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  1. The Moral Value of Animals.Elisa Aaltola - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 3:219-225.
    Altruism has often been thought to be the reason we treat animals with a certain moral respect. Animals are not moral agents who could reciprocally honour our well being, and because of this duties toward them are considered to be based on other-directed motivations. Altruism is a vague notion, and in the context of animals can be divided into at least three different alternatives. The first one equates altruism with benevolence or "kindness"; the second one argues altruism is based on (...)
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  2. Psikologi Kebangsaan Sebagai Payung Studi Baru di Indonesia.Juneman Abraham (ed.) - 2015 - Jakarta: ReneBook.
    Title in English: Psychology of Nationality as A New Studies Umbrella in Indonesia. Abstract: The role of psychology in dealing with issues of and improving the welfare of the nation has often been raised into topics of psychology seminars and conferences, both in subdisciplines of social psychology, clinical-macro psychology, and other subdisciplines. Psychology, as a science that deals with human dimensions, tries to contribute from formulating the definition of "nation" to doing research and social intervention on the nation's problems. This (...)
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  3. Aquinas and Modern Contractualism.Don Adams - 2009 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 17 (4):509 – 530.
    When modern ethical contractualists defend their view against “teleology,” they typically have in mind utilitarian or consequentialist theories according to which valuable states of affairs are to be promoted. But if we look to older teleological theories e.g. that found in the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas we will find a kind of teleology that can be incorporated beneficially into contractualist ethics. In this paper I argue that Scanlon would be well served, on grounds to which he appeals, to make (...)
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  4. Scanlon's Contractualism: Critical Notice of T. M. Scanlon, "What We Owe to Each Other".Robert Merrihew Adams - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (4):563-586.
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  5. Scanlon's Contractualism: Critical Notice of T. M. Scanlon, "What We Owe to Each Other".Robert Merrihew Adams - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (4):563.
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  6. Contractualism and Aggregation.Alastair Norcross - 2002 - Social Theory and Practice 28 (2):303-314.
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  7. Contractualism, Reciprocity, Compensation.David Alm - 2008 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 2 (3):1-23.
    Two generally recognized moral duties are to reciprocate benefits one has received from others and to compensate harms one has done to others. In this paper I want to show that it is not possible to give an adequate account of either duty – or at least one that corresponds to our actual practices – within a contractualist moral theory of the type developed by T. M. Scanlon (1982, 1998). This fact is interesting in its own right, as contractualism is (...)
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  8. Eine Kritik an Norbert Hoersters Theorie der Normenvertretung.Vuko Andrić - 2010 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 64 (1):62-83.
    Norbert Hoerster has tried to show on the basis of what I call special and general interests that it is rational to endorse moral judgements. I argue that Hoerster’s attempt to vindicate the rationality of moral judgements fails. By appealing to special interests Hoerster can only establish the rationality of endorsing judgements that – by Hoerster’s own standards – are not moral judgements because they do not pass the test of generalization. While the appeal to general interests, on the other (...)
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  9. The End of Welfare As We Know It? Scanlon Versus Welfarist Consequentialism.Richard J. Arneson - 2002 - Social Theory and Practice 28 (2):315-336.
    A notable achievement of T.M. Scanlon's What We Owe to Each Other is its sustained critique of welfarist consequentialism. Consequentialism is the doctrine that one morally ought always to do an act, of the alternatives, that brings about a state of affairs that is no less good than any other one could bring about. Welfarism is the view that what makes a state of affairs better or worse is some increasing function of the welfare for persons realized in it. I (...)
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  10. Contractualism.Elizabeth Ashford - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  11. The Demandingness of Scanlon's Contractualism.Elizabeth Ashford - 2003 - Ethics 113 (2):273-302.
    One of the reasons why Kantian contractualism has been seen as an appealing alternative to utilitarianism is that it seems to be able to avoid utilitarianism's extreme demandingness, while retaining a fully impartial moral point of view. I argue that in the current state of the world, contractualist obligations to help those in need are not significantly less demanding than utilitarian obligations. I also argue that while a plausible version of utilitarianism would be considerably less demanding if the state of (...)
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  12. Critical Review of Rawls's Political Liberalism: A Utilitarian and Decision-Theoretical Analysis of the Main Arguments.Stephen W. Ball - 1998 - Utilitas 10 (2):222.
