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  1. added 2020-05-20
    Justice for the Disabled: A Contractualist Approach.Christie Hartley - 2009 - Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (1):17-36.
  2. added 2020-05-16
    Stuart Newton Hampshire, Innocenza e esperienza. Un'etica del conflitto. [REVIEW]Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 1996 - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 88 (1):174-175.
    Hampshire addresses the problem of pluralism, i.e. conflicts, characteristic of modern societies, which arise from the presence of conflicting moral interests and duties. The solution is a procedural notion of justice, seen as the precondition for respect for the different positive conceptions of the good. A salient feature of the book is the combination of a form of a 'weak' Aristotelianism, similar to that of Bernard Williams and far away from that of MacIntyre, with the theme of the relationship between (...)
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  3. added 2020-04-27
    Private Property and the Possibility of Consent. Immanuel Kant and Social Contract Theory.Alice Pinheiro Walla - forthcoming - In Larry Krasnoff, Nuria Sánchez Madrid & Paula Satne (eds.), Kant's Doctrine of Right in the 21st Century. University of Wales Press.
  4. added 2020-04-27
    Must Politics Be War?: Restoring Our Trust in the Open Society.Kevin Vallier - 2019 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    Americans today are far less likely to trust their institutions, and each other, than in decades past. This collapse in social and political trust arguably fuels our increasingly ferocious ideological conflicts and hardened partisanship. Many believe that our previously high levels of trust and bipartisanship were a pleasant anomaly and that we now live under the historic norm. Seen this way, politics itself is nothing more than a power struggle between groups with irreconcilable aims: contemporary American politics is war because (...)
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  5. added 2020-04-27
    Social Contract Theory for a Diverse World: Beyond Tolerance.Ryan Muldoon - 2016 - Routledge.
    Very diverse societies pose real problems for Rawlsian models of public reason. This is for two reasons: first, public reason is unable accommodate diverse perspectives in determining a regulative ideal. Second, regulative ideals are unable to respond to social change. While models based on public reason focus on the justification of principles, this book suggests that we need to orient our normative theories more toward discovery and experimentation. The book develops a unique approach to social contract theory that focuses on (...)
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  6. added 2020-04-27
    Constructivism.Adam Cureton - 2014 - In Michael Gibbons (ed.), Encyclopedia of Political Thought. Wiley-Blackwell.
    The term “constructivism” names a family of political, moral and metaethical views that, in general terms, regard some or all normative claims as valid in virtue of being outcomes of a “procedure of construction” in which actual or hypothetical agents react to, choose, or otherwise settle on principles of justice, moral rules, values, etc. Traditionally, moral validity or justifiability was thought to depend on God, the Forms, or some other independent moral order. Various procedures of a different, epistemological, sort were (...)
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  7. added 2020-04-27
    Contractualism, Root and Branch: A Review Essay.Stephen Darwall - 2006 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 34 (2):193-214.
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  8. added 2020-04-27
    Contractarianism / Contractualism.Stephen Darwell (ed.) - 2002 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _ _ _Contractualism/Contractarianism_ collects, for the first time, both major classical sources and central contemporary discussions of these important approaches to philosophical ethics. Edited and introduced by Stephen Darwall, these readings are essential for anyone interested in normative ethics. With a helpful introduction by Stephen Darwall, examines key topics in the contractarian and contractualist moral theory. Includes six contemporary essays which respond to the classic sources. Includes an insightful discussion of contractualism by Gary Watson. Includes classic excerpts by key figures (...)
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  9. added 2020-04-15
    Contratualismo ex post e ex ante: como evitar a agregação.Gustavo Oliva de Oliveira - 2019 - In Eduardo Alves, Gregory Gaboardi, Claiton Silva da Costa & David Fraga (eds.), XIX Semana Acadêmica do PPG em Filosofia da PUCRS - Volume 1. Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil: pp. 131-139.
