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  1. Compassion and Animals: How We Ought to Treat Animals in a World Without Justice.Cheryl Abbate - 2018 - In Justin Caouette & Carolyn Price (eds.), The Moral Psychology of Compassion.
    The philosophy of animal rights is often characterized as an exclusively justice oriented approach to animal liberation that is unconcerned with, and moreover suspicious of, moral emotions, like sympathy, empathy, and compassion. I argue that the philosophy of animal rights can, and should, acknowledge that compassion plays an integral role in animal liberation discourse and theory. Because compassion motivates moral actors to relieve the serious injustices that other animals face, or, at the very least, compassion moves actors not to participate (...)
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  2. Toward a Systemic Ethic: In Search of the Ethical Basis for Sustainability and Precaution.Hugo Fjelsted Alrøe & Erik Steen Kristensen - 2003 - Environmental Ethics 25 (1):59-78.
    There are many different meanings of sustainability and precaution and no evident connection between the new normative concepts and the traditional moral theories. We seek an ethical basis for sustainability and precaution—a common framework that can serve as a means of resolving the conceptual ambiguities of the new normative concepts and the conflicts between new and traditional moral concepts and theories. We employ a systemic approach to analyze the past and possible future extension of ethics and establish an inclusive framework (...)
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  3. Practical Necessity and the Constitution of Character.Roman Altshuler - 2013 - In Alexandra Perry & Chris Herrera (eds.), The Moral Philosophy of Bernard Williams. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 40-53.
    Deliberation issues in decision, and so might be taken as a paradigmatic volitional activity. Character, on the other hand, may appear pre-volitional: the dispositions that constitute it provide the background against which decisions are made. Bernard Williams offers an intriguing picture of how the two may be connected via the concept of practical necessities, which are at once constitutive of character and deliverances of deliberation. Necessities are thus the glue binding character and the will, allowing us to take responsibility for (...)
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  4. The Newxin Puzzle.Chrisoula Andreou - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 139 (3):415-422.
    A variety of thought experiments suggest that, if the standard picture of practical rationality is correct, then practical rationality is sometimes an obstacle to practical success. For some, this in turn suggests that there is something wrong with the standard picture. In particular, it has been argued that we should revise the standard picture so that practical rationality and practical success emerge as more closely connected than the current picture allows. In this paper, I construct a choice situation—which I refer (...)
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  5. Getting On in a Varied World.Chrisoula Andreou - 2006 - Social Theory and Practice 32 (1):61-73.
    The core argument in favor of the view that immorality is a natural defect for human beings, which has been developed by Foot, assumes that if justice and compassion have important functions in human survival and reproduction, then injustice and cruelty are natural defects in human beings. But this ignores possibilities and results that cannot reasonably be ignored. Multiple and mixed naturally sound types can and do occur in nature. Moreover, research in the life sciences suggests that at least some (...)
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  6. Breaking the Habit.Audrey L. Anton - 2006 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 13 (2):58-66.
    Aristotle’s virtue ethics can teach us about the relationship between our habits and our actions. Throughout his works, Aristotle explains much about how one may develop a virtuous character, and little about how one might change from one character type to another. In recent years criminal law has been concerned with the issue of recidivism and how our system might reform the criminals we return to society more effectively. This paper considers how Aristotle might say a vicious person could change (...)
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  7. Unprincipled Virtue.Nomy Arpaly - 2003 - The Journal of Ethics 8 (2):201-204.
    Nomy Arpaly rejects the model of rationality used by most ethicists and action theorists. Both observation and psychology indicate that people act rationally without deliberation, and act irrationally with deliberation. By questioning the notion that our own minds are comprehensible to us--and therefore questioning much of the current work of action theorists and ethicists--Arpaly attempts to develop a more realistic conception of moral agency.
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  8. The Varieties of Moral Improvement, Or Why Metaethical Constructivism Must Explain Moral Progress.Caroline T. Arruda - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-22.
    Among the available metaethical views, it would seem that moral realism—in particular moral naturalism—must explain the possibility of moral progress. We see this in the oft-used argument from disagreement against various moral realist views. My suggestion in this paper is that, surprisingly, metaethical constructivism has at least as pressing a need to explain moral progress. I take moral progress to be, minimally, the opportunity to access and to act in light of moral facts of the matter, whether they are mind-independent (...)