  13. Maximin Justice, Sacrifice, and the Reciprocity Argument: A Pragmatic Reassessment of the Rawls/Nozick Debate.Stephen W. Ball - 1993 - Utilitas 5 (2):157.
    Theories of economic justice are characteristically based on abstract ethical concerns often unrelated to practical distributive results. Two decades ago, Rawls's theory of justice began as a reaction against the alleged ‘sacrifices’ condoned by utilitarian theory. One variant of this objection is that utilitarianism permits gross inequalities, severe deprivations of individual liberty, or even the enslavement of society's least well-off individuals. There are, however, more subtle forms of the objection. In Rawls, it is often waged without any claim that utilitarianism (...)
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  14. Contractualism and the Foundations of Morality. [REVIEW]R. Eric Barnes - 2012 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (4):815-818.
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  15. Contractual Justice: A Modest Defence.Brian Barry - 1996 - Utilitas 8 (3):357.
    As the author of Justice as Impartiality, I am not ashamed to admit that I was delighted by the liveliness of the discussion generated by it at the meeting on which this symposium is based. I am likewise grateful to the six authors for finding the book worthy of the careful attention that they have bestowed on it. Between them, the symposiasts take up many more points than I can cover in this response. I shall therefore focus on some themes (...)
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  16. Social Contract.Lawrence C. Becker - 1992 - In Lawrence C. Becker & Charlotte B. Becker (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Ethics. Garland Publishing. pp. 2--1170.
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  17. Contractualism and Animals.Mark Bernstein - 1997 - Philosophical Studies 86 (1):49-72.
  18. Nicholas Southwood: Contractualism and the Foundations of Morality.Michele Bocchiola - 2015 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (4):873-875.
    In the contemporary philosophical debate, there are two opposing contractualist views. On the one side, Hobbesian contractualisms take moral principles as side-constraints to redress the failures of the interaction among self-interested individuals. On the other, Kantian versions of the social contract ground morality on an impartial and moralized viewpoint. In his recent Contractualism and the Foundations of Morality, Nicholas Southwood proposes a third and novel form of contractualism, with the aim to overcome the “implausibly personal and partial characterization of the (...)
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  19. Actual Agreement Contractualism.David Borman - 2015 - Dialogue 54 (3):519-539.
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  20. Contractualism and Deontic Restrictions.Jeffrey Brand‐Ballard - 2004 - Ethics 114 (2):269-300.
    In response to the charge that deontic ("argent-centered") restrictions are paradoxical, several recent writers suggest that such restrictions find support within T.M. Scanlon's contractualism. I suggest that this claim is only interesting if these restrictions are stronger than those supported by indirect consequentialism. I argue that contractualism cannot support restrictions any stronger than those supported by indirect consequentialism. The contractualists have mislocated the source of the paradox, which arises under any theory that defines right action in patient-focused terms. Consequentialism and (...)
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  21. Contractualism, Utilitarianism and Social Inequalities.Dan W. Brock - 1971 - Social Theory and Practice 1 (3):33-44.
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  22. Saving the Greatest Number.Thom Brooks - 2002 - Logique Et Analyse 45 (177-178):55-59.
    Imagine there are three boats equidistant from one another. You are alone in the first boat. The other two boats are sinking fast: one boat has one person (A), the other has two persons (B&C). There is only enough time to allow saving either A or B&C before their boats sink, drowning whoever is onboard. Will we always combine claims of those wishing to be saved and rescue B&C? Otsuka says that the 'Kamm-Scanlon' contractualist framework that does not aggregating various (...)
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  23. Impartiality and Liberal Neutrality.Simon Caney - 1996 - Utilitas 8 (3):273.
    It is a commonplace that in many societies people adhere to profoundly different conceptions of the good. Given this we need to know what political principles are appropriate. How can we treat people who are committed to different accounts of the good with fairness? One recent answer to this pressing question is given by Brian Barry in his important work Justice as Impartiality. This book, of course, contains much more than this. It includes a powerful and incisive discussion of several (...)
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  24. Contractualism and Moral Criticism.Norman S. Care - 1969 - Review of Metaphysics 23 (1):85 - 101.
    The article is a critical discussion of "contractualism" in moral and political philosophy as developed by john rawls and applied by w. G. Runciman. It attempts to clarify the sense in which contractualism is a moral theory and to assess its powers as a normative account of moral criticism. It argues that the structure of contractualism suggests an attractive way of formulating rival moral theories but not a way of arguing for any moral theory, That this reduces the force of (...)
