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  1. Involuntary Sins.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1985 - Philosophical Review 94 (1):3-31.
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  2. Plantinga's Free Will Defence: Critical Note.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    Some atheistic philosophers have argued that God could have created a world with free moral agents and yet absent of moral evil. Using possible world semantics, Alvin Plantinga sought to defuse this logical form of the problem of evil. In this critical note, Leslie Allan examines the adequacy of Plantinga's argument that the existence of God is logically compatible with the existence of moral evil. The veracity of Plantinga's argument turns on whether his essential use of counterfactual conditionals preserves the (...)
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  3. The Soul-Making Theodicy: A Response to Dore.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    The soul-making theodicy seeks to explain how belief in the existence of God is compatible with the evil, pain and suffering we experience in our world. It purports to meet the problem of evil posed by non-theists by articulating a divine plan in which the occurrence of evil is necessary for enabling the greater good of character building of free moral agents. Many philosophers of religion have levelled strong objections against this theodicy. In this essay, Leslie Allan considers the effectiveness (...)
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  4. Evil Banalized: Eichmannʼs Master Performance in Jerusalem.Robert Allinson - 2011 - Iyyun 60:275-300.
  5. Terrorism, Evil, and Everyday Depravity.Bar On Bat-Ami - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):157-163.
    : This essay expresses ambivalence about the use of the term "evil" in analyses of terrorism in light of the association of the two in speeches intended to justify the United States' "war on terrorism." At the same time, the essay suggests that terrorism can be regarded as "evil" but only when considered among a multiplicity of "evils" comparable to it, for example: rape, war crimes, and repression.
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  6. Politics and Prioritization of Evil.Bat-Ami Bar On - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4):192-196.
  7. Challenging the Genteel Supports of Atrocities: A Response to "The Atrocity Paradigm".Linda A. Bell - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):123 - 140.
    Inspired by Card's focus on atrocities, I reflect on attitudes and behaviors that buttress and support evil. Surely, the frequent anti-Semitic sermons in German churches helped to form and later to support the views of both Nazis and those who accepted and cooperated with them. Similarly, lynching, rape, and abuse occur within societies whose structures and laws reflect dominant, generally "genteel" racism and sexism and, in turn, help create perpetrators and at least somewhat sympathetic onlookers.
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  8. Deontology, Paradox, and Moral Evil.Richard Brook - 2007 - Social Theory and Practice 33 (3):431-440.
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  9. God's Ability to Will Moral Evil.Robert F. Brown - 1991 - Faith and Philosophy 8 (1):3-20.
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  10. Violence and the Vulnerable Face of the Other: The Vision of Emmanuel Levinas on Moral Evil and Our Responsibility.Roger Burggraeve - 1999 - Journal of Social Philosophy 30 (1):29-45.
  11. The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil.Card Claudia - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (2):213-215.
  12. Caring and Evil.Claudia Card - 1990 - Hypatia 5 (1):101-108.
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  13. Review: Caring and Evil. [REVIEW]Claudia Card - 1990 - Hypatia 5 (1):101 - 108.
    Nel Noddings, in Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education (1984), presents and develops an ethic of care as an alternative to an ethic that treats justice as a basic concept. I argue that this care ethic is unable to give an adequate account of ethical relationships between strangers and that it is also in danger of valorizing relationships in which carers are seriously abused.
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  14. Feminist Perspectives on Global Warming, Genocide, and Card's Theory of Evil.Victoria Davion - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):160 - 177.
    This essay explores several moral issues raised by global warming through the lens of Claudia Card's theory of evil. I focus on Alaskan villages in the sub-Arctic whose residents must relocate owing to extreme erosion, melting sea ice, and rising water levels. I use Card's discussion of genocide as social death to argue that failure to help these groups maintain their unique cultural identities can be thought of as genocidal.
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  15. The Devil's Insatiable Sex: A Genealogy of Evil Incarnate.Margaret Ann Denike - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):10-43.