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  9. Morality Reason and Feeling.Charles Bailey - 1980 - Journal of Moral Education 9 (2):114-121.
    Abstract and Introduction This paper argues that morality is largely to do with reason and little to do with feelings or affections. In the first section it is argued that there is a necessary connection between the idea of the moral life and the existence of creatures capable of reflection and judgment. The argument is extended in Section Two to include the notions of reason and justification. The nature of justification is examined in Section Three, and these three sections taken (...)
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  10. Is It Rational to Maximize?: James Wood Bailey.James Wood Bailey - 1998 - Utilitas 10 (2):195-221.
    Most versions of utilitarianism depend on the plausibility and coherence of some conceptionof maximizing well-being, but these conceptions have been attacked on various grounds. This paper considers two such contentions. First, it addresses the argument that because goods are plural and incommensurable, maximization is incoherent. It is shown that any conception of incommensurability strong enough to show the incoherence of maximization leads to an intolerable paradox. Several misunderstandings of what maximization requires are also addressed. Second, this paper responds to the (...)
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  11. The Varieties of Normativity.Derek Clayton Baker - 2017 - In Tristram McPherson & David Plunkett (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Metaethics. Routledge. pp. 567-581.
    This paper discusses varieties of normative phenomena, ranging from morality, to epistemic justification, to the rules of chess. It canvases a number of distinctions among these different normative phenomena. The most significant distinction is between formal and authoritative normativity. The prior is the normativity exhibited by any standard one can meet or fail to meet. The latter is the sort of normativity associated with phenomena like the "all-things-considered" ought. The paper ends with a brief discussion of reasons for skepticism about (...)
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  12. Robert Audi, The Architecture of Reason: The Structure and Substance of Rationality, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2001, Pp. Vii + 286.Stephen W. Ball - 2003 - Utilitas 15 (1):109.
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  13. Do Negative Mood States Impact Moral Reasoning?Brian Barger & W. Pitt Derryberry - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (4):443-459.
    This paper presents three studies exploring the relationship between emotional responses to classic cognitive developmental moral dilemmas and moral reasoning indices as measured by the Defining Issues Test (DIT). Each study indicated that certain moral dilemmas elicit varying levels of anger and sadness as compared to a neutral baseline. In each study, decreased moral reasoning was observed in those instances where reports in both sadness and anger were high following a dilemma. This did not occur, however, in those instances where (...)
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  14. Constraint Games and the Orthodox Theory of Rationality.R. Eric Barnes - 1997 - Utilitas 9 (3):329.
    Moral theorists and game theorists are both interested in situations where rational agents are to constrain their future actions and co-operate with others instead of being free riders. These theorists have constructed a variety of hypothetical games which illuminate this problem of constraint. In this paper, I draw a distinction between like the Newcomb paradox and like Kavka's toxin puzzle, a prisoner's dilemma and Parfit's hitchhiker example. I then employ this distinction to argue that agents who subscribe to the orthodox (...)
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  15. Moral Masquerades: Experimental Exploration of the Nature of Moral Motivation.C. Daniel Batson - 2008 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (1):51-66.
    Why do people act morally – when they do? Moral philosophers and psychologists often assume that acting morally in the absence of incentives or sanctions is a product of a desire to uphold one or another moral principle (e.g., fairness). This form of motivation might be called moral integrity because the goal is to actually be moral. In a series of experiments designed to explore the nature of moral motivation, colleagues and I have found little evidence of moral integrity. We (...)
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  16. The Roles of Religiosity and Spirituality in Moral Reasoning.Rachel Baumsteiger, Tiffany Chenneville & Joseph F. McGuire - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (4):266-277.
    To better understand the influence of religiosity and spirituality on moral reasoning, 1,037 college students completed a survey including demographic questions, a religiosity measure, a spirituality measure, and Forsyth's Ethical Position Questionnaire. Religiosity and spirituality positively correlated with moral idealism, whereas spirituality negatively correlated with moral relativism. However, religiosity and spirituality accounted for a very little variability in moral reasoning, suggesting that they do not directly influence moral reasoning. In addition, female participants reported higher spirituality, but there were no gender (...)
