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  1. The Virtue of Faith and Other Essays in Philosophical Theology.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1987 - Oxford University Press.
    Robert Merrihew Adams has been a leader in renewing philosophical respect for the idea that moral obligation may be founded on the commands of God. This collection of Adams' essays, two of which are previously unpublished, draws from his extensive writings on philosophical theology that discuss metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical issues surrounding the concept of God--whether God exists or not, what God is or would be like, and how we ought to relate ourselves to such a being. Adams studies the (...)
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  2. "Can There Be an Objective Morality Without God?" By.Raymond D. Bradley - unknown
    The question before us is "Can there be an objective morality without God?" By the term "God" we shall mean the God in whom Christians believe, the God of the Bible, not some abstract Higher Power or New Age deity. Dr. Chamberlain believes that the biblical God exists, and that if he didn't exist, there could be no objective moral truths. For myself, I once believed in such a God, but no longer do. My non-belief, however, doesn't mean that I (...)
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  3. La Demostración de la Existencia de Dios a Partir de la Libertad.Enrique Moros - 1996 - Anuario Filosófico 29 (55):805-814.
    In this paper I analyse an argument for God's existence from the liberty proposed by Prof. Polo. I think that an examination of his transcendental antropology wild yield some important insights concerning of person and liberty. I argue this argument is sound and illuminating of our concept of God.
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  4. Coherence, Proper Basicality and Moral Arguments for Theism.William Lad Sessions - 1987 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 22 (3):119 - 137.
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  5. A New Look at Moral Arguments for Theism.William Lad Sessions - 1985 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 18 (1/2):51 - 67.
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  6. In Defense of Non-Natural, Non-Theistic Moral Realism.Erik J. Wielenberg - 2009 - Faith and Philosophy 26 (1):23-41.
    Many believe that objective morality requires a theistic foundation. I maintain that there are sui generis objective ethical facts that do not reduce to natural or supernatural facts. On my view, objective morality does not require an external foundation of any kind. After explaining my view, I defend it against a variety of objections posed by William Wainwright, William Lane Craig, and J. P. Moreland.
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  7. Value and Virtue in a Godless Universe.Erik J. Wielenberg - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    Suppose there is no God. This might imply that human life is meaningless, that there are no moral obligations and hence people can do whatever they want, and that the notions of virtue and vice and good and evil have no place. Erik J. Wielenberg believes this view to be mistaken and in this book he explains why. He argues that even if God does not exist, human life can have meaning, we do have moral obligations, and virtue is possible. (...)
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Arguments from Moral Normativity
  1. From Game Theoretical Accounts of Cooperation to Meta-Ethical Choices.Arif Ahmed - 2013 - Studies in Christian Ethics 26 (2):176-183.
  2. Plutarch's Epicurean Justification of Religious Belief.Jason W. Carter - 2018 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 56 (3):385-412.
    In his dialogue, 'Non posse suaviter vivi secundum Epicurum', Plutarch of Chaeronea criticizes Epicurus for not believing that the gods are provident over human affairs and for not believing that our souls survive death. However, Plutarch’s arguments are striking in that they do not offer any theoretical justification for believing either of these religious claims to be true; rather, they aim to establish that we are practically justified in adopting them if we follow Epicurus’s rule that the goal of belief (...)
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  3. God and Moral Obligation.C. Stephen Evans - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    God and moral obligations -- What is a divine command theory of moral obligation? -- The relation of divine command theory to natural law and virtue ethics -- Objections to divine command theory -- Alternatives to a divine command theory -- Conclusions: The inescapability of moral obligations.
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  4. Review of God and Cosmos: Moral Truth and Human Meaning. [REVIEW]Christian Miller - 2017 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 1.
  5. In Defense of a Supernatural Foundation to Morality: Reply to Shermer.Christian Miller - 2016 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences:91-96.