    Contractualism has obtained relative success in moral theory for being able to deal with cases in which consequentialist theories of morality fail, specially those that involve problems with aggregation. Aggregation is, simply put, the ideia that we should measure the value of an action not by considering how it affects each individual, but by adding the good its consequences produce, looking for the best "balance" of good. Philosophers like John Rawls and T. M. Scanlon pointed out that aggregation seems to (...)
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  10. added 2020-04-02
    The Moral Obligation to Be Vaccinated: Utilitarianism, Contractualism, and Collective Easy Rescue.Alberto Giubilini, Thomas Douglas & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (4):547-560.
    We argue that individuals who have access to vaccines and for whom vaccination is not medically contraindicated have a moral obligation to contribute to the realisation of herd immunity by being vaccinated. Contrary to what some have claimed, we argue that this individual moral obligation exists in spite of the fact that each individual vaccination does not significantly affect vaccination coverage rates and therefore does not significantly contribute to herd immunity. Establishing the existence of a moral obligation to be vaccinated (...)
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  11. added 2020-03-10
    Rightness as Fairness.Marcus Arvan - 2016 - In Rightness as Fairness: A Moral and Political Theory. New York, USA: Palgrave MacMillan. pp. 153-201.
    Chapter 1 of this book argued that moral philosophy should be based on seven principles of theory selection adapted from the sciences. Chapter 2 argued that these principles support basing normative moral philosophy on a particular problem of diachronic instrumental rationality: the ‘problem of possible future selves.’ Chapter 3 argued that a new moral principle, the Categorical-Instrumental Imperative, is the rational solution to this problem. Chapter 4 argued that the Categorical-Instrumental Imperative has three equivalent formulations akin to but superior to (...)
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  12. added 2020-02-24
    The Moral Limits of Open‐Mindedness.Matt A. Ferkany - 2019 - Educational Theory 69 (4):403-419.
    Epistemologists have long worried that the willingness of open-minded people to reconsider their beliefs in light of new evidence is both a condition of improving their beliefs and a risk factor for losing their grip on what they already know. In this paper I introduce and attempt to resolve a moral variation of this puzzle: A willingness to engage people having strange or (to us) repugnant moral ideals looks like a condition of broadening our moral horizons, but also a risk (...)
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  13. added 2020-02-20
    Rawls’s Justification Model for Ethics: What Exactly Justifies the Model?Necip Fikri Alican - 2020 - Dialogue and Universalism 30 (1):171–190.
    This is a defense of Rawls against recent criticism, ironically my own, though it is also a critique insofar as it addresses a problem that Rawls never does. As a defense, it is not a retraction of the original charges. As a critique, it is not more of the same op-position. In either capacity, it is not an afterthought. The charges were conceived from the outset with a specific solution in mind, which would have been too distracting to pursue in (...)
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  14. added 2020-02-06
    Contractualism.Jussi Suikkanen - 2020 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    This essay begins by describing T.M. Scanlon’s contractualism according to which an action is right when it is authorised by the moral principles no one could reasonably reject. This view has argued to have implausible consequences with regards to how different-sized groups, non-human animals, and cognitively limited human beings should be treated. It has also been accused of being theoretically redundant and unable to vindicate the so-called deontic distinctions. I then distinguish between the general contractualist framework and Scanlon’s version of (...)
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  15. added 2019-12-19
    Linking Faith and Trust: Of Contracts and Covenants.Ionut Untea - 2019 - Teoria 39 (1):157-168.
    Trust is so intimately linked with faith that sometimes trust needs faith to unfold in a relationship. I argue that the role of this faith element in trust is to elevate the status of the one in which we trust so as to emphasize the equal dignity of all the participants in the relationship of trust. Against views that focus on a «rational» trust based on an exaggerated emphasis on the capacity of self-trust as a point of departure for the (...)
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  16. added 2019-09-17
    How to Overcome Strawson’s Point: Defending a Value-Oriented Foundation for Contractualism.Douglas Paletta - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (1):9-20.
    In The Second Person Standpoint, Darwall charges that all value-oriented foundations for ethics make a category mistake. Calling it Strawson’s point, he argues these foundations explain moral authority, which concerns whether someone has standing to hold another accountable, in terms of a value, which essentially concerns what makes the world go best. However, whether it would be good for me to blame you simply asks a different question than whether I have standing to blame you. I defend a valueoriented foundation (...)
