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  1. Are Morals Relative?Nicholas Alchin - 2007 - Think 5 (14):23-26.
    The question of the existence (or otherwise) of has been debated for thousands of years. The position that there are no such truths comes in several varieties. In this, the first of two consecutive articles by Alchin, we hear a debate on the most common form of relativism: moral relativism.
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  2. How Not to Be a Moral Relativist.Robin Attfield - 1979 - The Monist 62 (4):510-523.
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  3. Judge and Be Judged: Moral Reflection in an Age of Relativism and Fundamentalism.Eric Bain-Selbo - 2006 - Lexington Books.
    Judge and Be Judged offers insights into moral life and moral judgment that aim to help in understanding our society's tendency towards either fundamentalism or relativism. By examining the social function of shame, the possibility of cross-cultural understanding, and obstacles to moral judgment in the classroom, this book charts a path that helps to avoid both fundamentalism and relativism.
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  4. Aspects of Relativism: Moral, Cognitive and Literary.James E. Bayley - 1992 - Upa.
    In this book nine philosophers and one literary critic address aspects of the relativism issue currently of philosophic interest.
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  5. Moral Relativism in Context.James Beebe - 2010 - Noûs 44 (4):691-724.
    Consider the following facts about the average, philosophically untrained moral relativist: (1.1) The average moral relativist denies the existence of “absolute moral truths.” (1.2) The average moral relativist often expresses her commitment to moral relativism with slogans like ‘What’s true (or right) for you may not be what’s true (or right) for me’ or ‘What’s true (or right) for your culture may not be what’s true (or right) for my culture.’ (1.3) The average moral relativist endorses relativistic views of morality (...)
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  6. Moral Relativism is Incoherent.Julien Beillard - 2013 - Philosophy Now 97:23-24.
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  7. The Truth in Vulgar Relativism.T. Bennigson - 1999 - Philosophical Studies 96 (3):269-300.
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  8. Ethical Instrumentalism.J. S. Biehl - 2005 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 8 (4):353-369.
    The present essay offers a sketch of a philosophy of value, what I shall here refer to as ‘ethical instrumentalism.’ My primary aim is to say just what this view involves and what its commitments are. In the course of doing so, I find it necessary to distinguish this view from another with which it shares a common basis and which, in reference to its most influential proponent, I refer to as ‘Humeanism.’ A second, more general, aim is to make (...)
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  9. Do 'Objectivist' Features of Moral Discourse and Thinking Support Moral Objectivism?Gunnar Björnsson - 2012 - Journal of Ethics 16 (4):367-393.
    Many philosophers think that moral objectivism is supported by stable features of moral discourse and thinking. When engaged in moral reasoning and discourse, people behave ‘as if’ objectivism were correct, and the seemingly most straightforward way of making sense of this is to assume that objectivism is correct; this is how we think that such behavior is explained in paradigmatically objectivist domains. By comparison, relativist, error-theoretic or non-cognitivist accounts of this behavior seem contrived and ad hoc. After explaining why this (...)
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  10. Is Objective Moral Justification Possible on a Quasi-Realist Foundation?Simon Blackburn - 1999 - Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 42 (2):213 – 227.
    This essay juxtaposes the position in metaethics defended, expressivism with quasirealistic trimmings, with the ancient problem of relativism. It argues that, perhaps surprisingly, there is less of a problem of normative truth on this approach than on others. Because ethics is not in the business of representing aspects of the world, there is no way to argue for a plurality of moral truths, simply from the existence of a plurality of moral opinions. The essay also argues that other approaches, which (...)
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  11. Moral Relativism and Moral Objectivity.Simon Blackburn - 1998 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58 (1):195-198.
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  12. Review: David Wong: Natural Moralities. [REVIEW]P. Bloomfield - 2009 - Mind 118 (469):225-230.
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  13. Three Kinds of Relativism.Paul Boghossian - 2011 - In Steven Hales (ed.), A Companion to Relativism. Blackwell.
    The paper looks at three big ideas that have been associated with the term “relativism.” The first maintains that some property has a higher-degree than might have been thought. The second that the judgments in a particular domain of discourse are capable only of relative truth and not of absolute truth And the third, which I dub with the oxymoronic label “absolutist relativism,” seeks to locate relativism in our acceptance of certain sorts of spare absolutist principles. -/- The first idea (...)
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  14. The Maze of Moral Relativism.Paul Boghossian - 2011 - The New York Times.
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  15. What is Relativism?Paul Boghossian - 2006 - In Patrick Greenough & Michael Lynch (eds.), Truth and Relativism. Clarendon Press. pp. 13--37.