    In my original paper, I claimed that our moral obligations are real, objective, and grounded in the supernatural. In particular, I endorsed the claim that God's will is the basis or source of our moral obligations, where “God” is to be understood as the theistic being who is omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent, who created the universe, and who is still actively involved in the universe after creating it. In his critical article, Michael Shermer has raised a number of important challenges (...)
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  6. Morality is Real, Objective, and Supernatural.Christian Miller - 2016 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences:74-82.
    This paper is part of a six paper exchange with Michael Shermer. Section one explains how “God” is meant to be understood. Section two then introduces the position that morality depends in some way upon God. Section three turns to some of the leading arguments for this view. Finally, we will conclude with the most powerful challenge to this approach, namely what has come to be called the Euthyphro Dilemma.
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  7. On Shermer On Morality.Christian Miller - 2016 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences:63-68.
    This paper is part of a six paper exchange with Michael Shermer. This is my critical commentary on Michael Shermer's paper “Morality is real, objective, and natural.” Shermer and I agree that morality is both real and objective. Here I raise serious reservations about both Shermer's account of where morality comes from and his account of what morality tells us to do. His approach to the foundations of morality would allow some very disturbing behaviors to count as moral, and his (...)
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  8. God and the Ontological Foundation of Morality.Wes Morriston - 2012 - Religious Studies 48 (1):15 - 34.
    In recent years, William Lane Craig has vigorously championed a moral argument for God's existence. The backbone of Craig's argument is the claim that only God can provide a ' sound foundation in reality' for morality. The present article has three principal aims. The first is to interpret and clarify the account of the ontological foundation of morality proposed by Craig. The second is to press home an important objection to that account. The third is to expose the weakness of (...)
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  9. From Morality to Metaphysics: The Theistic Implications of Our Ethical Commitments.Angus Ritchie - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    Part I: The 'explanatory gap'. 1. Why take morality to be objective? -- 2. The gap opens: evolution and our capacity for moral knowledge -- Part II: Secular responses. 3. Alternatives to realism: Simon Blackburn and Allan Gibbard -- 4. Procedures and reasons: Tim Scanlon and Christine Korsgaard -- 5. Natural goodness: Philippa Foot's moral objectivism -- 6. Natural goodness and 'second nature': John McDowell and David Wiggin -- Part III: Theism. 7. From goodness to God: closing the explanatory gap (...)
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  10. Divine Hoorays: Some Parallels Between Expressivism and Religious Ethics.Nicholas Unwin - 2008 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (3):659-684.
    Divine law theories of metaethics claim that moral rightness is grounded in God’s commands, wishes and so forth. Expressivist theories, by contrast, claim that to call something morally right is to express our own attitudes, not to report on God’s. Ostensibly, such views are incompatible. However, we shall argue that a rapprochement is possible and beneficial to both sides. Expressivists need to explain the difference between reporting and expressing an attitude, and to address the Frege-Geach problem. Divine law theorists need (...)
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Arguments from Moral Order
  1. The Relation of Monologion and Proslogion.Gene Fendt - 2005 - Heythrop Journal 46 (2):149–166.
    This paper argues that Monologion and Proslogion though distinguishable are not really separable. They are distinct as "the way in" and "the way when one is in" but "the way in" reveals itself as a discovery of already being in; thus these ways are distinct in act, but not in being. Monologion moves from imaginary ignorance to real reverence, while Proslogion begins within reverence to achieve understanding.
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  2. Review of God and Cosmos: Moral Truth and Human Meaning. [REVIEW]Christian Miller - 2017 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 1.
  3. Theism and Morality.Christian Miller - 2017 - In Leonard Clapp (ed.), Philosophy for Us. Cognella. pp. 113-123.
    This textbook chapter briefly introduces and defend a way of thinking about the relationship between God and morality. Section one explains how “God” is meant to be understood. Section two then introduces the position that morality depends in some way upon God. Section three turns to some of the leading arguments for this view. Finally, we will conclude with the most powerful challenge to this approach, namely what has come to be called the Euthyphro Dilemma.