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  17. added 2019-06-18
    Justice and the Social Contract: Essays on Rawisian Political Philosophy.Samuel Freeman - 2006 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Samuel Freeman was a student of the influential philosopher John Rawls, he has edited numerous books dedicated to Rawls' work and is arguably Rawls' foremost interpreter. This volume collects new and previously published articles by Freeman on Rawls. Among other things, Freeman places Rawls within historical context in the social contract tradition, and thoughtfully addresses criticisms of this position. Not only is Freeman a leading authority on Rawls, but he is an excellent thinker in his own right, and these articles (...)
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  18. added 2019-06-06
    Reasons for Moral Conduct: Groundwork of Scanlon's Contractualism.Zbigniew Jan Marczuk - 2010 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 17 (1):66-77.
    Scanlon grounds all moral principles in claims about "what individuals have reasons to agree to." Analyzing Scanlon's groundwork, I discuss his central reason for being concerned with morality and why personal and impersonal reasons for moral conduct cannot co-exist in his contractualism. I demonstrate that personal values and reasons are incommensurable with impersonal values and reasons. Thus, Scanlon needs to exclude impersonal reasons from the moral theory he advocates. But I argue that there may be a means of inclusion of (...)
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  19. added 2019-06-06
    Scanlon’s Contractualism and the Redundancy Objection.Philip Stratton–Lake - 2003 - Analysis 63 (1):70-76.
    Ebbhinghaus, H., J. Flum, and W. Thomas. 1984. Mathematical Logic. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag. Forster, T. Typescript. The significance of Yablo’s paradox without self-reference. Available from http://www.dpmms.cam.ac.uk. Gold, M. 1965. Limiting recursion. Journal of Symbolic Logic 30: 28–47. Karp, C. 1964. Languages with Expressions of Infinite Length. Amsterdam.
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  20. added 2019-06-06
    Précis of What We Owe to Each Other.T. M. Scanlon - 2003 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (1):159-161.
    1. The idea of a reason should be taken as the central notion for understanding desire, motivation, value, and morality. The argument of the book takes the idea of a reason as primitive. Nothing I go on to claim depends on the thesis that this notion cannot be explained in other terms, but I do not see how this could be done. It is often held that in all, or at least most, cases in which a person has a reason (...)
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  21. added 2019-06-06
    Moral Contractualism and Moral Sensitivity: Critique and Reconstrual.Richard W. Miller - 2002 - Social Theory and Practice 28 (2):193-220.
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  22. added 2019-06-06
    Contractualism and the Boundaries of Morality: Remarks on Scanlon’s What We Owe to Each Other.Gary Watson - 2002 - Social Theory and Practice 28 (2):221-241.
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  23. added 2019-06-06
    The End of Welfare As We Know It? Scanlon Versus Welfarist Consequentialism.Richard J. Arneson - 2002 - Social Theory and Practice 28 (2):315-336.
    A notable achievement of T.M. Scanlon's What We Owe to Each Other is its sustained critique of welfarist consequentialism. Consequentialism is the doctrine that one morally ought always to do an act, of the alternatives, that brings about a state of affairs that is no less good than any other one could bring about. Welfarism is the view that what makes a state of affairs better or worse is some increasing function of the welfare for persons realized in it. I (...)
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  24. added 2019-06-06
    Scanlon’s Contractualism: Critical Notice of T. M. Scanlon, What We Owe to Each Other.Robert Merrihew Adams - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (4):563-586.
    The central idea of T. M. Scanlon’s “contractualism” has been well known to ethical theorists since Scanlon 1982. In What We Owe to Each Other it has grown into a comprehensive and impressively developed theory of the nature of right and wrong—or at least of what Scanlon regards as the most important of the “normative kinds” that go under the names of ‘right’ and ‘wrong’. Rejecting aggregative consequentialism, Scanlon aims to articulate principles of right and wrong for individual action in (...)
