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  1. Is Morality Subjective? – A Reply to Critics.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    Leslie Allan defends his thesis that ethics is objective in the sense of requiring moral agents to offer impartial reasons for acting. Radical subjectivists have attacked this requirement for impartiality on a number of grounds. Some critics make the charge that Allan's thesis is simply a version of subjectivism in disguise. He responds by showing how a broadly naturalist view of ethics accommodates objective moral constraints. Allan also counters cases in which impartiality is purportedly not morally required and considers the (...)
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  2. On Moral Dilemmas: Winch, Kant and Billy Budd.Lilian Alweiss - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (2):205-218.
    This article queries Winch's view that moral issues are particular, subjective, context-dependent and not open to generalizations. Drawing on examples from film and literature, Winch believes he can prove first, that the universalisability principle is idle and second, that morality is wrongly conceived as a guide to moral conduct. Yet, neither example proves his point. Quite the contrary, they show that we face moral dilemmas only when moral theory fails to provide an answer to moral problems. Therfore, it is not (...)
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  3. How to Solve Moral Conundrums with Computability Theory.Jongmin Jerome Baek - 2018 - arXiv.
    Various moral conundrums plague population ethics: The Non-Identity Problem, The Procreation Asymmetry, The Repugnant Conclusion, and more. I argue that the aforementioned moral conundrums have a structure neatly accounted for, and solved by, some ideas in computability theory. I introduce a mathematical model based on computability theory and show how previous arguments pertaining to these conundrums fit into the model. This paper proceeds as follows. First, I do a very brief survey of the history of computability theory in moral philosophy. (...)
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  4. Respect and Membership in the Moral Community.Carla Bagnoli - 2007 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (2):113 - 128.
    Some philosophers object that Kant's respect cannot express mutual recognition because it is an attitude owed to persons in virtue of an abstract notion of autonomy and invite us to integrate the vocabulary of respect with other persons-concepts or to replace it with a social conception of recognition. This paper argues for a dialogical interpretation of respect as the key-mode of recognition of membership in the moral community. This interpretation highlights the relational and practical nature of respect, and accounts for (...)
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  5. Universalizability in Moral Judgments.Chris Bessemans - 2012 - International Philosophical Quarterly 52 (4):397-404.
    Peter Winch once objected to Sidgwick’s universalizability thesis in that an agent’s nature would be of no interest to his judgment or the judgment about the agent’s action. While agreeing upon the relevance of the agent-as-person in moral judgments, I disagree with Winch’s conclusions. The ambiguity in Winch’s text reveals that Winch’s moral judgment is inconsistent, and this indicates that there is something wrong in Winch’s account. My claim, for which I am indebted to Aurel Kolnai, is that inserting the (...)
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  6. Walter Reese-Schäfer, "Karl-Otto Apel: Zur Einführung".H. G. Callaway - 1993 - Journal of Value Inquiry 27 (3/4):543.
    Walter Reese-Schäfer, Karl-Otto Apel, Zur Einführung (with an Afterword by Jürgen Habermas), Junis Verlag GmbH, Hamburg 1990, 176pp. DM 17.80 -/- The author, presently a freelance writer published in the newspaper “Die Zeit” and the magazine “Stern,” pro­vides in this small book a clear and concise introduction to sources, themes and conclusions in the philosophy of Karl-Otto Apel. Apel, Emeritus Pro­fessor at Frank­furt, and close colleague of Habermas, characterizes his viewpoint as a “transcen­dental pragmatism” in which a Kantian concern for (...)
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  7. Genealogical Inquiry and Universal Moral Values.G. Cavallo - forthcoming - Dialegesthai. Rivista Telematica di Filosofia 2017.
    Inspired by american pragmatism and Hans Joas' proposal of an affirmative genealogy, I argue in this paper that a genealogical inquiry (both on the biografical and on the historical level) can explain what motivates individuals to moral agency better than Kantian moral philosophy, without renouncing an historically-informed conception of universal moral values.