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  4. Morality is Real, Objective, and Supernatural.Christian Miller - 2016 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences:74-82.
    This paper is part of a six paper exchange with Michael Shermer. Section one explains how “God” is meant to be understood. Section two then introduces the position that morality depends in some way upon God. Section three turns to some of the leading arguments for this view. Finally, we will conclude with the most powerful challenge to this approach, namely what has come to be called the Euthyphro Dilemma.
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The Secular Problem of Evil
  1. Bowne, Dostoevsky and Brightman: Three Personalists Who Confronted the Problem of Evil.Joe Barnhardt - 1997 - The Personalist Forum 13 (2):223-232.
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  2. Wickedness Redux.Peter Brian Barry - 2011 - Philo 14 (2):137-160.
    Some philosophers have argued that the concepts of evil and wickedness cannot be well grasped by those inclined to a naturalist bent, perhaps because evil is so intimately tied to religious discourse or because it is ultimately not possible to understand evil, period. By contrast, I argue that evil—or, at least, what it is to be an evil person—can be understood by naturalist philosophers, and I articulate an independently plausible account of evil character.
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  3. Free Will and the Problem of Evil.James Cain - 2004 - Religious Studies 40 (4):437-456.
    According to the free-will defence, the exercise of free will by creatures is of such value that God is willing to allow the existence of evil which comes from the misuse of free will. A well-known objection holds that the exercise of free will is compatible with determinism and thus, if God exists, God could have predetermined exactly how the will would be exercised; God could even have predetermined that free will would be exercised sinlessly. Thus, it is held, the (...)
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  4. Review of Evil In Modern Thought: An Alternative History of Philosophy. [REVIEW]Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2016 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 121 (1):287-89.
    This review speaks highly of Susan Neiman but laments her lack of fuller treatment of Martin Heidegger.
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  5. Review of Nome's One Self. [REVIEW]Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2016 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 121 (4):433-434.
    This is a review of one of the recent books of Master Nome's. This review highlights how Advaita Vedanta negotiates the Problem of Evil.
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  6. Review of Terry Eagleton's On Evil. [REVIEW]Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2016 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 121 (March (3)):383-385.
    Terry Eagleton has been reviewed in the light of theism; especially Christianity which he had earlier disowned.
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  7. Review of The Complete Works of W. H. Auden: Prose: Volume V, 1963–1968. [REVIEW]Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2016 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 121 (7):578.
    This review of Auden's prose establishes him as a writer concerned with theodicy or the Problem of Evil.
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  8. The Esse of Milton's Satan.Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2015 - Literary Voyage:n.p..
    This is an etymological, Biblical and philosophical scrutiny of Milton's Satan. While Satan is a metaphor in Paradise Lost, he is very much real within Christian Studies. This essay revisits the reality of Satan.
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  9. Prolegomenon to the Study of Evil.Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2013 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 118 (4):278-281.
    This is a discussion on the Problem of Evil.
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  10. The Discussion of Evil in Christianity.Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2013 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 118 (9):540-542.
    This is a study in theodicy (the Christian Problem of Evil).
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  11. The Idea of Evil, by Peter Dews. Oxford: Blackwell, 2008. Pp. 264, Hardcover. ISBN 978-1-4051-1704-3. £60.00/€72.00. [REVIEW]Paul Formosa - 2009 - Kantian Review 14 (1):129-136.
  12. A Conception of Evil.Paul Formosa - 2008 - Journal of Value Inquiry 42 (2):217-239.
    There are a number of different senses of the term “evil.” We examine in this paper the term “evil” when it is used to say things such as: “what Hitler did was not merely wrong, it was evil”, and “Hitler was not merely a bad person, he was an evil person”. Failing to keep a promise or telling a white lie may be morally wrong, but unlike genocide or sadistic torture, it is not evil in this sense. In this paper (...)
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  13. Understanding Evil Acts.Paul Formosa - 2007 - Human Studies 30 (2):57-77.