    : This paper traces the political economy of the Christian concept of "evil" incarnate and its concomitant operations of sexual abjection and the repudiation of femininity, beginning with the early church's inaugural struggles to impose its monotheistic Law against maternal paganism. With attention to how "evil" has been deployed to sanction and sanctify the persecution of scapegoats, and particularly of heretics and witches, I examine the masculinist struggles for jurisdiction and control over women.
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  16. The Free-Will Defence and Worlds Without Moral Evil.Frank B. Dilley - 1990 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 27 (1/2):1 - 15.
  17. Innate Corruption and the Space of Finite Freedom.Gene Fendt - 1994 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 68 (2):179-201.
    This paper explicates the relationship of innate corruption and natural goodness in Kant's Religion against a background of mistaken arguments and interpretations by Goethe, Allison, and Gordon Michalson, among others. It also argues that the only argument that can be given for the claim of innate moral corruption is a kind of ad hominem; it shows that Kant is giving such an argument, and argues that that argument is valid in its place. It concludes by saying that if this explication (...)
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  18. Kant on Moral Freedom and Moral Slavery.David Forman - 2012 - Kantian Review 17 (1):1-32.
    Kant’s account of the freedom gained through virtue builds on the Socratic tradition. On the Socratic view, when morality is our end, nothing can hinder us from attaining satisfaction: we are self-sufficient and free since moral goodness is (as Kant says) “created by us, hence is in our power.” But when our end is the fulfillment of sensible desires, our satisfaction requires luck as well as the cooperation of others. For Kant, this means that happiness requires that we get other (...)
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  19. A PHILOSOPHICAL ENQUIRY INTO THE SCANDAL OF EVIL AND SUFFERING.Edvard Kristian Foshaugen - 2004 - Baptis Journal South Africa (q):q.
    In 1 Peter 1:3-7 we read that the Christians were facing persecution because of their faith and the author reminds them that every trial is a test of their faith. The trials and consequential suffering can be withstood because they are able to look forward to an inheritance – eternal life with God. Christians can endure all trials and suffering because of the hope of glory and ultimate joy. There is a grace afforded by God in the presence to match (...)
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  20. Banal Evil and Useless Knowledge: Hannah Arendt and Charlotte Delbo on Evil After the Holocaust.Jennifer L. Geddes - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):104-115.
    : Hannah Arendt's and Charlotte Delbo's writings about the Holocaust trouble our preconceptions about those who do evil and those who suffer evil. Their jarring terms "banal evil" and "useless knowledge" point to limitations and temptations facing scholars of evil. While Arendt helps us to resist the temptation to mythologize evil, Delbo helps us to resist the temptation to domesticate suffering.
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  21. The Undead and Philosophy.Richard Greene & K. Silem Mohammed (eds.) - 2006 - Open Court.
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  22. Moral Evil and Ignorance in Plato's Ethics.R. Hackforth - 1946 - Classical Quarterly 40 (3-4):118-.
    It is universally agreed that Plato inherited from Socrates, and consistently maintained to the end, the doctrine that no man does evil of set purpose—οδες κν μαρτνει—but because he mistakes evil for good. All moral evil, therefore, for Plato, involves ignorance. There are, however, two passages, one in the Sophist, the other in Laws ix, which on the face of them appear to recognize a type of moral evil in which ignorance is not involved, a type which is indeed contrasted (...)
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  23. Calvinism and the Problem of Hell.Matthew J. Hart - 2016 - In David E. Alexander & Daniel M. Johnson (eds.), Calvinism and the Problem of Evil. Pickwick Publications. pp. 248-272.
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  24. Non-Moral Evil.Allan Hazlett - 2012 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):18-34.
    There is, I shall assume, such a thing as moral evil (more on which below). My question is whether is also such a thing as non-moral evil, and in particular whether there are such things as aesthetic evil and epistemic evil. More exactly, my question is whether there is such a thing as moral evil but not such a thing as non-moral evil, in some sense that reveals something special about the moral, as opposed to such would-be non-moral domains as (...)
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  25. Moral Evil and Leibniz's Form/Matter Defense of Divine Omnipotence.Jill Graper Hernandez - 2010 - Sophia 49 (1):1-13.
