interpret and clarify the account of the ontological foundation of morality proposed by Craig. The second is to press home an important objection to that account. The third is to expose the weakness of (...)
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  11. God and Moral Obligation.C. Stephen Evans - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    God and moral obligations -- What is a divine command theory of moral obligation? -- The relation of divine command theory to natural law and virtue ethics -- Objections to divine command theory -- Alternatives to a divine command theory -- Conclusions: The inescapability of moral obligations.
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  12. From Morality to Metaphysics: The Theistic Implications of Our Ethical Commitments.Angus Ritchie - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    Part I: The 'explanatory gap'. 1. Why take morality to be objective? -- 2. The gap opens: evolution and our capacity for moral knowledge -- Part II: Secular responses. 3. Alternatives to realism: Simon Blackburn and Allan Gibbard -- 4. Procedures and reasons: Tim Scanlon and Christine Korsgaard -- 5. Natural goodness: Philippa Foot's moral objectivism -- 6. Natural goodness and 'second nature': John McDowell and David Wiggin -- Part III: Theism. 7. From goodness to God: closing the explanatory gap (...)
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  13. Divine Hoorays: Some Parallels Between Expressivism and Religious Ethics.Nicholas Unwin - 2008 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (3):659-684.
    Divine law theories of metaethics claim that moral rightness is grounded in God’s commands, wishes and so forth. Expressivist theories, by contrast, claim that to call something morally right is to express our own attitudes, not to report on God’s. Ostensibly, such views are incompatible. However, we shall argue that a rapprochement is possible and beneficial to both sides. Expressivists need to explain the difference between reporting and expressing an attitude, and to address the Frege-Geach problem. Divine law theorists need (...)
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Arguments from Moral Order
  1. Kant, Wood and Moral Arguments.Andrew Chignell - 2022 - Kantian Review 27 (1):61-70.
    In this article I discuss the moral-coherence reading of Kant’s moral argument offered by Allen Wood in his recent book _Kant and Religion_, display some of the challenges that it faces and suggest that a moral-psychological formulation is preferable.
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  2. Deism: A Rational Journey From Disbelief to the Existence of God.Carlo Alvaro - 2021 - Washington, DC, USA: Academica Press.
    It is often claimed that belief in God is based on faith, while non-belief is grounded in rationality. This claim is inaccurate. Moral philosopher Carlo Alvaro takes the reader through his philosophical journey—a journey taken with the absolute absence of faith. Through reasoning alone, and with an objective assessment of the classical theistic arguments, Deism takes the reader from disbelief to a particular version of deism. Deism discusses such arguments as the Kalam Cosmological, the asymmetry against the evil-god challenge, the (...)
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  3. Review of God and Cosmos: Moral Truth and Human Meaning. [REVIEW]Christian Miller - 2017 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 1.
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