    Evil acts strike us, by their very nature, as not only horrifying and reprehensible, but also as deeply puzzling. No doubt for reasons like this, evil has often been seen as mysterious, demonic and beyond our human powers of understanding. The question I examine in this paper is whether or not we can (or would want to) overcome this puzzlement in the face of evil acts. I shall argue that we ought want to (in all cases) and can (in at (...)
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  14. Moral Responsibility for Banal Evil.Paul Formosa - 2006 - Journal of Social Philosophy 37 (4):501–520.
    It has often been argued that Hannah Arendt ‘let off’ Eichmann through her concept of the banality of evil. In this paper I argue, through revisiting and modifying the concept of the banality of evil, that we can reject such criticism. That is, by judging that a perpetrator, like Eichmann, commits evil banally in no way undermines the grounds for holding them to be responsible for their actions, but it does help us to understand why such perpetrators act as they (...)
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  15. Explaining Evil: Four Views.W. Paul Franks (ed.) - forthcoming - New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
    In this book four prominent philosophers (Richard Davis, Paul Helm, Michael Ruse, and Erik Wielenberg) present their own account of why evil exists and respond to objections from fellow contributors.
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  16. The Problem of Trans-Humanism in the Light of Philosophy and Theology.Philippe Gagnon - 2012 - In James B. Stump & Alan G. Padgett (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Science and Christianity, pp. 393-405. Blackwell. pp. 393-405.
    Transhumanism is a means of advocating a re-engineering of conditions that surround human existence at both ends. The problem set before us in this chapter is to inquire into what determined its appearance, in particular in the humanism it seeks to overcome. We look at the spirit of overcoming itself, and the impatience with the Self, in order to try to understand why it seeks a saving power in technology. We then consider how the evolutionary account of the production of (...)
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  17. God and Possible Worlds: The Modal Problem of Evil.Theodore Guleserian - 1983 - Noûs 17 (2):221-238.
    Using four principles common to several theories about possible worlds, It is argued that the necessary existence of a divine being that is essentially omnipotent, Omniscient, And morally perfect is impossible. The central argument employs the premise that there are possible worlds that any divine being ought not to actualize (because of their evil contents). This premise is then defended on the grounds that the same sort of justification that we give for other modal statements that we accept can be (...)
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  18. Pursuing Pankalia: The Aesthetic Theodicy of St. Augustine.A. G. Holdier - 2016 - In Benjamin McCraw & Robert Arp (eds.), The Problem of Evil: New Philosophical Directions. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. pp. 69-83.
    This chapter summarizes Augustine’s often-neglected aesthetic theodicy that balances his metaphysical definitions of evil and human agency against the ultimately beautiful story Augustine sees God, as the author of all Creation, writing. First, Augustine’s neo-Platonic conception of evil as the “privation of goodness” is explained which effectively eliminates much of the apparent evil in the world under the guise of a preeminent God’s loving care of the Creation which He fashions as good, but is later corrupted. Secondly, Augustine’s conception of (...)
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  19. Habermas' Kierkegaard and the Nature of the Secular.Ada S. Jaarsma - 2010 - Constellations 17 (2):271-292.
    This article reconstructs Habermas’ normative program for the successful and mutually beneficial co-existence of the religious and the non-religious, looking especially at his reliance upon a particular translation of Kierkegaard. Kierkegaard himself wrote as a self-described Christian, or at least as someone invested in the possibilities of Christian existence, and so it is instructive to examine how Habermas, an admittedly non-religious thinker, renders Kierkegaard’s project. As I argue below, the specific ways in which Habermas employs Kierkegaard’s thought demonstrates what Habermas (...)
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  20. Irigaray's To Be Two: The Problem of Evil and the Plasticity of Incarnation.Ada S. Jaarsma - 2003 - Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy 18 (1):44-62.
    Increasingly, feminist theorists, such as Alison Martin and Ellen T. Armour, are attending to the numerous religious allusions within texts by Luce Irigaray. Engaging with this scholarship, this paper focuses on the problematic of evil that is elaborated within Irigarayan texts. Mobilizing the work of Catherine Malabou, the paper argues that Malabou's methodology of reading, which she identifies as "plastic," illuminates the logic at work within Irigaray's deployment of sacred stories.