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  25. added 2019-06-06
    Cruel Contractualism?: Alastair Norcross, Social Contract Theory and the Treatment of Animals.Michael Taylor - 2001 - Southwest Philosophy Review 17 (2):151-153.
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  26. added 2019-06-06
    Critical Review of Rawls's Political Liberalism: A Utilitarian and Decision-Theoretical Analysis of the Main Arguments: Stephen W. Ball.Stephen W. Ball - 1998 - Utilitas 10 (2):222-240.
  27. added 2019-06-06
    Maximin Justice, Sacrifice, and the Reciprocity Argument: A Pragmatic Reassessment of the Rawls/Nozick Debate: Stephen W. Ball.Stephen W. Ball - 1993 - Utilitas 5 (2):157-184.
    Theories of economic justice are characteristically based on abstract ethical concerns often unrelated to practical distributive results. Two decades ago, Rawls's theory of justice began as a reaction against the alleged ‘sacrifices’ condoned by utilitarian theory. One variant of this objection is that utilitarianism permits gross inequalities, severe deprivations of individual liberty, or even the enslavement of society's least well-off individuals. There are, however, more subtle forms of the objection. In Rawls, it is often waged without any claim that utilitarianism (...)
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  28. added 2019-06-05
    On What We Owe to Each Other.Philip Stratton-Lake (ed.) - 2004 - Blackwell.
    In "On What We Owe to Each Other," five leading moral philosophers assess various aspects of Scanlon's moral theory as laid out in this seminal work.
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  29. added 2019-05-31
    Rawlsian Social-Contract Theory and the Severely Disabled.Henry S. Richardson - 2006 - Journal of Ethics 10 (4):419-462.
    Martha Nussbaum has powerfully argued in Frontiers ofJustice and elsewhere that John Rawls’s sort of social-contract theory cannot usefully be deployed to deal with issues pertaining to justice for the disabled. To counter this claim, this article deploys Rawls’s sort of social-contract theory in order to deal with issues pertaining to justice for the disabled—or, since, as Nussbaum stresses, we all have some degree of disability—for the severely disabled. In this way, rather than questioning one by one Nussbaum’s interpretive claims (...)
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  30. added 2019-05-06
    Prioritarianism Without Consequentialism.Yingying Tang & Lei Zhong - 2018 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 59 (141):943-956.
    According to prioritarianism, an influential theory of distributive justice, we have a stronger reason to benefit people the worse off these people are. Many authors have adopted a consequentialist version of prioritarianism. On this account, we have a consequentialist reason to benefit the worse off because the state of affairs where the worse off gains a given amount of utility is more valuable than the state of affairs where the better off gains roughly the same amount of utility. In this (...)
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  31. added 2019-04-26
    Gerald Gaus, The Order of Public Reason: A Theory of Freedom and Morality in a Diverse and Bounded World , Pp. Xx + 621.Fabian Wendt - 2012 - Utilitas 24 (4):548-551.
  32. added 2019-04-18
    Scanlon on Well‐Being.Jonathan Wolff - 2003 - Ratio 16 (4):332-345.
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  33. added 2019-03-19
    Nonconsequentialist Precaution.Christopher Morgan-Knapp - 2015 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (4):785-797.
    How cautious should regulators be? A standard answer is consequentialist: regulators should be just cautious enough to maximize expected social value. This paper charts the prospects of a nonconsequentialist - and more precautionary - alternative. More specifically, it argues that a contractualism focused on ex ante consent can motivate the following regulatory criterion: regulators should permit a socially beneficial risky activity only if no one can be expected to be made worse off by it. Broadly speaking, there are two strategies (...)
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  34. added 2019-03-08
    Ex Ante and Ex Post Contractualism: A Synthesis.Jussi Suikkanen - 2019 - Journal of Ethics 23 (1):77-98.
    According to contractualist theories in ethics, whether an action is wrong is determined by whether it could be justified to others on grounds no one could reasonably reject. Contractualists then think that reasonable rejectability of principles depends on the strength of the personal objections individuals can make to them. There is, however, a deep disagreement between contractualists concerning from which temporal perspective the relevant objections to different principles are to be made. Are they to be made on the basis of (...)