    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that Leibniz’s form/matter defense of omnipotence is paradoxical, but not irretrievably so. Leibniz maintains that God necessarily must concur only in the possibility for evil’s existence in the world (the form of evil), but there are individual instances of moral evil that are not necessary (the matter of evil) with which God need not concur. For Leibniz, that there is moral evil in the world is contingent on God’s will (a dimension of (...)
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  26. Thomas Jay Oord, The Uncontrolling Love of God: An Open and Relational Account of Providence[REVIEW]Elijah Hess - 2016 - Journal of Analytic Theology 4 (1):473-479.
  27. Evil's Place in the Ethics of Social Work.Jon Vegar Hugaas - 2010 - Ethics and Social Welfare 4 (3):254-279.
    This article argues that the concept of evil is needed in normative ethics in general as well as in the professional ethics of social work. Attention is drawn to certain shortcomings in the classical theories of normative ethics when it comes to recognizing the profound destructiveness of certain types of acts that exceed the mere ?bad? or ?wrong? applied in the most common theories of moral philosophy. Having established the category of morally evil acts in general, the author turns to (...)
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  28. Ontic Evil and Moral Evil.Louis Janssens - 2000 - In Christopher Robert Kaczor (ed.), Proportionalism: For and Against. Marquette University Press.
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  29. The Thematic Primacy of Moral Evil.Aurel Kolnai - 1956 - Philosophical Quarterly 6 (22):27-42.
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  30. God Among the Causes of Moral Evil.Norman Kretzmann - 1988 - Philosophical Topics 16 (2):189-214.
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  31. John Milton: A Dialogical Discourse on God, Satan and Humanity: The Humanization of God Through Negativity and the Possible Human Condition.Avi Kujman - 2010 - Create Space.
    This book presents an old-new vision for humanity: not a barbarous world without a God or a universal (i.e., Nietzsche's world), but also not a world in which God or the ultimate meaning of the otherworldly replaces the need to humanize the divine, to bring to the here and now the possibility of perfection, the option of "paradise within". This somewhat Platonic outlook is not to negate God as an ideal, and yet it is not to put God as a (...)
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  32. Claudia Card's.María Pía Lara - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4).
    : This paper deals with Claudia Card's important contributions to a theory of evil that steps out from traditional models of thinking about this problem (theodicies, metaphysical theories, etc.). Instead, our author seeks to explore important elements from other theorists (such as Kant and Nietzsche) in order to build up her ideas of what she calls the "atrocity paradigm." This critical essay focuses mainly in the spaces where Card's conclusions need to rethink the limits and constraints of her theory.
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  33. Claudia Card's Atrocity Paradigm.Maria Pia Lara - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4):184-191.
  34. Claudia Card's Atrocity Paradigm.Maríaa Pía Lara - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4):186-193.
    This paper deals with Claudia Card's important contributions to a theory of evil that steps out from traditional models of thinking about this problem (theodicies, metaphysical theories, etc.). Instead, our author seeks to explore important elements from other theorists (such as Kant and Nietzsche) in order to build up her ideas of what she calls the "atrocity paradigm." This critical essay focuses mainly in the spaces where Card's conclusions need to rethink the limits and constraints of her theory.
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  35. Natural Evil: The Comparative Response. [REVIEW]C. Stephen Layman - 2003 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 54 (1):1-23.
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  36. Original Justice, Original Sin, and the Free-Will Defense.Paul A. Macdonald Jr - 2010 - The Thomist 74 (1):105-141.
    In this article, I advance what I think is a more theologically robust and informed free-will defense, which allows me to address the problem of evil in a more theologically robust and informed way. In doing so, however, I do not claim to offer a comprehensive response to the problem of evil, or full-blown "theodicy"; instead, I offer a partial response, which I place in the service of a full-blown theodicy. Moreover, my own approach is explicitly Thomistic, insofar as I (...)
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  37. Moral Powers and Forgivable Evils.Alice MacLachlan - 2009 - In Kathryn Norlock & Andrea Veltman (eds.), Evil, Political Violence and Forgiveness: Essays in Honor of Claudia Card. Lexington.
