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  1. added 2020-05-16
    Language, Morality, and Legitimacy.Elisa Grimi - 2020 - In Jacob Dahl Rendtorff (ed.), Handbook of Business Legitimacy. pp. 1-12.
    In this essay we will try to highlight the interweaving of language and morality and also the principle of legitimacy that derives from it. In her famous essay Modern Moral Philosophy (written in 1958 and which later became the modern manifesto of a neo-Aristotelian type of ethics), Elizabeth Anscombe highlights the need for a philosophy of psychology as well as the abandonment of a specific language in moral philosophy. Taking a position against the consequentialist conception of morality, she implicitly stands (...)
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  2. added 2020-04-30
    On the Origin, Content, and Relevance of the Market Failures Approach.Jeffrey Moriarty - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-12.
    The view of business ethics that Christopher McMahon calls the “implicit morality of the market” and Joseph Heath calls the “market failures approach” has received a significant amount of recent attention. The idea of this view is that we can derive an ethics for market participants by thinking about the “point” of market activity, and asking what the world would have to be like for this point to be realized. While this view has been much-discussed, it is still not well-understood. (...)
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  3. added 2020-04-30
    Morality, Competition, and the Firm: The Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics.Joseph Heath - 2020 - Oup Usa.
    In four new and nine previously published essays, Joseph Heath provides a compelling new framework for thinking about the moral obligations of economic actors. The "market failures" approach to business ethics that he develops provides the basis for a unified theory of business ethics, corporate law, economic regulation, and the welfare state.
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  4. added 2020-04-30
    Is the “Point” of the Market Pareto or Kaldor-Hicks Efficiency?Heath Joseph - 2019 - Business Ethics Journal Review 7 (4):21-26.
    Moriarty argues that the Market Failures Approach to business ethics is inapplicable to “real world” problems, because it treats “market failure” as a failure to achieve Pareto efficiency. Depending upon how it is applied, Pareto efficiency is either trivially easy to satisfy or else so demanding that no real-world market could ever satisfy it. In this Commentary, I argue that Moriarty overstates these difficulties. The regulatory structure governing markets is best understood as an attempt to maximize the number of Pareto-improving (...)
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  5. added 2020-04-30
    Does Heath Have a Good Answer to Steinberg?Charles Repp & Justin Contat - 2019 - Business Ethics Journal Review 7 (3):14-20.
    Etye Steinberg has recently raised a problem for Joseph Heath’s Market Failures Approach. In this paper we consider a response by Heath. We argue that Heath’s response not only leaves the original problem intact, but also raises a second one, analogous to stakeholder theory’s so-called “identification problem.”.
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  6. added 2020-04-30
    Dating, the Ethics of Competition, and Heath’s Market Failures Approach.Andrew B. Gustafson - 2018 - Business Ethics Journal Review 6 (9):47-53.
    In “The Responsibilities and Role of Business in Relation to Society,” Nien-hê Hsieh challenges Joseph Heath’s “market failure” or Paretian approach to business ethics by arguing for a “Back to Basics” approach. Here, I argue that two basics of Hsieh’s three-basics vision are flawed, because a. ordinary morality is in fact not sufficient for the adversarial realm of the market, and b. the ideal of a Pareto-optimal market economy with perfect competition does in fact provide an adequate basis for normative (...)
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  7. added 2020-04-30
    Materially Blessed Are the Middle Classes, for They Are Virtuous: A Review Essay on Deirdre McCloskey’s Bourgeois Trilogy.Matthew Arbo - 2018 - Studies in Christian Ethics 31 (3):271-280.
    This essay reviews Deirdre McCloskey’s trilogy in political economy: Bourgeois Virtues, Bourgeois Dignity, and Bourgeois Equality. In this trilogy McCloskey seeks to reestablish the ethical, historical, and political legitimacy of modern capitalism. Success of the project is offset by misapprehension of normativity and thus of how human economy is ethical.
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  8. added 2020-04-30
    Justice Failure: Efficiency and Equality in Business Ethics.Abraham Singer - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 149 (1):97-115.