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  17. Expert Testimony by Persons Trained in Ethical Reasoning: The Case of Andrew Sawatzky.Françoise Baylis - 2000 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (3):224-231.
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  18. Being Right, and Being in the Right.Avner Baz - 2008 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 51 (6):627 – 644.
    This paper presents a critique of a prevailing conception of the relation between moral reasoning and judgment on the one hand, and moral goodness on the other. I argue that moral reasoning is inescapably vulnerable to moral, as opposed to merely theoretical, failure. This, I argue, means that there is something deeply misleading in the way that Kant's moral theory, and some of its main rivals, have invited us to conceive of their subject matter.
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  19. Meta-Ethical Rationalism and the Amoralist Challenge: An Externalist Response to Michael Smith's Reliability Argument.Gerald Beaulieu - 2007 - Dialogue 46 (4):751-760.
  20. Oppositional Defiance, Moral Reasoning and Moral Value Evaluation as Predictors of Self-Reported Juvenile Delinquency.Marinus Gcj Beerthuizen, Daniel Brugman & Karen S. Basinger - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (4):1-15.
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  21. Through Thick and Thin: A New Defense of Cultural Relativism.Yitzhak Benbaji & Menachem Fisch - 2004 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 42 (1):1-24.
    Some relativists deny that moral discourse is factual. According to them, our ethical commitments are to be explained by appealing to noncognitive mental states like desires, rather than to beliefs in some independent moral facts. Indeed, the package antirealism (there are no moral properties) & noncognitivism (the source of moral commitments is noncognitive) seems to be implicit in Lewis’s and Harman’s relativism. But to many philosophers this package seems to be unattractive. Our task in this paper is to construe and (...)
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  22. Attributions and Avowals of Motive in the Study of Deviance: Resource or Topic?Timothy Berard - 1998 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 28 (2):193–213.
    In explaining human actions, scholars and laypeople alike employ explanatory devices such as ‘motives’. This paper critically reevaluates the relationship between ‘professional’ and ‘lay’ invocations of motive, proposing a general reorientation of theory and research. This reorientation emphasizes the mundane ‘practical grammar’ of motives, and argues that motive deployment is inextricably tied to deviance, and therefore irremediably moral. It is argued, therefore, that motives should serve as a topic for scholarship, not a resourcefor scholarly use. Several landmark theories of motives, (...)
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  23. Just Design.Matteo Bianchin & Ann Heylighen - 2018 - Design Studies 54:1-22.
    Inclusive design prescribes addressing the needs of the widest possible audience in order to consider human differences. Taking differences seriously, however, may imply severely restricting “the widest possible audience”. In confronting this paradox, we investigate to what extent Rawls’ theory of justice as fairness applies to design. By converting the paradox into the question of how design can be fair, we show that the demand for equitability shifts from the design output to the design process. We conclude that the two (...)
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  24. Trustworthiness is a Social Norm, but Trusting is Not.C. Bicchieri, E. Xiao & R. Muldoon - 2011 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 10 (2):170-187.
    Previous literature has demonstrated the important role that trust plays in developing and maintaining well-functioning societies. However, if we are to learn how to increase levels of trust in society, we must first understand why people choose to trust others. One potential answer to this is that people view trust as normative: there is a social norm for trusting that imposes punishment for noncompliance. To test this, we report data from a survey with salient rewards to elicit people’s attitudes regarding (...)
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  25. Ruling Passions: A Theory of Practical Reasoning.Simon Blackburn - 1998 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Simon Blackburn puts forward a compelling original philosophy of human motivation and morality. He maintains that we cannot get clear about ethics until we get clear about human nature. So these are the sorts of questions he addresses: Why do we behave as we do? Can we improve? Is our ethics at war with our passions, or is it an upshot of those passions? Blackburn seeks the answers in an exploration of guilt, shame, disgust, and other moral emotions; he draws (...)
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  26. A Two-Tiered Cognitive Architecture for Moral Reasoning.John Bolender - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 16 (3):339-356.
    The view that moral cognition is subserved by a two-tieredarchitecture is defended: Moral reasoning is the result both ofspecialized, informationally encapsulated modules which automaticallyand effortlessly generate intuitions; and of general-purpose,cognitively penetrable mechanisms which enable moral judgment in thelight of the agent's general fund of knowledge. This view is contrastedwith rival architectures of social/moral cognition, such as Cosmidesand Tooby's view that the mind is wholly modular, and it is argued thata two-tiered architecture is more plausible.
