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1 — 50 / 171
  1. added 2020-04-27
    Social Contract Theory for a Diverse World: Beyond Tolerance.Ryan Muldoon - 2016 - Routledge.
    Very diverse societies pose real problems for Rawlsian models of public reason. This is for two reasons: first, public reason is unable accommodate diverse perspectives in determining a regulative ideal. Second, regulative ideals are unable to respond to social change. While models based on public reason focus on the justification of principles, this book suggests that we need to orient our normative theories more toward discovery and experimentation. The book develops a unique approach to social contract theory that focuses on (...)
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  2. added 2020-04-27
    III—Contractarianism as a Political Morality.Benjamin Sachs - 2016 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 116 (1):49-67.
    Contractarianism initially made its mark, in the seventeenth century, as a sort of theory of everything in ethics. But gradually philosophers became convinced that there were resources available outside contractarianism for settling important moral questions—for instance, ideas of human rights and the moral equality of persons. Then Rawls revived contractarianism with a more modest aim—namely, as a theory of justice. But even this agenda for contractarianism has been called into question, most notably by G.A. Cohen, who contends that we have (...)
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  3. added 2020-04-27
    The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy.Daniel Farnham (ed.) - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    Contractarianism in some form has been at the center of recent debates in moral and political philosophy. Jean Hampton was one of the most gifted philosophers involved in these debates and provided both important criticisms of prominent contractarian theories plus powerful defenses and applications of the core ideas of contractarianism. In these essays, she brought her distinctive approach, animated by concern for the intrinsic worth of persons, to bear on topics such as guilt, punishment, self-respect, family relations, and the maintenance (...)
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  4. added 2020-04-27
    Contractarianism / Contractualism.Stephen Darwell (ed.) - 2002 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _ _ _Contractualism/Contractarianism_ collects, for the first time, both major classical sources and central contemporary discussions of these important approaches to philosophical ethics. Edited and introduced by Stephen Darwall, these readings are essential for anyone interested in normative ethics. With a helpful introduction by Stephen Darwall, examines key topics in the contractarian and contractualist moral theory. Includes six contemporary essays which respond to the classic sources. Includes an insightful discussion of contractualism by Gary Watson. Includes classic excerpts by key figures (...)
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  5. added 2020-04-27
    Measuring Opportunity: Toward a Contractarian Measure of Individual Interest*: Robert Sugden.Robert Sugden - 1998 - Social Philosophy and Policy 15 (2):34-60.
    Liberals have often been attracted by contractarian modes of argument— and with good reason. Any system of social organization requires that some constraints be imposed on individuals' freedom of action; it is a central problem for any liberal political theory to show which constraints can be justified, and which cannot. A contractarian justification works by showing that the constraints in question can be understood as if they were the product of an agreement, voluntarily entered into by every member of society. (...)
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  6. added 2020-04-27
    Social Contract Theory.Political Argument: A Reissue with a New Introduction.Rawls: `A Theory of Justice' and its Critics.Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Introduction.Michael Lessnoff, Brian Barry, Chandran Kukathas, Philip Pettit & Will Kymlicka - 1992 - Philosophical Quarterly 42 (168):375-378.
  7. added 2020-03-16
    The Argument Against Neutrality About the Size of Population.David Pomerenke - manuscript
    How should we as a society value changes in population size? The question may be crucial when evaluating global warming scenarios. I defend the intuition of neutrality, which answers a part of the question. It states that – other things being equal – it is ethically irrelevant whether or not additional people are added to a population. The argument against neutrality criticizes the intuition of neutrality as inconsistent. The contribution of this thesis is twofold: First, the framework of welfare economics, (...)
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  8. added 2020-02-11
    Contractarianism and Rational Choice: Essays on David Gauthier's "Morals by Agreement.".Daniel M. Farrell - 1993 - Ethics 103 (2):385-387.
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  9. added 2019-12-19
    Linking Faith and Trust: Of Contracts and Covenants.Ionut Untea - 2019 - Teoria 39 (1):157-168.
    Trust is so intimately linked with faith that sometimes trust needs faith to unfold in a relationship. I argue that the role of this faith element in trust is to elevate the status of the one in which we trust so as to emphasize the equal dignity of all the participants in the relationship of trust. Against views that focus on a «rational» trust based on an exaggerated emphasis on the capacity of self-trust as a point of departure for the (...)