    This paper offers the concept of “justice failure,” as a counterpart to the familiar idea of market failure, in order to better understand managers’ ethical obligations. This paper takes the “market failures approach” to business ethics as its point of departure. The success of the MFA, I argue, lies in its close proximity with economic theory, particularly in the idea that, within a larger scheme of social cooperation, markets ought to pursue efficiency and leave the pursuit of equality to the (...)
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  9. added 2020-04-30
    Efficiency and Ethically Responsible Management.Jeffery Smith - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (3):603-618.
    One common justification for the pursuit of profit by business firms within a market economy is that profit is not an end in itself but a means to more efficiently produce and allocate resources. Profit, in short, is a mechanism that serves the market’s purpose of producing Pareto superior outcomes for society. This discussion examines whether such a justification, if correct, requires business managers to remain attentive to how their firm’s operation impacts the market’s purpose. In particular, it is argued (...)
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  10. added 2020-04-30
    Why Justice Matters for Business Ethics.Jeffery Smith - 2017 - Business Ethics Journal Review 5 (3):15-21.
    In a recent critique of the so-called “market failures approach” to business ethics Abraham Singer maintains that business firms have ethical responsibilities to voluntarily restrain their profit-seeking activities in accordance with the demands of justice. While I ultimately share Singer’s intuition that the MFA has overlooked the importance of justice in business ethics, I argue that he has not presented a fully adequate case to explain why justice-related responsibilities should be assigned to business firms. I conclude by offering a brief (...)
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  11. added 2020-04-30
    The Implicit Morality of the Market and Joseph Heath’s Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics.Marc A. Cohen & Dean Peterson - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics (1):1-14.
    Joseph Heath defends competitive markets and conceptualizes business ethics with reference to Pareto efficiency, which he takes to be the “implicit morality of the market.” His justification for markets is that they generate Pareto efficient outcomes, meaning that markets optimally satisfy consumer preferences. And, for Heath, business ethics is the set of normative constraints—regulation and beyond-compliance norms—needed to preserve that outcome. The present paper accepts Heath’s claim that the economic justification for markets is ethical, in that satisfying consumer preferences is (...)
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  12. added 2020-04-30
    Competition, Value Creation and the Self-Understanding of Business.David Silver - 2016 - Business Ethics Journal Review 4 (10):59-65.
    In defense of his Market Failures Approach to business ethics Joseph Heath relies on an understanding of business as essentially oriented towards competition and profit maximization. In these remarks I defend an alternative understanding of business that is centered on the creation of valuable goods and services. It is preferable because it: creates less pressure to take advantage of vulnerable stakeholders, can readily recognize “beyond compliance” norms that do not relate to efficiency, provides a more meaningful framework for people who (...)
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  13. added 2020-04-30
    Morality, Competition, and the Firm: The Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics by Joseph Heath.Jason Brennan - 2016 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (1):1-4.
    Until Joseph Heath came along, philosophical business ethics was in a bad way. To the extent it’s still in a bad way, perhaps it’s because Heath has had insufficient influence. Before Heath, much of the debate in the field was between two major theories—stockholder and stakeholder theory. Both of these theories are either false, or vacuous and empty, depending on the interpretation. Heath has to some degree rescued the field by providing what is perhaps the only good general theory of (...)
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  14. added 2020-04-30
    Morality, Competition, and the Firm: The Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics, by Joseph Heath. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. 424 Pp. ISBN: 978-0-1999-9048-1. [REVIEW]Rosemarie Monge - 2016 - Business Ethics Quarterly 26 (3):430-433.
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  15. added 2020-04-30
    Professionalism, Agency, and Market Failures.Hasko von Kriegstein - 2016 - Business Ethics Quarterly 26 (4):445-464.
    According to the Market Failures Approach to business ethics, beyond-compliance duties can be derived by employing the same rationale and arguments that justify state regulation of economic conduct. Very roughly the idea is that managers have a duty to behave as if they were complying with an ideal regulatory regime ensuring Pareto-optimal market outcomes. Proponents of the approach argue that managers have a professional duty not to undermine the institutional setting that defines their role, namely the competitive market. This answer (...)
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  16. added 2020-04-30
    Joseph Heath's Morality, Competition, and the Firm: The Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, 424 Pp. [REVIEW]Carson Young - 2015 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 8 (1):116.