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  21. The Roots of Evil.John Kekes - 2005 - Cornell University Press.
    Uses case studies of evil, the most serious of our moral Problems, to explain why people act with cruelty, greed, prejudice and fanatacism.
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  22. Moral Evil: The Comparative Response.C. Stephen Layman - 2003 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 54 (1):1-23.
    Theists may argue that, although theism does not explain the presence of all evils well, it provides an explanation that is as good as (or better than) the explanation provided by some (or all) of theism’s metaphysical rivals. Let us call this approach “The Comparative Response” since it involves comparing theistic explanations of evil with explanations provided by theism’s metaphysical rivals. The Comparative Response has received little attention in recent discussions of the problem of evil, and I propose to develop (...)
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  23. What Perfection Demands: An Irenaean of Kant on Radical Evil.Jacqueline Mariña - 2017 - In Chris L. Firestone, Nathan Jacobs & James Joiner (eds.), Kant and the Question of Theology,. Cambridge University Press. pp. 183-200.
    In this essay I will show that the incoherence many commentators have found in Kant’s Religion is due to Augustinian assumptions about human evil that they are implicitly reading into the text. Eliminate the assumptions, and the inconsistencies evaporate: both theses, those of universality and moral responsibility, can be held together without contradiction. The Augustinian view must be replaced with what John Hick has dubbed an “Irenaean” account of human evil, which portrays the human being and his or her task (...)
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  24. Silencing Theodicy with Enthusiasm: Aesthetic Experience as a Response to the Problem of Evil in Shaftesbury, Annie Dillard, and the Book of Job.John McAteer - 2016 - Heythrop Journal 57 (5):788-795.
    The problem of evil is not only a logical problem about God's goodness but also an existential problem about the sense of God's presence, which the Biblical book of Job conceives as a problem of aesthetic experience. Thus, just as theism can be grounded in religious experience, atheism can be grounded in experience of evil. This phenomenon is illustrated by two contrasting literary descriptions of aesthetic experience by Jean-Paul Sartre and Annie Dillard. I illuminate both of these literary texts with (...)
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  25. The Problem of Evil: New Philosophical Directions.Benjamin W. McCraw & Robert Arp (eds.) - 2015 - Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
    The Problem of Evil: New Philosophical Directions brings together a diversity of philosophical views, methods, and approaches to the much-discussed topic of evil and its bearing on religious belief. Through both general and specific examinations of the problem of evil, this book proposes new directions for philosophical thought.
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  26. Nietzsche, Cosmodicy, and the Saintly Ideal.David McPherson - 2016 - Philosophy 91 (1):39-67.
    In this essay I examine Nietzsche’s shifting understanding of the saintly ideal with an aim to bringing out its philosophical importance, particularly with respect to what I call the problem of ‘cosmodicy’, i.e., the problem of justifying life in the world as worthwhile in light of the prevalent reality of suffering. In his early account Nietzsche understood the saint as embodying the supreme achievement of a self-transcending ‘feeling of oneness and identity with all living things’, while in his later account (...)
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  27. The Secular Problem of Evil.Paul Prescott - manuscript
    The existence of evil is often held to pose philosophical problems only for theism. I argue that the existence of evil gives rise to a philosophical problem which confronts theist and atheist alike. The problem is constituted by the following claims: (1) Successful human beings trust that the actual world is good-enough; (2) the actual world is not good-enough (i.e., sufficient evil exists). It follows that (3) successful human beings maintain a state of epistemic ignorance regarding the nature of the (...)
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  28. Introduction: Special Issue on "Feminist Philosophy and the Problem of Evil".Robin May Schott - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):1-9.
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  29. Introduction to Feminist Philosophy and the Problem of Evil, Part II.Robin May Schott - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (2):152-154.
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