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  10. added 2019-09-09
    Minimal Morality, Bargaining Power, and Moral Constraint: Replies to D’Agostino, Thrasher, Morris, and Vanderschraaf.Michael Moehler - 2020 - Analytic Philosophy 61 (1):87-100.
    The history of contractarian moral theory is long and varied. It includes the classic social contract theories of Hobbes (1651), Hume (1739/1740), and Kant (1785) as well as modern versions of these theories, such as those of Gauthier (1986), Scanlon (1998), Darwall (2006), and Southwood (2010). In Minimal Morality: A Multilevel Social Contract Theory (2018), I continue this tradition by developing a ‘multilevel social contract theory’ that combines Humean, Hobbesian, and Kantian moral features. In this article, I reply to comments (...)
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  11. added 2019-09-09
    Contractarianism.Michael Moehler - 2020 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    This book provides a systematic defense of moral contractarianism as a distinct approach to the social contract. It elucidates, in comparison to moral conventionalism and moral contractualism, the distinct features of moral contractarianism, its scope, and conceptual and practical challenges that concern the relationship between morality and self-interest, the problems of assurance and compliance, rule-following, counterfactualism, and the nexus between morals and politics. It argues that, if appropriately conceived, moral contractarianism is conceptually coherent, empirically sound, and practically relevant, and has (...)
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  12. added 2019-06-06
    Games Social Animals Play: Commentary on Brian Skyrms’s Evolution of the Social Contract.Philip Kitcher - 1999 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (1):221-228.
  13. added 2019-06-06
    Moral Dealing: Contract, Ethics, and Reason.Contractarianism and Rational Choice: Essays on David Gauthier's Morals by Agreement.David Gauthier - 1993 - Philosophical Quarterly 43 (172):373-378.
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  14. added 2019-06-06
    The Problems of Preference Based Morality: A Critique of “Morals by Agreement”.Joseph P. DeMarco - 1989 - Journal of Social Philosophy 20 (3):77-91.
  15. added 2019-06-06
    Gauthier's Theory of Morals by Agreement.Richmond Campbell - 1988 - Philosophical Quarterly 38 (152):343.
  16. added 2019-06-06
    The Gauthier Enterprise*: JAMES M. BUCHANAN.James M. Buchanan - 1988 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (2):75-94.
    I take it as my assignment to criticize the Gauthier enterprise. At the outset, however, I should express my general agreement with David Gauthier's normative vision of a liberal social order, including the place that individual principles of morality hold in such an order. Whether the enterprise is, ultimately, judged to have succeeded or to have failed depends on the standards applied. Considered as a coherent grounding of such a social order in the rational choice behavior of persons, the enterprise (...)
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  17. added 2019-06-06
    Fact, Fiction, and the Social Contract: A Reply to Kultgen.Thomas Donaldson - 1986 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 5 (1):40-46.
  18. added 2019-06-06
    Justice, Social Contract an Universal Prescription.M. H. Lessnoff - 1978 - Philosophical Quarterly 28 (110):65.
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  19. added 2019-06-05
    Book ReviewKen Binmore,. Just Playing: Game Theory and the Social Contract, Volume 2. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1998. Pp. Xxiii + 589. $50.00. [REVIEW]Paul Weirich - 2001 - Ethics 111 (4):794-797.
  20. added 2019-06-05
    Precis of Evolution of the Social ContractEvolution of the Social Contract.Brian Skyrms - 1999 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (1):217.
    Evolution of the social contract uses evolutionary game theory and evolutionary dynamics to analyze the sorts of interactions that are important to the social contract. The discussion is at a level that accommodates cultural as well as biological evolution. Various chapters deal with central issues in bargaining, commitment, mutual aid, property, and communication by means of simple game-theoretic models. These include Nash Bargaining, Ultimatum Bargaining, Prisoner's Dilemma, Chicken (or Hawk-Dove), and Sender-Receiver Signaling Games. Evolutionary models provide better explanations of observed (...)
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  21. added 2019-06-05
    Models and Reality—A Review of Brian Skyrms’s Evolution of the Social Contract.Martin Barrett, Ellery Eells, Branden Fitelson, Elliott Sober & Brian Skyrms - 1999 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (1):237.