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  17. added 2020-04-30
    Morality, Competition, and the Firm: The Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics.Joseph Heath (ed.) - 2014 - Oup Usa.
    In four new and nine previously published essays, Joseph Heath provides a compelling new framework for thinking about the moral obligations of economic actors. The "market failures" approach to business ethics that he develops provides the basis for a unified theory of business ethics, corporate law, economic regulation, and the welfare state.
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  18. added 2020-04-30
    Adam Smith’s Bourgeois Virtues in Competition.Thomas Wells & Johan Graafland - 2012 - Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (2):319-350.
    Whether or not capitalism is compatible with ethics is a long standing dispute. We take up an approach to virtue ethics inspired by Adam Smith and consider how market competition influences the virtues most associated with modern commercial society. Up to a point, competition nurtures and supports such virtues as prudence, temperance, civility, industriousness and honesty. But there are also various mechanisms by which competition can have deleterious effects on the institutions and incentives necessary for sustaining even these most commercially (...)
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  19. added 2020-04-30
    The Bourgeois Virtues: Ethics for an Age of Commerce. [REVIEW]J. J. Graafland - 2009 - Journal of Economic Methodology 16 (2):214-219.
  20. added 2020-04-30
    Listening, Really Listening: A Response to Graafland, Binmore and Ferber onThe Bourgeois Virtues.Deirdre McCloskey - 2009 - Journal of Economic Methodology 16 (2):221-232.
  21. added 2020-04-30
    Book Review: The Missionary: McCloskey's Apologia for Bourgeois Virtues and the Market. [REVIEW]Scott Sumner - 2007 - Business and Society Review 112 (4):573-600.
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  22. added 2020-04-30
    The Bourgeois Virtues: Ethics for an Age of Commerce.Deirdre N. McCloskey - 2006 - University of Chicago Press.
    For a century and a half, the artists and intellectuals of Europe have scorned the bourgeoisie. And for a millennium and a half, the philosophers and theologians of Europe have scorned the marketplace. The bourgeois life, capitalism, Mencken’s “booboisie” and David Brooks’s “bobos”—all have been, and still are, framed as being responsible for everything from financial to moral poverty, world wars, and spiritual desuetude. Countering these centuries of assumptions and unexamined thinking is Deirdre McCloskey’s _The Bourgeois Virtues_, a magnum opus (...)
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  23. added 2020-03-10
    The Implicit Morality of the Market Is Consequentialist.Marc A. Cohen & Dean Peterson - 2020 - Business Ethics Journal Review 7 (4):21-26.
    Joseph Heath states that our paper “misinterpret[s]” and so misrepresents his account. The present Commentary corrects the record. Our paper (Cohen and Peterson 2019) outlined Heath’s account on his own terms; it explained that Heath distances himself from consequentialism. But then we argued that Heath is mistaken and so offered a repaired version of the market failures approach. Our central concern, in the original paper and in this short Commentary, is showing that the economic argument for markets is at the (...)
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  24. added 2020-02-25
    Sweatshops and Free Action: The Stakes of the Actualism/Possibilism Debate for Business Ethics.Travis Timmerman & Abe Zakhem - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics.
    Whether an action is morally right depends upon the alternative acts available to the agent. Actualists hold that what an agent would actually do determines her moral obligations. Possibilists hold that what an agent could possibly do determines her moral obligations. Both views face compelling criticisms. Despite the fact that actualist and possibilist assumptions are at the heart of seminal arguments in business ethics, there has been no explicit discussion of actualism and possibilism in the business ethics literature. This paper (...)
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  25. added 2020-02-18
    An African Theory of Good Leadership (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - International Journal of Ethical Leadership 7.
    Shortened version of an article first appearing in the African Journal of Business Ethics (2018).
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  26. added 2019-12-24
    The Moral Crisis: The Responsibility of Managers of Financial Institutions and the Argument From Inevitability.Ramiro Ávila Peres - 2020 - In Everton Maciel (ed.), Política Prática. Macapá, AP, Brasil: pp. 287-308.