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  27. Rejecting Internalism.Michael Sean Brady - 1998 - Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara
    Internalism is the view that the truth of normative propositions depends solely upon elements which are internal to subjects. In this dissertation I argue that we should reject the primary rationale for taking an internalist line in various areas of normative assessment, namely a principle known as the Internalism Requirement. In the first part of the dissertation I focus on epistemology, and argue that we should reject the internalism requirement on epistemic reasons, i.e., the claim that reasons for believing must (...)
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  28. Evaluative Beliefs First.Ben Bramble - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 8.
    Many philosophers think that it is only because we happen to want or care about things that we think some things of value. We start off caring about things, and then project these desires onto the external world. In this chapter, I make a preliminary case for the opposite view, that it is our evaluative thinking that is prior or comes first. On this view, it is only because we think some things of value that we care about or want (...)
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  29. Interpersonal Practical Reasoning.Myles Brand - 1987 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 30:77-95.
    According to one version of the Causal Theory, an action is a mental or bodily event caused by an intention to act. Deliberate action requires prior planning. The practical syllogism is interpreted as a summary description of the planning process, where the conclusion reports the agent's intention. Social action differs from individual action in that only the former requires coordination of one's action with members of a group. This difference is reflected in the intention with which we act, labeled 'we-intention' (...)
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  30. Philosophical Action Theory and the Foundations of Motivational Psychology.Myles Brand - 1980 - Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy 2:1-19.
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  31. Two Problems of Cooperation.Katharine Browne - 2013 - In Bert Musschenga & Anton van Harskamp (eds.), What Makes Us Moral? On the capacities and conditions for being moral. Springer. pp. 31-50.
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  32. The Moral Development of Moral Philosophers.Martin Bunzl - 1977 - Journal of Moral Education 7 (1):3-8.
    Abstract Lawrence Kohlberg thinks that Utilitarianism and Rawls? theory of justice are formal elaborations of different stages in the psychological development of moral reasoning. He also thinks that there are psychological reasons to favour the stage of reasoning of which he thinks Rawls? theory is an elaboration, and he believes that these reasons are isomorphic with philosophical criteria of adequacy that are normally used in evaluating moral theories. I argue that if he is right, then Rawls? own arguments for the (...)
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  33. Promoting Moral Reasoning and Multicultural Competence During Internship.Edward P. Cannon - 2008 - Journal of Moral Education 37 (4):503-518.
    This paper reports a study designed to increase the moral reasoning and multicultural competence of White students in a counselling internship. An intervention was conducted to determine the effectiveness of using a deliberate psychological education approach that incorporated issues of cultural competence, oppression and diversity. This study attempted to discern if the DPE model could make a difference in the promotion of moral reasoning and multicultural competence of counsellor interns. The Intervention Group showed significant gains compared to Comparison Group 1 (...)
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  34. The Logical Structure of Moral Reasoning.Hector Neri Castaneda - 1954 - Dissertation, University of Minnesota
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  35. Forgiveness, Exemplars, and the Oppressed.Myisha Cherry - 2017 - In Kathryn J. Norlock (ed.), The Moral Psychology of Forgiveness. Maryland, USA: pp. 55-72.
    I argue that while moral exemplars are useful, we must be careful in our use of them. I first describe forgiveness exemplars that are often used to persuade victims to forgive such as Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King Jr., and Jesus of Nazareth. I also explain how, for Kant, highlighting these figures as moral exemplars can be useful. I then explain two kinds of rhetorical strategies that are used when attempting to convince victims to forgive. Last, I explain (a la (...)
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  36. Hume's Moral Sentiments As Motives.Rachel Cohon - 2010 - Hume Studies 36 (2):193-213.
    There is considerable evidence that Hume thinks the moral sentiments move us to action, at least in some circumstances. For one thing, he relies on the premise that moral evaluations move us to action to argue that moral evaluations are not derived from reason alone, in his most famous anti-rationalist argument. Presumably, this capacity of moral evaluations can be explained by the fact that such evaluations are, or are the product of, moral sentiments. But this raises three interconnected interpretive questions. (...)