    Human beings are peculiar. In laboratory experiments, they often cooperate in one-shot prisoners’ dilemmas, they frequently offer 1/2 and reject low offers in the ultimatum game, and they often bid 1/2 in the game of divide-the-cake All these behaviors are puzzling from the point of view of game theory. The first two are irrational, if utility is measured in a certain way.1 The last isn’t positively irrational, but it is no more rational than other possible actions, since there are infinitely (...)
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  22. added 2019-04-26
    Gerald Gaus, The Order of Public Reason: A Theory of Freedom and Morality in a Diverse and Bounded World , Pp. Xx + 621.Fabian Wendt - 2012 - Utilitas 24 (4):548-551.
  23. added 2019-02-12
    Agreement in Social Contract Theories: Locke Vs. Rawls.Simon Cushing - 1998 - Social Philosophy Today 13:349-371.
  24. added 2019-02-10
    Contractarianism and Climate Change.Michael Moehler - 2020 - In Ben Eggleston & Dale E. Miller (eds.), Moral Theory and Climate Change: Ethical Perspectives on a Warming Planet. Routledge. pp. 139-156.
    Contemporary moral contractarianism originates with Hobbes’s moral theory. When considering the structure of Hobbes’s moral theory, however, it is often argued that moral contractarianism does not justify any specific moral demands concerning questions of climate change because currently no global Leviathan in Hobbes’s sense exists that could enforce any such demands in our world. I do not dispute the fact that currently no global Leviathan in Hobbes’s sense exists in our world. Nevertheless, I argue that Hobbesian moral contractarianism offers an (...)
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  25. added 2018-11-16
    Moralische Forderungen Und Relativismus: Zwei Probleme Für Peter Stemmers Theorie der Moral.Fabian Wendt - 2018 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 66 (5):653-668.
    Peter Stemmer has developed an elegant and impressive theory of normativity and morality. In this article, I try to show that he does not achieve two goals he set for himself. First, his theory does not capture the categorical bindingness of moral demands, even in Stemmer’s own interpretation of categorical bindingness: it does not show that we must follow moral demands no matter what our personal goals and desires are. Second, just because it would be rational to establish positive moralities (...)
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  26. added 2018-11-10
    Replies to Gaus, Van Schoelandt and Cooper: Prudence, Morality and the Social Contract.Michael Moehler - 2019 - Analysis 79 (1):140-153.
    Abstract. In Minimal Morality (2018), I develop a multilevel social contract theory that accommodates deep moral pluralism. In this article, I reply to comments by Gaus, Van Schoelandt and Cooper concerning the three core projects of the book that aim to (i) revive orthodox rational choice contractarianism as a viable approach to the social contract, (ii) integrate this approach into a comprehensive social contract theory and (iii) show the applicability of the theory to the real world. My replies clarify some (...)
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  27. added 2018-11-10
    Summary of Minimal Morality: A Multilevel Social Contract Theory.Michael Moehler - 2019 - Analysis 79 (1):103-105.
    In Minimal Morality, I develop a multilevel social contract theory that, in contrast to existing theories in the liberal tradition, does not merely assume a restricted form of reasonable moral pluralism, but is tailored to the conditions of deeply morally pluralistic societies that may include liberal moral agents, nonliberal moral agents, and, according to the traditional understanding of morality, nonmoral agents. The theory takes its main inspiration from the moral theories of Hobbes (1651), Hume (1739/1740), and Kant (1785, 1795, and (...)
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  28. added 2018-10-04
    The United States is Obligated to Take All Refugees of a Kind.Stan Lovelace - manuscript
    A Hobbesian Realist position concerning Nation States and their generative grounds in the Social Contract obligates the United States to accept any and all refugees of conflict who are willing to recognize the sovereign power of the United States by submitting to citizenship requirements determined by the United States.
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  29. added 2018-09-29
    Diversity, Stability, and Social Contract Theory.Michael Moehler - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (12):3285-3301.
    The topic of moral diversity is not only prevalent in contemporary moral and political philosophy, it is also practically relevant. Moral diversity, however, poses a significant challenge for moral theory building. John Thrasher, in his discussion of public reason theory, which includes social contract theory, argues that if one seriously considers the goal of moral constructivism and considerations of representation and stability, then moral diversity poses an insurmountable problem for most public reason theories. I agree with Thrasher that moral diversity (...)