    Many philosophers, however, have been tempted to be relativists about specific domains of discourse, especially about those domains that have a normative character. Gilbert Harman, for example, has defended a relativistic view of morality, Richard Rorty a relativistic view of epistemic justification, and Crispin Wright a relativistic view of judgments of taste.¹ But what exactly is it to be a relativist about a given domain of discourse? The term ‘‘relativism’’ has, of course, been used in a bewildering variety of senses (...)
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  16. Cultural Diversity and the Case Against Ethical Relativism.Michael Brannigan - 2000 - Health Care Analysis 8 (3):321-327.
    The movement to respect culturaldiversity, known as multiculturalism, poses a dauntingchallenge to healthcare ethics. Can we construct adefensible passage from the fact of culturaldifferences to any claims regarding morality? Or doesmulticulturalism lead to ethical relativism? Macklinargues that, in view of a leading distinction betweenuniversalism in ethics and moral absolutism, the onlyreasonable passage avoids both absolutism andrelativism. She presents a strong case againstethical relativism and its pernicious consequences forcross-cultural issues in healthcare. She alsoprovides sound criteria for the assessment of aculture's moral (...)
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  17. Moral Relativism and Moral Expressivism.Berit Brogaard - 2012 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (4):538-556.
    Though moral relativism has had its supporters over the years, it is not a dominant position in philosophy. I will argue here, though, that the view is an attractive position. It evades some hardcore challenges that face absolutism, and it is reconcilable with an appealing emotivist approach to moral attitudes. In previous work, I have offered considerations in favor of a version of moral relativism that I call “perspectivalism.” These considerations are primarily grounded in linguistic data. Here I offer a (...)
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  18. Moral Contextualism and Moral Relativism.Berit Brogaard - 2008 - Philosophical Quarterly 58 (232):385 - 409.
    Moral relativism provides a compelling explanation of linguistic data involving ordinary moral expressions like 'right' and 'wrong'. But it is a very radical view. Because relativism relativizes sentence truth to contexts of assessment it forces us to revise standard linguistic theory. If, however, no competing theory explains all of the evidence, perhaps it is time for a paradigm shift. However, I argue that a version of moral contextualism can account for the same data as relativism without relativizing sentence truth to (...)
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  19. Aristotelian Virtue Ethics and the Normativity Challenge.Étienne Brown - 2016 - Dialogue 55 (1):131-150.
    Aristotelian virtue theorists are currently engaged in a discussion with philosophers who use psychological findings to question some of their main assumptions. In this article, I present and argue against one of these psychological challenges—Jesse Prinz’s Normativity Challenge—which rests on the claim that findings in cultural psychology contradict the Aristotelian thesis that the normativity of virtues derives from nature. First, I demonstrate that the Normativity Challenge is based on three problematic assumptions about contemporary Aristotelianism. Second, I argue that it presupposes (...)
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  20. Universalism Vs. Relativism: Making Moral Judgments in a Changing, Pluralistic, and Threatening World.Don Browning (ed.) - 2006 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Has moral relativism run its course? The threat of 9/11, terrorism, reproductive technology, and globalization has forced us to ask anew whether there are universal moral truths upon which to base ethical and political judgments. In this timely edited collection, distinguished scholars present and test the best answers to this question. These insightful responses temper the strong antithesis between universalism and relativism and retain sensitivity to how language and history shape the context of our moral decisions. This important and relevant (...)
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  21. A Single True Morality? The Challenge of Relativism.Harry Bunting - 1996 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 40:73-85.
    Ethical objectivists hold that there is one and only one correct system of moral beliefs. From such a standpoint it follows that conflicting basic moral principles cannot both be true and that the only moral principles which are binding on rational human agents are those described by the single true morality. However sincerely they may be held, all other moral principles are incorrect. Objectivism is an influential tradition, covering most of the rationalist and naturalist standpoints which have dominated nineteenth and (...)
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  22. Towards Enforceable Bans on Illicit Businesses: From Moral Relativism to Human Rights.Edmund F. Byrne - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 119 (1):119-130.
    Many scholars and activists favor banning illicit businesses, especially given that such businesses constitute a large part of the global economy. But these businesses are commonly operated as if they are subject only to the ethical norms their management chooses to recognize, and as a result they sometimes harm innocent people. This can happen in part because there are no effective legal constraints on illicit businesses, and in part because it seems theoretically impossible to dispose definitively of arguments that support (...)