    This paper argues, through conceptual analysis, against an objection to the disapproval of banks for the 2007-8 crisis: the idea that they could not have acted otherwise (at least not rationally) and that no one should be blamed for a fact one could not have avoided. If true, it would threaten the justification of corporate social responsibility and the legal liability of managers. Identified as the ‘inevitability thesis’, this objection is illustrated by an analysis of the film Margin Call (2011) (...)
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  27. added 2019-11-25
    Successor Identity.Mihailis Diamantis - 2019 - Yale Journal on Regulation 36:1-44.
    The law of successor criminal liability is simple—corporate successors are liable for the crimes of their predecessors. Always. Any corporation that results from any merger, consolidation, spin-off, etc., is on the hook for all the crimes of all the corporations that went into the process. Such a coarse-grained, onetrack approach fails to recognize that not all reorganizations are cut from the same cloth. As a result, it skews corporate incentives against reorganizing in more socially beneficial ways. It also risks punishing (...)
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  28. added 2019-09-19
    Wage Exploitation and the Nonworseness Claim: Allowing the Wrong, To Do More Good.David Faraci - 2019 - Business Ethics Quarterly 29 (2):169-188.
    Many believe that employment can be wrongfully exploitative, even if it is consensual and mutually beneficial. At the same time, it may seem third parties should not do anything to preclude or eliminate such arrangements, given these same considerations of consent and benefit. I argue that there are perfectly sensible, intuitive ethical positions that vindicate this ‘Reasonable View’. The view requires such defense because the literature often suggests that there is no theoretical space for it. I respond to arguments for (...)
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  29. added 2019-09-13
    Moral Education at Work: On the Scope of MacIntyre’s Concept of a Practice.Matthew Sinnicks - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 159 (1):105-118.
    This paper seeks to show how MacIntyre’s concept of a practice can survive a series of ‘scope problems’ which threaten to render the concept inapplicable to business ethics. I begin by outlining MacIntyre’s concept of a practice before arguing that, despite an asymmetry between productive and non-productive practices, the elasticity of the concept of a practice allows us to accommodate productive and profitable activities. This elasticity of practices allows us to sidestep the problem of adjudicating between practitioners and non-practitioners as (...)
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  30. added 2019-06-13
    Review of Ryan Burg, Business Ethics for a Material World: An Ecological Approach to Object Stewardship. [REVIEW]Brian Berkey & Eric W. Orts - 2019 - Business Ethics Quarterly 29:143-146.
  31. added 2019-04-27
    Corporations and Justice.Robert C. Hughes & Alan Strudler - 2019 - Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    For the past half century, there has been a large controversy within academic business ethics, in legal scholarship, and in the larger public about the role that corporations should have in addressing social injustices. Do corporations have a moral obligation to conduct business in a way that reduces poverty, racial inequality, other unjust economic and social inequalities, and unjust threats to the environment? Or should for-profit corporations focus on making money and leave solutions of these social problems to governments, nonprofit (...)
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  32. added 2019-03-12
    Defining a Moral Problem in Business Ethics.Donald Morris - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 49 (4):347-357.
    Managing expectations in a business ethicscourse is important and a key place to begin iswith a definition of a moral problem. Untilrecently I would explain, using moral terms,good and bad, right and wrong, duty or obligation or theircognates, what a moral problem is generally andthen what it may be in business. However Ifound that using familiar terms with vague orambiguous meanings to define the subject matterof the course counterproductive. What Irequired is a means of explaining to thebeginning student what a (...)
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  33. added 2018-07-27
    Sustainability, Public Health, and the Corporate Duty to Assist.Julian Friedland - 2015 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 34 (2):215-236.
    Several European and North American states encourage or even require, via good Samaritan and duty to rescue laws, that persons assist others in distress. This paper offers a utilitarian and contractualist defense of this view as applied to corporations. It is argued that just as we should sometimes frown on bad Samaritans who fail to aid persons in distress, we should also frown on bad corporate Samaritans who neglect to use their considerable multinational power to undertake disaster relief or to (...)
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  34. added 2018-07-27
    The Utility of Offshoring: A Rawlsian Critique.Julian Friedland - 2005 - Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies 10 (1):9-13.