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  30. added 2018-07-24
    Crash Algorithms for Autonomous Cars: How the Trolley Problem Can Move Us Beyond Harm Minimisation.Dietmar Hübner & Lucie White - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (3):685-698.
    The prospective introduction of autonomous cars into public traffic raises the question of how such systems should behave when an accident is inevitable. Due to concerns with self-interest and liberal legitimacy that have become paramount in the emerging debate, a contractarian framework seems to provide a particularly attractive means of approaching this problem. We examine one such attempt, which derives a harm minimisation rule from the assumptions of rational self-interest and ignorance of one’s position in a future accident. We contend, (...)
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  31. added 2018-04-23
    Contractualism for Us As We Are.Nicholas Southwood - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 99 (3):529-547.
    A difficult problem for contractualists is how to provide an interpretation of the contractual situation that is both subject to appropriately stringent constraints and yet also appropriately sensitive to certain features of us as we actually are. My suggestion is that we should embrace a model of contractualism that is structurally analogous to the “advice model” of the ideal observer theory famously proposed by Michael Smith (1994; 1995). An advice model of contractualism is appealing since it promises to deliver a (...)
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  32. added 2018-04-23
    Contractualism and Radical Pluralism.Nicholas Southwood - 2019 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 16 (2):225-238.
    Abstract: How should contractualists seek to accommodate and respond to the existence of radical pluralism within contemporary liberal states? Ryan Muldoon has recently argued that a) the dominant Kantian liberal model of contractualism is hopelessly ill equipped to do so but that b) there is a particular kind of Hobbesian contractualism that can do much better. I raise some problems concerning the capacity of Muldoonian contractualism to respond appropriately to the problem of radical pluralism. I then propose a very different (...)
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  33. added 2018-03-09
    Moral Aus Interesse: Metaethik der Vertragstheorie.Michael von Grundherr - 2007 - De Gruyter.
    One can justify moral rules on the basis of their advantageousness without equating morality and advantage.
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  34. added 2018-02-18
    Trust, Risk, and the Social Contract.Brian Skyrms - 2008 - Synthese 160 (1):21-25.
    The problem of trust is discussed in terms of David Hume's meadow-draining example. This is analyzed in terms of rational choice, evolutionary game theory and a dynamic model of social network formation. The kind of explanation that postulates an innate predisposition to trust is seen to be unnecessary when social network dynamics is taken into account.
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  35. added 2018-02-18
    Evolution of the Social Contract.Brian Skyrms - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this pithy and highly readable book, Brian Skyrms, a recognised authority on game and decision theory, investigates traditional problems of the social contract in terms of evolutionary dynamics. Game theory is skilfully employed to offer new interpretations of a wide variety of social phenomena, including justice, mutual aid, commitment, convention and meaning. The author eschews any grand, unified theory. Rather, he presents the reader with tools drawn from evolutionary game theory for the purpose of analysing and coming to understand (...)
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  36. added 2017-09-03
    Rationality is Not Fair.Michael Byron - 1995 - Analysis 55 (4):252-260.
    Gauthier argues in Morals by Agreement that morality is derivable from rationality. A crucial premise is that rational bargaining is procedurally fair. Gauthier defends this claim by trying to show that his principle of rational bargaining determines a fair distribution of the overall return from cooperation, including the cooperative surplus. He supports this point in part by the argument from agreement: since (1) procedurally fair principles proportion return to contribution, and since (2) every bargainer has the power to agree in (...)
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  37. added 2017-08-15
    Gern Helf’ Ich Dem Freunde? Pflichten in Informellen Sozialbeziehungen.Ludger Jansen - 2014 - In Jörn Müller & Karl Mertens (eds.), Die Dimension des Sozialen: Neue Philosophische Zugänge Zu Fühlen, Wollen Und Handeln. De Gruyter. pp. 333-350.
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  38. added 2017-07-24
    Contractualism and Animals.Mark Bernstein - 1997 - Philosophical Studies 86 (1):49-72.