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  23. A Coherent Moral Relativism.David Capps, Michael P. Lynch & Daniel Massey - 2009 - Synthese 166 (2):413 - 430.
    Moral relativism is an attractive position, but also one that it is difficult to formulate. In this paper, we propose an alternative way of formulating moral relativism that locates the relativity of morality in the property that makes moral claims true. Such an approach, we believe, has significant advantages over other possible ways of formulating moral relativism. We conclude by considering a few problems such a position might face.
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  24. Sobre el relativismo ético de Gilbert Harman.E. López Castellón - 1996 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 1 (1):209.
    La cuestión práctica más importante del relativismo ético es sin duda la legitimidad de las valoraciones morales respecto a sociedades con sistemas morales diferentes del sistema de quien emite el juido de valor. El comunitarismo de la última década1 representado en esta cuestión por M. Walzer ha cuestionado precisamente dicha legitimidad y ha abogado por un «enfoque interno» que parta de los criterios de que toda forma de vida es «correcta» si sevive «de manera fiel a las concepciones compartidas por (...)
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  25. Book Review : Ethics After Babel, by Jeffrey Stout. Cambridge, James Clarke, 1990. Xiv + 338 Pp. 9.95. [REVIEW]S. R. L. Clark - 1991 - Studies in Christian Ethics 4 (2):92-93.
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  26. Relativism and the Basis of Morality.Robert Coburn - 1976 - Philosophical Review 85 (1):87-93.
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  27. Truth Relativists Can't Trump Moral Progress.Annalisa Coliva & Sebastiano Moruzzi - 2012 - Analytic Philosophy 53 (1):48-57.
  28. Morality and Cultural Differences.W. Cook John - 1999 - Oxford University Press.
    The scholars who defend or dispute moral relativism, the idea that a moral principle cannot be applied to people whose culture does not accept it, have concerned themselves with either the philosophical or anthropological aspects of relativism. This study, shows that in order to arrive at a definitive appraisal of moral relativism, it is necessary to understand and investigate both its anthropological and philosophical aspects. Carefully examining the arguments for and against moral relativism, Cook exposes not only that anthropologists have (...)
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  29. Moral Relativism.David E. Cooper - 1978 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 3 (1):97-108.
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  30. Harman on Internalism, Relativism, and Logical Form.David Copp - 1982 - Ethics 92 (2):227-242.
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  31. Moral Relativism: Can One Community Give Another a Reason to Change?Matthew A. Crawford - unknown
    This paper examines the popular philosophical theory of moral relativism. Traditionally, the theory argues that communities have their own conceptual frameworks of morality that are inaccessible to those outside of the community. Thus, one community cannot give another community a moral reason to change a practice. In this paper, I will examine David Velleman’s version of the theory presented in his book Foundations for Moral Relativism. This version posits that the drive towards mutual interpretability is a universal drive among human (...)
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  32. Moral Relativity.A. S. Cua - 1985 - Review of Metaphysics 39 (2):381-383.
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  33. Samuel Zinaich, Jr., John Locke’s Moral Revolution: From Natural Law to Moral Relativism. [REVIEW]Peter Cvek - 2007 - Vera Lex 8 (1/2):73-82.
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  34. Harman and Moral Relativism.Stephen L. Darwall - 1977 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 58 (3):199.
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  35. An Alternative to Relativism.John K. Davis - 2010 - Philosophical Topics 38 (2):17-37.
    Some moral disagreements are so persistent that we suspect they are deep : we would disagree even when we have all relevant information and no one makes any mistakes. The possibility of deep disagreement is thought to drive cognitivists toward relativism, but most cognitivists reject relativism. There is an alternative. According to divergentism, cognitivists can reject relativism while allowing for deep disagreement. This view has rarely been defended at length, but many philosophers have implicitly endorsed its elements. I will defend (...)
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  36. Moral Conflicts and Ethical Relativism.Judith Wagner DeCew - 1990 - Ethics 101 (1):27-41.
    The article focuses on the study on moral conflicts and ethical relativism. There are few theories in the history ethics that stated that a moral dilemma can not be adhered by to moral requirements. According to philosophy professor David Wong, occurrence of irresolvable moral disagreement is one of the normative problems. On the other hand, the author asserted that single-agent moral conflicts do not necessarily fall under the relativism theory.
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  37. Universal Values and Virtues in Management Versus Cross-Cultural Moral Relativism: An Educational Strategy to Clear the Ground for Business Ethics.Geert Demuijnck - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (4):817-835.