    Most prominent arguments favoring the widespread discretionary business practice of sending jobs overseas, known as ‘offshoring,’ attempt to justify the trend by appeal to utilitarian principles. It is argued that when business can be performed more cost-effectively offshore, doing so tends, over the longterm, to achieve the greatest good for the greatest number. This claim is supported by evidence that exporting jobs actively promotes economic development overseas while simultaneously increasing the revenue of the exporting country. After showing that offshoring might (...)
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  35. added 2018-07-23
    Property and Business.Bas Van Der Vossen - 2018 - In Eugene Heath, Byron Kaldis & Alexei Marcoux (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Business Ethics. Routledge. pp. 309-325.
  36. added 2018-06-14
    Leadership After Virtue: MacIntyre’s Critique of Management Reconsidered.Matthew Sinnicks - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 147 (4):735-746.
    MacIntyre argues that management embodies emotivism, and thus is inherently amoral and manipulative. His claim that management is necessarily Weberian is, at best, outdated, and the notion that management aims to be neutral and value free is incorrect. However, new forms of management, and in particular the increased emphasis on leadership which emerged after MacIntyre’s critique was published, tend to support his central charge. Indeed, charismatic and transformational forms of leadership seem to embody emotivism to a greater degree than do (...)
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  37. added 2018-06-14
    Practices, Governance, and Politics: Applying MacIntyre’s Ethics to Business.Matthew Sinnicks - 2014 - Business Ethics Quarterly 24 (2):229-249.
    This paper argues that attempts to apply Alasdair MacIntyre’s positive moral theory to business ethics are problematic, due to the cognitive closure of MacIntyre’s concept of a practice. I begin by outlining the notion of a practice, before turning to Moore’s attempt to provide a MacIntyrean account of corporate governance. I argue that Moore’s attempt is mismatched with MacIntyre’s account of moral education. Because the notion of practices resists general application I go on to argue that a negative application, which (...)
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  38. added 2018-04-17
    Rethinking Corporate Agency in Business, Philosophy, and Law.Samuel Mansell, John Ferguson, David Gindis & Avia Pasternak - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (4):893-899.
    While researchers in business ethics, moral philosophy, and jurisprudence have advanced the study of corporate agency, there have been very few attempts to bring together insights from these and other disciplines in the pages of the Journal of Business Ethics. By introducing to an audience of business ethics scholars the work of outstanding authors working outside the field, this interdisciplinary special issue addresses this lacuna. Its aim is to encourage the formulation of innovative arguments that reinvigorate the study of corporate (...)
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  39. added 2018-03-09
    Kompetenz, Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung und die Rolle von Vorbildern in der Ordnungsethik [The importance of moral competence, self-efficacy and role models for order ethics].Michael Von Grundherr - 2014 - Zeitschrift Für Wirtschafts- Und Unternehmensethik 15 (3):319-334.
    According to the order ethics approach to business ethics, moral rules must be im-plemented by institutions that provide incentives for following the rules. As a minimal (normative) condition, these institutions must be able to motivate the homo eco-nomicus. But even if an institution passes this test, it will only motivate actual people (i.e. the homo psychologicus) to follow moral rules, if they have the relevant compe-tences and self-efficacy beliefs. Consequently, good institutional design includes com-prehensive change management. At this point applied (...)
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  40. added 2018-02-27
    The Just World Fallacy as a Challenge to the Business-As-Community Thesis.Matthew Sinnicks - 2020 - Business and Society 59 (6):1269-1292.
    The notion that business organizations are akin to Aristotelian political communities has been a central feature of research into virtue ethics in business. In this article, I begin by outlining this “community thesis” and go on to argue that psychological research into the “just world fallacy” presents it with a significant challenge. The just world fallacy undermines our ability to implement an Aristotelian conception of justice, to each as he or she is due, and imperils the relational equality required for (...)
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  41. added 2018-02-17
    Justice in Compensation: A Defense.Jeffrey Moriarty - 2012 - Business Ethics: A European Review 21 (1):64-76.
    Business ethicists have written much about ethical issues in employment. Except for a handful of articles on the very high pay of chief executive officers and the very low pay of workers in overseas sweatshops, however, little has been written about the ethics of compensation. This is prima facie strange. Workers care about their pay, and they think about it in normative terms. This article's purpose is to consider whether business ethicists' neglect of the normative aspects of compensation is justified. (...)