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  25. Cognitive Science and Liberal Contractualism: A Good Friendship.Oscar Lucas González Castán - 2005 - Revista de filosofía (Chile) 30:63-75.
    In this paper, I shall argue that both cognitivism and liberal contractualism defend a pre-moral conception of human desire that has its origin in the Hobbesian and Humean tradition that both theories share. Moreover, the computational and syntactic themes in cognitive science support the notion, which Gauthier evidently shares, that the human mind ¿ or, in Gauthier¿s case, the mind of ¿economic man¿ ¿ is a purely formal mechanism, characterized by logical and mathematical operations. I shall conclude that a single (...)
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  26. Fundamental Equality.John Charvet - 1998 - Utilitas 10 (3):337.
    By fundamental equality is meant the idea of the equal worth of human beings understood as a constitutive principle of morality. The paper is concerned with how this principle may be justified. Attempts to justify it in an objectivist way by citing some quality of human beings in virtue of which they are supposed to be of equal worth are rejected. Such approaches in fact justify inequality to the extent that some people possess the quality to a greater degree than (...)
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  27. The Primacy of the Moral: An Interview with Thomas M. Scanlon.Eugene Chislenko - 2007 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 15 (1):92-101.
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  28. A Contractualist Account of Promising.Michael Cholbi - 2002 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 40 (4):475-91.
    T.M. Scanlon (1998) proposes that promise breaking is wrong because it shows manipulative disregard for the expectations for future behavior created by promising. I argue that this account of promissory obligation is mistaken in it own right, as well as being at odds with Scanlon's contractualism. I begin by placing Scanlon's account of promising within a tradition that treats the creation of expectations in promise recipients as central to promissory obligation. However, a counterexample to Scanlon's account, his case of the (...)
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  29. What We Owe to Each Other, T. M. Scanlon, the Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998, IX + 420 Pages. [REVIEW]David Copp & David Sobel - 2000 - Economics and Philosophy 16 (2):333-378.
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  30. SCANLON, TM-What We Owe to Each Other.R. Crisp - 2000 - Philosophical Books 41 (4):235-246.
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  31. Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract.Fred D'Agostino, John Thrasher & Gerald Gaus - 2011 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  32. Contractualism, Root and Branch: A Review Essay.Stephen Darwall - 2006 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 34 (2):193–214.
  33. Contractarianism, Contractualism.Stephen L. Darwall (ed.) - 2003 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Contractualism/Contractarianism collects, for the first time, both major classical sources and central contemporary discussions of these important approaches to philosophical ethics. Edited and introduced by Stephen Darwall, these readings are essential for anyone interested in normative ethics.
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  34. Contractualism and Moral Status.David Phillips - 1998 - Social Theory and Practice 24 (2):183-204.
    Contractualist moral theories are often criticized on the grounds that they have counterintuitive implications for moral status. In this paper I attempt to provide a comprehensive answer to the question: What forms of contractualism face this problem, and how serious is the problem? To do this I develop a classification of different kinds of contractualist theory, based on philosophical motivation.
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  35. The Moral Legislature: Contractualism Without an Archimedean Point.Michael Davis - 1992 - Ethics 102 (2):303-318.
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  36. Contractualism, Personal Values, and Well-Being.Peter de Marneffe - 2014 - Social Philosophy and Policy 30 (1-2):51-68.
    Scanlon's distinction between well-being and other personal values cannot be made out clearly if well-being is understood, as it commonly is, to consist in whatever is intrinsically good for a person. Two other accounts of well-being, however, might be able to explain this distinction. One is a version of the rational care view proposed by Stephen Darwall; another is a rational sympathy view suggested by some of Brad Hooker's work.
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  37. Contractualism, Personal Values, and Well-Being.Peter de Marneffe - 2013 - Social Philosophy and Policy 30 (1-2):51-68.
    Scanlon's distinction between well-being and other personal values cannot be made out clearly if well-being is understood, as it commonly is, to consist in whatever is intrinsically good for a person. Two other accounts of well-being, however, might be able to explain this distinction. One is a version of the rational care view proposed by Stephen Darwall; another is a rational sympathy view suggested by some of Brad Hooker's work.