  39. added 2017-05-30
    Contractualismo.Miguel Angel Quintana Paz - 2006 - In Andrés Ortiz-Osés & Patxi Lanceros (eds.), Diccionario de la existencia. Barcelona-México: Anthropos-UNAM. pp. 99-106.
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  40. added 2017-03-28
    Gauthier, Equilibrium, and the Emergence of Morality.Brett Mullins - 2016 - Dialogue 55 (4):677-693.
    David Gauthier develops morality in the social contract tradition as an emergent property rationally necessitated by the presence of inefficiency. To demarcate situations in which morality arises from those in which it does not, two principles, Strategic Emergence and Market Emergence, are motivated and assumed by Gauthier to be equivalent. Following the work of Bob Bright, this paper formalizes and expands upon a demonstration of the inconsistency of the two principles. Eliminating each of the emergence conditions is considered to resolve (...)
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  41. added 2017-03-03
    Wouldn't It Be Nice? Moral Rules and Distant Worlds.Abelard Podgorski - 2018 - Noûs 52 (2):279-294.
    Traditional rule consequentialism faces a problem sometimes called the ideal world objection—the worry that by looking only at the consequences in worlds where rules are universally adhered to, the theory fails to account for problems that arise because adherence to rules in the real world is inevitably imperfect. In response, recent theorists have defended sophisticated versions of rule consequentialism which are sensitive to the consequences in worlds with less utopian levels of adherence. In this paper, I argue that these attempts (...)
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  42. added 2017-02-15
    The New Modes of Contractarianism: A Critical Review. [REVIEW]Mark Phillips - 1988 - Reason Papers 13:208-216.
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  43. added 2017-02-09
    Comments on Paul Wierich’s “Contractarianism and Bargaining Theory”.Craig K. Ihara - 1991 - Journal of Philosophical Research 16:387-391.
  44. added 2017-02-09
    Liberalism, Contractarianism, and the Choice of Liberties.Douglas B. Rasmussen - 1985 - Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy 7:26-36.
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  45. added 2017-02-03
    Pre-Emptive Violence: A Reply to Gauthier.F. S. McNeilly - 1972 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 15 (1-4):330 – 341.
  46. added 2017-02-02
    The Common Life: Ambiguity, Agreement, and the Structure of Morals.Burton Zwiebach - 1988 - Temple University Press.
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  47. added 2017-02-01
    Gauthier and the Capacity for Morality.Georgia Testa - 2003 - Res Publica 9 (3):223-242.
    In Morals by Agreement, David Gauthier tries to provide a justification of morality from morally neutral premises within the constraints of an instrumental conception of reason. But his reliance on this narrow conception of reason creates problems, for it suggests that moral motivation is self-interested. However, Gauthier holds that to act morally is to act for the sake of morality and others, not oneself. An individual who so acts has what he calls an affective capacity for morality. He attempts to (...)
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  48. added 2017-01-25
    Bargaining and Agreement in Gauthier's Moral Contractarianism.Edwin Etieyibo - 2013 - South African Journal of Philosophy 32 (3):221-233.
    Bargaining and distribution of benefits accruing from social cooperation are central topics in contractarian accounts of morality or distributive justice in general and David Gauthier’s Morals by Agreement in particular. In this paper, I raise some problems for MbA both with regards to bargaining over the benefits of social cooperation and the distribution of such benefits. The worries I raise piggyback on a couple of Jan Narveson’s earlier queries of some of the topics in MbA: those of ‘questionable foundation’ and (...)
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  49. added 2017-01-24
    On Not Making Ourselves the Prey of Others: Jean Hampton's Feminist Contractarianism. [REVIEW]Janice Richardson - 2007 - Feminist Legal Studies 15 (1):33-55.
    This article assesses Jean Hampton’s feminist contractarianism by considering the way in which she draws together the contradictory positions of Hobbes and Kant to produce a test for exploitation in personal relationships. The ways in which this work fits with her other analysis of retribution, gratitude and self-worth are examined. Hampton’s work is evaluated in the context of Carole Pateman’s argument that moral theories distract from the political analysis of who has a voice in relationships. Hampton’s work presumes the social (...)
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  50. added 2017-01-24
    B. Skyrms, Evolution of the Social Contract, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1986.Tim Kohler - 1997 - Complexity 2 (6):6-6.
1 — 50 / 171