    Despite the fact that business people and business students often cast doubt on the relevance of universal moral principles in business, the rejection of relativism is a precondition for business ethics to get off the ground. This paper proposes an educational strategy to overcome the philosophical confusions about relativism in which business people and students are often trapped. First, the paper provides some conceptual distinctions and clarifications related to moral relativism, particularism, and virtue ethics. More particularly, it revisits arguments demonstrating (...)
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  38. Moral Knowledge and Mass Crime: A Critical Reading of Moral Relativism.Nenad Dimitrijevic - 2010 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 36 (2):131-156.
    In this article I ask how moral relativism applies to the analysis of responsibility for mass crime. The focus is on the critical reading of two influential relativist attempts to offer a theoretically consistent response to the challenges imposed by extreme criminal practices. First, I explore Gilbert Harman’s analytical effort to conceptualize the reach of moral discourse. According to Harman, mass crime creates a contextually specific relationship to which moral judgments do not apply any more. Second, I analyze the inability (...)
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  39. Harman on Relativism and Moral Diversity.David Drebushenko & Stephen Sullivan - 1998 - Critica 30 (89):95-104.
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  40. The Superficial Sophistication of Moral Relativism.Shane D. Drefcinski - 2008 - Logos 11 (3).
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  41. Book Review: The Moral Problem by Michael Smith. [REVIEW]James Dreier - 1996 - Mind 105 (418):363-367.
  42. Internalism and Speaker Relativism.James Dreier - 1990 - Ethics 101 (1):6-26.
    In this article I set out a reason for believing in a form of metaethical relativism. In rough terms, the reason is this: a widely held thesis, internalism, tells us that to accept (sincerely assert, believe, etc.) a moral judgment logically requires having a motivating reason. Since the connection is logical, or conceptual, it must be explained by a theory of what it is to accept a moral claim. I argue that the internalist feature of moral expressions can best be (...)
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  43. Moral Relativism and Political Justice.James Lawrence Dreier - 1989 - Dissertation, Princeton University
    My dissertation aims to spell out the implications of moral relativism for political justice. The first part develops and defends a kind of moral relativism I call "Speaker Relativism". According to this view, moral expressions are indexicals; their content depends on the moral system of the speaker. I defend Speaker Relativism from some prominent objections, and provide an argument in favor of the view. ;The second part investigates the question of how, given relativism, citizens might establish public and mutually acceptable (...)
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  44. Moral Relativism and Moral Nihilism.Jamie Dreier - 2006 - In David Copp (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory. Oxford University Press.
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  45. Relationality, Relativism, and Realism About Moral Value.Justin D’Arms - 2005 - Philosophical Studies 126 (3):433-448.
    Among the many virtues of Facts, Values and Norms, is the articulation of an especially subtle and detailed form of naturalistic value realism. The theory aspires to vindicate the objective purport of value discourse while granting, indeed insisting, that value is subjective in important respects. Evaluative thought and inquiry are understood to be continuous with empirical inquiry in the human sciences, so that ethical and evaluative conclusions can ultimately be defended on a posteriori grounds. Railton argues that talk of what (...)
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  46. Relativism and the Study of Man.S. Morris Eames - 1962 - Modern Schoolman 39 (4):393-398.
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  47. On a Certain Value-Dimension in Analyses of Moral Relativism.Abraham Edel - 1970 - Journal of Philosophy 67 (17):584-588.
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  48. Moral Relativism and the Basis of Obligation.William Atkins Edmundson - 1982 - Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    The central problem of moral philosophy is to reconcile the universality of morals with the fact that morality arises from and engages our individual motives. Relativism is the view that universalism must be given up because this reconciliation is impossible. Typical strategies toward solving the central problem attempt to base morality on a motivating psychological universal viz. reason, sympathy or self-interest. These strategies assume that the universality of moral rules must be founded upon some antecedent universal element inherent in the (...)
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  49. John Locke’s Moral Revolution: From Natural Law to Moral Relativism. [REVIEW]Stephen Eide - 2007 - Interpretation 34 (3):275-281.
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  50. Why I Am an Objectivist About Ethics (And Why You Are, Too).David Enoch - 2014 - In Russ Shafer Landau (ed.), The Ethical Life, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press.
    You may think that you're a moral relativist or subjectivist - many people today seem to. But I don't think you are. In fact, when we start doing metaethics - when we start, that is, thinking philosophically about our moral discourse and practice - thoughts about morality's objectivity become almost irresistible. Now, as is always the case in philosophy, that some thoughts seem irresistible is only the starting point for the discussion, and under argumentative pressure we may need to revise (...)
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