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  37. Edward F. McLennen, Rationality and Dynamic Choice: Foundational Explorations, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990, Pp. Xiv + 311.Robin P. Cubitt - 1993 - Utilitas 5 (1):128.
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  38. Comments. Morality and the Logic of Caring / Christine M. Korsgaard ; a Thoughtful and Reasonable Stability / Michael E. Bratman ; Socializing Harry. [REVIEW]Meir Dan-Cohen - 2006 - In Harry G. Frankfurt (ed.), Taking Ourselves Seriously & Getting It Right. Stanford University Press.
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  39. Nagel's Argument for Altruism.Stephen L. Darwall - 1974 - Philosophical Studies 25 (2):125 - 130.
  40. Foucault on Askesis in Epictetus: Freedom Through Determination.Christopher Davidson - 2014 - In Dane R. Gordon & David B. Suits (eds.), Epictetus: His Continuing Relevance and Contemporary Relevance. pp. 41-53.
    Michel Foucault turned to Classical and Hellenistic philosophy late in his career, a change of focus that surprised and was misunderstood by many at the time. Often, it is supposed that his aim was to find the “freedom” that he had allegedly denied in his earlier works on power relations; he is thought to have proposed an autonomous self which would oppose and resist dominating political institutions. I instead contend that Foucault’s work on the Ancients is better understood as a (...)
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  41. Green's Theory of the Moral Motive.John Dewey - 1892 - Philosophical Review 1 (6):593-612.
  42. Jaspers on Drives, Wants and Volitions.Ulrich Diehl - 2012 - Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Karl-Jaspers-Gesellschaft 25:101-125.
    In § 6 of his General Psychopathology (1st edition 1913) Jaspers distinguished between drives, wants and volitions as three different and irreducible kinds of motivational phenomena which are involved in human decision making and which may lead to successful actions. He has characterized the qualitative differences between volitions in comparison with basic vital drives and emotional wants such as being (a.) intentional, (b.) content-specific and (b.) directed towards concrete objects and actions as goals. Furthermore, Jaspers has presented and discussed three (...)
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  43. A questão da fundamentação última na filosofia. Belo Horizonte.Ivan Domingues - 1995 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 91:29-44.
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  44. Two Dualisms of Practical Reason1.Dale Dorsey - 2013 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 8:114.
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  45. Shaun P. Hargreaves Heap and Yanis Varoufakis, Game Theory: A Critical Introduction, London, Routledge, 1995, Pp. 296.Keith Dowding - 1996 - Utilitas 8 (2):252.
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  46. Diagnosing Blame: Responsibility and the Psychopath.Carl Elliott - 1992 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (2):199-214.
    The diagnosis of psychopathy is controversial largely because of two notions: first, that because of their defects, psychopaths cannot understand morality, and second, that these defects should thus excuse psychopaths from moral responsibility for their actions. However, it is not clear just what is involved in understanding morality. The argument that the psychopath is ignorant of morality in the same way that one might be ignorant of facts is difficult to sustain. However, a closer examination of the psychopath's peculiar deficiencies (...)
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  47. Responsibility for Character.Andrew Eshleman - 2004 - Philosophical Topics 32 (1/2):65-94.
    In this work I argue that an agent assumes responsibility for her traits of character by making them her own during the process of their formation. One makes a character trait one's own by identifying oneself with its constitutive desires, or in the case of a particular kind of vice, by failing to identify oneself with desires to act in the corresponding virtuous manner. Unlike the view traditionally attributed to Aristotle, this view does not require that an agent be the (...)
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  48. The Psychophysical Basis of Moral Conduct.Gustave A. Feingold - 1914 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 11 (25):680-687.
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  49. What Does Value Matter? The Interest-Relational Theory of the Semantics and Metaphysics of Value.Stephen F. Finlay - 2001 - Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    Value and reasons for action are often cited by rationalists and moral realists as providing a desire-independent foundation for normativity. Those maintaining instead that normativity is dependent upon motivation often deny that anything called "value" or "reasons" exists. According to the interest-relational theory, something has value relative to some perspective of desire just in case it satisfies those desires, and a consideration is a reason for some action just in case it indicates that something of value will be accomplished by (...)
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  50. The Faintest Passion.Harry Frankfurt - 1992 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 66 (3):5-16.
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