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  38. Contractualism, Liberty, and Democracy.Peter de Marneffe - 1994 - Ethics 104 (4):764-783.
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  39. Contractualism Vs. Contractarianism.Aleksandar Dobrijevic - 2011 - Filozofija I Društvo 22 (3):27-44.
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  40. Playing Dice with Morality: Weighted Lotteries and the Number Problem.Mathieu Doucet - 2013 - Utilitas 25 (2):161-181.
    In this article I criticize the non-consequentialist Weighted Lottery (WL) solution to the choice between saving a smaller or a larger group of people. WL aims to avoid what non-consequentialists see as consequentialism's unfair aggregation by giving equal consideration to each individual's claim to be rescued. In so doing, I argue, WL runs into another common objection to consequentialism: it is excessively demanding. WL links the right action with the outcome of a fairly weighted lottery, which means that an agent (...)
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  41. Contractualism and the Normativity of Principles.Gerald Dworkin - 2002 - Ethics 112 (3):471-482.
    This is a study of the question of whether moral principles, as justified by a contractualist scheme, such as Scanlon's, are binding on persons, i.e., give them reasons to act in accordance with such principles. I argue that for those agents who meet the motivational conditions that Scanlon lays down, i.e., those who seek to reach agreement with others on principles that are not rejectable, such principles are binding. But on those who do not meet the motivational condition the principles (...)
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  42. Contractualism, Contemporary Approaches.Fred D’Agostino - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  43. Contractarianism and Coherence with Moral Judgments: Rawls and Scanlon on Theory Evaluation.Burcu Umut Ergun - 2000 - Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    This dissertation is an attempt to better understand certain aspects of the theoretical structure of contemporary 'contractarian' and/or 'contractualist' accounts of morality. I begin by identifying contractarian accounts of morality as foundational theories; that is to say, as theories occupying a middle ground between 'first-order' and 'meta' ethics. I claim that all prominent examples of contemporary contractarianism---to be found, for example, in the works of K. Baier, D. Gauthier, G. R. Grice, G. Harman, J. Mackie, J. Rawls, and T. M. (...)
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  44. The Democracy/Contractualism Analogy.David Estlund - 2003 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 31 (4):387-412.
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  45. A Unified Moral Terrain?Stephen Everson - 2007 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 2 (1).
    In his book What We Owe to Each Other, Thomas Scanlon proposes what he calls a ‘contractualist’ explanation of what he describes as ‘a central part of the territory called morality’, i.e. our duties to other rational creatures. If Scanlon is right, the fact that another creature is rational generates a particular kind of moral constraint on how we may act towards it: one should ‘treat rational creatures only in ways that would be allowed by principles that they could not (...)
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  46. Democratized Morality. Formal Preliminaries to Contractualist Ethics.Christian J. Feldbacher - 2012 - Open Journal of Philosophy 2 (2):107-111.
    This paper discusses one of the advantages of applying formal methods in ethics. First, an approach from democratic morality—which is a special case of contractualist ethics that brings together theories of legal and moral philosophy—will be adopted, in order to argue for the non-trivial thesis that moral norms are increasingly democratically motivated. To accept this thesis also as a desired way of justifying ethical principles raises some issues, such as the problem of providing adequate principles for moral opinion pooling. Secondly, (...)
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  47. Scanlon and Contractualism.Brian Feltham - 2005 - Contemporary Political Theory 4 (2):209-211.
  48. BARRY, BRIAN Justice as Impartiality. [REVIEW]Antony Flew - 1995 - Philosophy 70:603.
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  49. Reply to TM Scanlon.Harry G. Frankfurt - 2002 - In Sarah Buss & Lee Overton (eds.), Contours of Agency: Essays on Themes From Harry Frankfurt. Mit Press, Bradford Books. pp. 184--188.
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  50. Justice and the Social Contract: Essays on Rawlsian Political Philosophy.Samuel Freeman - 2006 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Samuel Freeman was a student of the influential philosopher John Rawls, he has edited numerous books dedicated to Rawls' work and is arguably Rawls' foremost interpreter. This volume collects new and previously published articles by Freeman on Rawls. Among other things, Freeman places Rawls within historical context in the social contract tradition, and thoughtfully addresses criticisms of this position. Not only is Freeman a leading authority on Rawls, but he is an excellent thinker in his own right, and these articles (...)
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