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  35. added 2018-11-29
    Marcus Arvan, Rightness as Fairness: A Moral and Political Theory, Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, Xi + 271 Pp., £88.39 , ISBN 978‐1‐137‐54180‐2, eBook ISBN 978‐1‐137‐54181‐9. [REVIEW]François Jaquet - 2018 - Dialectica 72 (2):315-320.
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  36. added 2018-11-10
    Summary of Minimal Morality: A Multilevel Social Contract Theory.Michael Moehler - 2019 - Analysis 79 (1):103-105.
    In Minimal Morality, I develop a multilevel social contract theory that, in contrast to existing theories in the liberal tradition, does not merely assume a restricted form of reasonable moral pluralism, but is tailored to the conditions of deeply morally pluralistic societies that may include liberal moral agents, nonliberal moral agents, and, according to the traditional understanding of morality, nonmoral agents. The theory takes its main inspiration from the moral theories of Hobbes (1651), Hume (1739/1740), and Kant (1785, 1795, and (...)
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  37. added 2018-11-10
    Replies to Gaus, Van Schoelandt and Cooper: Prudence, Morality and the Social Contract.Michael Moehler - 2019 - Analysis 79 (1):140-153.
    Abstract. In Minimal Morality (2018), I develop a multilevel social contract theory that accommodates deep moral pluralism. In this article, I reply to comments by Gaus, Van Schoelandt and Cooper concerning the three core projects of the book that aim to (i) revive orthodox rational choice contractarianism as a viable approach to the social contract, (ii) integrate this approach into a comprehensive social contract theory and (iii) show the applicability of the theory to the real world. My replies clarify some (...)
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  38. added 2018-09-29
    Diversity, Stability, and Social Contract Theory.Michael Moehler - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (12):3285-3301.
    The topic of moral diversity is not only prevalent in contemporary moral and political philosophy, it is also practically relevant. Moral diversity, however, poses a significant challenge for moral theory building. John Thrasher, in his discussion of public reason theory, which includes social contract theory, argues that if one seriously considers the goal of moral constructivism and considerations of representation and stability, then moral diversity poses an insurmountable problem for most public reason theories. I agree with Thrasher that moral diversity (...)
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  39. added 2018-09-03
    Identities How Governed, Who Pays?H. B. Paksoy - 2001 - Lawrence: Carrie.
    In a given polity, interactions between the Governed and the Governing Strata are symbiotic. The Governed desire, and indeed need, infrastructure services organized. If such basic foundations are not provided, the economic activity so deeply cherished by both groups cannot be realized. The Governing Strata cannot function without the Governed. After all, without the Governed, there will not be a polity; hence nothing to govern. Regardless of the politico-economic system in effect, this co-dependence is inevitable, inescapable, indenturing both groups to (...)
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  40. added 2018-06-21
    Avant-propos : Contrats de partenariat public privé (2018) par Pascal Mukonde Musulay ISBN 978-2-88931-244-3.Ignace Haaz - 2018 - Globethics African Law Series No. 5.
    Le présent ouvrage fait suite aux deux précédents volumes de l’auteur : (2015) Droit des affaires en Afrique subsaharienne et économie planétaire, et (2016) : Démocratie électorale en Afrique subsaharienne Entre droit, pouvoir et argent, publiés par les Éditions Globethics. Bien que Pascal Mukonde convoque le thème du contrat du point de vue strictement juridique et dans le contexte du droit africain en RD. Congo, sur une ligne de recherche systématique (p.75), nous souhaitons mentionner comme préliminaire, la place de l’éthique (...)
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  41. added 2018-06-07
    Contractual Justice: A Modest Defence: Brian Barry.Brian Barry - 1996 - Utilitas 8 (3):357-380.
    As the author of Justice as Impartiality, I am not ashamed to admit that I was delighted by the liveliness of the discussion generated by it at the meeting on which this symposium is based. I am likewise grateful to the six authors for finding the book worthy of the careful attention that they have bestowed on it. Between them, the symposiasts take up many more points than I can cover in this response. I shall therefore focus on some themes (...)