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  42. added 2017-12-14
    Beyond Empiricism: Realizing the Ethical Mission of Management.Julian Friedland - 2012 - Business and Society Review 117 (3):329-356.
    Research into the proper mission of business falls within the context of theoretical and applied ethics. And ethics is fast becoming a part of required business school curricula. However, while business ethics research occasionally appears in high‐profile venues, it does not yet enjoy a regular place within any top management journal. I offer a partial explanation of this paradox and suggestions for resolving it. I begin by discussing the standard conception of human nature given by neoclassical economics as disseminated in (...)
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  43. added 2017-12-14
    Doing Well and Good: The Human Face of the New Capitalism.Julian Friedland (ed.) - 2009 - Information Age.
    Ethical business creates social value. That’s the theme of this bold new volume, heralding and defending this rapidly-growing new conception of capitalism making its way into the mainstream. It provides clear and succinct guidelines for how to evaluate what counts as an ethical business as well as how and why ethical businesses tend to succeed better over the long term. The book is jargon-free and targeted primarily at thought leaders and academics in business and philosophy who will want to use (...)
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  44. added 2017-11-12
    A Right to Work and Fair Conditions of Employment.Kory Schaff - 2017 - In Fair Work: Ethics, Social Policy, Globalization. London: Rowman and Littlefield, Intl.. pp. 41-55.
  45. added 2017-09-29
    Fundamentals of Order Ethics: Law, Business Ethics and the Financial Crisis.Christoph Luetge - 2012 - Archiv für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie Beihefte 130:11-21.
    During the current financial crisis, the need for an alternative to a laissez-faire ethics of capitalism (the Milton Friedman view) becomes clear. I argue that we need an order ethics which employs economics as a key theoretical resource and which focuses on institutions for implementing moral norms. -/- I will point to some aspects of order ethics which highlight the importance of rules, e.g. global rules for the financial markets. In this regard, order ethics (“Ordnungsethik”) is the complement of the (...)
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  46. added 2017-09-26
    Order Ethics: Bridging the Gap Between Contractarianism and Business Ethics.Christoph Luetge, Thomas Armbrüster & Julian Müller - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 136 (4):687-697.
    Contract-based approaches have been a focus of attention in business ethics. As one of the grand traditions in political philosophy, contractarianism is founded on the notion that we will never resolve deep moral disagreement. Classical philosophers like Hobbes and Locke, or recent ones like Rawls and Gaus, seek to solve ethical conflicts on the level of social rules and procedures. Recent authors in business ethics have sought to utilize contract-based approaches for their field and to apply it to concrete business (...)
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  47. added 2017-09-26
    The Idea of a Contractarian Business Ethics.Christoph Luetge - 2013 - In Christopher Luetege (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Springer. pp. 647--658.
  48. added 2017-09-26
    Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics.Christoph Lütge (ed.) - 2013 - Heidelberg: Springer.
  49. added 2017-09-26
    Economic Ethics, Business Ethics and the Idea of Mutual Advantages.Christoph Luetge - 2005 - Business Ethics: A European Review 14 (2):108-118.
    Many traditional conceptions of ethics use categories and arguments that have been developed under conditions of pre-modern societies and are not useful in the age of globalisation anymore. I argue that we need an economic ethics which employs economics as a key theoretical resource and which focuses on institutions for implementing moral norms. This conception is then elaborated further in the area of business ethics. It is illustrated in the case for banning child labour.
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  50. added 2017-08-16
    Work, Inc.: A Philosophical Inquiry.Edmund Byrne - 1990 - Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    An appeal to philosophers who believe in social contract theory to revise their thinking in fundamental ways. In particular, it calls upon them to take corporations -- especially transnational corporations -- more seriously in their speculations on the "just state" than they have up till now. Why? Because transnational corporations today exercise de facto sovereignty--a sovereignty that always influences, sometomes equals, and often overpowers the sovereignty of nation states. (Excerpted from Paul Durbin's detailed analysis of book in 2006.).
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