    In The Atrocity Paradigm, Claudia Card suggests we forgiveness as a potentially valuable exercise of a victim's moral powers. Yet Card never makes explicit just what 'moral powers' are, or how to understand their grounding or scope. I draw out unacknowledged implications of her framework: namely, that others than the primary victim may forgive, and -- conversely -- that some victims may find themselves morally dis-empowered. Furthermore, talk of "moral powers" allows us to appropriately acknowledge the value of refusals to (...)
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  38. Spinoza on Evil.Eugene Marshall - forthcoming - In The History of Evil. Volume III: The History of Evil in the Early Modern Age (1450-1700). Acumen Press.
  39. Problems with Heaven.Michael Martin - 2015 - In Keith Augustine & Michael Martin (eds.), The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 427-440.
    Belief in Heaven is an essential part of the great monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Famous theologians have written about it, and ordinary theists hope to go there after death. However, the concept of Heaven is neither clear nor unproblematic. There are three serious problems with the notion of Heaven. First, the concept of Heaven lacks coherence. Second, it is doubtful that theists can reconcile the heavenly character of Heaven with standard defenses against the argument from evil, such (...)
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  40. Moral Evil Under Challenge.Johannes Baptist Metz (ed.) - 1970 - Herder & Herder.
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  41. The Problem of Natural Inequality: A New Problem of Evil.Moti Mizrahi - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (1):127-136.
    In this paper, I argue that there is a kind of evil, namely, the unequal distribution of natural endowments, or natural inequality, which presents theists with a new evidential problem of evil. The problem of natural inequality is a new evidential problem of evil not only because, to the best of my knowledge, it has not yet been discussed in the literature, but also because available theodicies, such the free will defense and the soul-making defense, are not adequate responses in (...)
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  42. Evagrius Ponticus and Cognitive Science: A Look at Moral Evil and the Thoughts. By George Tsakiridis.James F. Moore - 2010 - Zygon 45 (4):1024-1025.
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  43. Inequity/Iniquity: Card on Balancing Injustice and Evil.Adam Morton - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4):199-203.
    Card argues that we should not give injustice priority over evil. I agree. But I think Card sets us up for some difficult balancings, for example of small evils against middle sized injustices. I suggest some ways of staying off the tightrope.
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  44. The Problem of Evil in the Speculative Mysticism of Meister Eckhart.Gregory S. Moss - 2016 - In Benjamin W. McCraw Robert Arp (ed.), The Problem of Evil: New Philosophical Directions. Lexington Books.
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  45. Moral Evil and Human Freedom: A Reply to Tierno.Yujin Nagasawa - 2003 - Sophia 42 (2):107-111.
    Many theists believe that the so-called ‘free will defence’ successfully undermines the antitheist argument from moral evil. However, in a recent issue of Sophia Joel Thomas Tierno provides the ‘adequacy argument’ in order to show an alleged difficulty with the free will defence. I argue that the adequacy argument fails because it equivocates on the notion of moral evil.
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  46. Book Review: Claudia Card. The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. [REVIEW]Hilde Lindemann Nelson - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (2):213-215.
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  47. The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil (Review).Hilde Lindemann Nelson - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (2):213-215.
  48. Leibniz on Privations, Limitations, and the Metaphysics of Evil.Samuel Newlands - 2014 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (2):281-308.
    There was a consensus in late Scholasticism that evils are privations, the lacks of appropriate perfections. For something to be evil is for it to lack an excellence that, by its nature, it ought to have. This widely accepted ontology of evil was used, in part, to help explain the source of evil in a world created and sustained by a perfect being. during the second half of the seventeenth century, progressive early moderns began to criticize the traditional privative account (...)
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  49. Theodicies and Human Nature: Dostoevsky on the Saint as Witness.Timothy O'Connor - 2009 - In Kevin Timpe (ed.), Metaphysics and God. Routledge.
  50. Politics and Prioritization of Evil.On Bat-Ami Bar - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4):192-196.
    In this essay I question an assumption of Card's, which seems to place the (Kantianstyle) ethical in a directive relationship with respect to the political. I call attention to the rupture between the two as a marker of modernity and suggest that the political is not only a sphere of power but also a value-sedimented field, with the values in question developing historically as in the case of liberal democracy.
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