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  42. added 2018-04-23
    Contractualism for Us As We Are.Nicholas Southwood - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 99 (3):529-547.
    A difficult problem for contractualists is how to provide an interpretation of the contractual situation that is both subject to appropriately stringent constraints and yet also appropriately sensitive to certain features of us as we actually are. My suggestion is that we should embrace a model of contractualism that is structurally analogous to the “advice model” of the ideal observer theory famously proposed by Michael Smith (1994; 1995). An advice model of contractualism is appealing since it promises to deliver a (...)
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  43. added 2018-04-23
    Contractualism and Radical Pluralism.Nicholas Southwood - 2019 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 16 (2):225-238.
    Abstract: How should contractualists seek to accommodate and respond to the existence of radical pluralism within contemporary liberal states? Ryan Muldoon has recently argued that a) the dominant Kantian liberal model of contractualism is hopelessly ill equipped to do so but that b) there is a particular kind of Hobbesian contractualism that can do much better. I raise some problems concerning the capacity of Muldoonian contractualism to respond appropriately to the problem of radical pluralism. I then propose a very different (...)
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  44. added 2018-03-16
    The Reasonable and the Moral.Thaddeus Metz - 2002 - Social Theory and Practice 28 (2):277-301.
  45. added 2018-02-18
    Contractualismo.Miguel Angel Quintana Paz - 2006 - In Andrés Ortiz-Osés & Patxi Lanceros (eds.), Diccionario de la existencia. Barcelona-México: Anthropos-UNAM. pp. 99-106.
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  46. added 2018-02-17
    Relational Contractualism and Future Persons.Michael Gibb - 2016 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 13 (2):135-160.
    _ Source: _Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 135 - 160 A moral theory should tell us something about our obligations to future persons. It is therefore sometimes objected that contractualist moral theories cannot give a satisfactory account of such obligations, as there is little to motivate a contract with persons who can offer us almost nothing in return. I will argue that more recent “relational” forms of contractualism escape these objections. These forms of contractualism do, however, remain vulnerable to Derek (...)
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  47. added 2017-11-29
    Contractualism and the Counter-Culture Challenge.Jussi Suikkanen - 2017 - Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 7:184-206.
    T. M. Scanlon’s contractualism attempts to give an account of right and wrong in terms of the moral code that could not be reasonably rejected. Reasonable rejectability is then a function of what kind of consequences the general adoption of different moral codes has for different individuals. It has been shown that moral codes should be compared at a lower than 100% level of social acceptance. This leads to the counter-culture challenge. The problem is that the cultural background of the (...)
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  48. added 2017-10-17
    Psikologi Kebangsaan Sebagai Payung Studi Baru di Indonesia.Juneman Abraham (ed.) - 2015 - Jakarta: ReneBook.
    Title in English: Psychology of Nationality as A New Studies Umbrella in Indonesia. Abstract: The role of psychology in dealing with issues of and improving the welfare of the nation has often been raised into topics of psychology seminars and conferences, both in subdisciplines of social psychology, clinical-macro psychology, and other subdisciplines. Psychology, as a science that deals with human dimensions, tries to contribute from formulating the definition of "nation" to doing research and social intervention on the nation's problems. This (...)
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  49. added 2017-09-13
    The Structure of Accountability: An Analysis Applied to Animals.Carl Hammer - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Research 41:151-174.
    There is a growing trend toward recognizing that moral obligation is centrally grounded in accountability. This, however, may seem to offer another argument, perhaps in the footsteps of Kant, that other animals have no moral standing. Accountability seems to be grounded in some kind of authoritative demands and, as Stephen Darwall puts it, “second-personal address.” Other animals are not competent in such practices, so they may seem to be left out of the domain of obligation. I argue that demand-accountability-based obligation (...)
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  50. added 2017-07-24
    Contractualism and Animals.Mark Bernstein - 1997 - Philosophical Studies 86 (1):49-72.
1 — 50 / 263