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  8. Grounds for Respect: Particularism, Universalism and Communal Accountability. [REVIEW]L. D'Olimpio - 2014 - Achieving Ethical Excellence (Research in Ethical Issues in Organizations) 12:167-176.
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  9. On the Concept of Creal: The Politico-Ethical Horizon of a Creative Absolute.Luis De Miranda - 2017 - In The Dark Precursor: Deleuze and Artistic Research. Leuven University Press. pp. 510-516.
    Process philosophies tend to emphasise the value of continuous creation as the core of their discourse. For Bergson, Whitehead, Deleuze, and others the real is ultimately a creative becoming. Critics have argued that there is an irreducible element of (almost religious) belief in this re-evaluation of immanent creation. While I don’t think belief is necessarily a sign of philosophical and existential weakness, in this paper I will examine the possibility for the concept of universal creation to be a political and (...)
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  10. Conflict and Universal Moral Theory.Eva Erman - 2007 - Political Theory 35 (5):598-623.
    The solutions to moral problems offered by contemporary moral theories largely depend on how they understand pluralism. This article compares two different kinds of universal moral theories, liberal impartiality theory and discourse ethics. It defends the twofold thesis that (1) a dialogical theory such as discourse ethics is better equipped to give an account of pluralism than impartiality theory due to a more correct understanding of the nature of conflict, but that (2) discourse ethics cannot, contrary to what Jürgen Habermas (...)
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  11. On the Extensional Equivalence of Simple and General Utilitarianism.Fred Feldman - 1974 - Noûs 8 (2):185-194.
  12. Universal Practice and Universal Applicability Tests in Moral Philosophy.Scott Forschler - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (12):3041-3058.
    We can distinguish two kinds of moral universalization tests for practical principles. One requires that the universal practice of the principle, i.e., universal conformity to it by all agents in a given world, satisfies some condition. The other requires that conformity to the principle by any possible agent, in any situation and at any time, satisfies some condition. We can call these universal practice and universal applicability tests respectively. The logical distinction between these tests is rarely appreciated, and many philosophers (...)
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  13. Rejoinder to Wall.Scott Forschler - 2017 - Metaphilosophy 48 (4):572-574.
    Edmund Wall's criticism of the author's earlier analysis of Hare's consequentialism and Kantian ethics claims that the author overlooked Hare's commitment to preference satisfaction as an “ultimate good.” This rejoinder points out that Hare never uses the phrase in question, nor any equivalent phrase or concept, in presenting his own arguments and refers only to the standard of “universalizability” as ultimate, in contexts that support the author's original argument. Hence Wall has only given us yet another example of how Hare's (...)
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  14. Kantian and Consequentialist Ethics: The Gap Can Be Bridged.Scott Forschler - 2013 - Metaphilosophy 44 (1-2):88-104.
    Richard Hare argues that the fundamental assumptions of Kant's ethical system should have led Kant to utilitarianism, had Kant not confused a norm's generality with its universality, and hence adopted rigorist, deontological norms. Several authors, including Jens Timmermann, have argued contra Hare that the gap between Kantian and utilitarian/consequentialist ethics is fundamental and cannot be bridged. This article shows that Timmermann's claims rely on a systematic failure to separate normative and metaethical aspects of each view, and that Hare's attempt to (...)
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  15. From Supervenience to “Universal Law”: How Kantian Ethics Became Heteronomous.Scott Forschler - 2012 - In Dietmar Heidemann (ed.), Kant Yearbook 4 (Kant and Contemporary Moral Philosophy). Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 49-67.
    In his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant’s desiderata for a supreme principle of practical reasoning and morality require that the subjective conditions under which some action is thought of as justified via some maxim be sufficient for judging the same action as justified by any agent in those conditions. This describes the kind of universalization conditions now known as moral supervenience. But when he specifies his “formula of universal law” (FUL) Kant replaces this condition with a quite different (...)
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  16. How to Make Ethical Universalization Tests Work.Scott Forschler - 2007 - Journal of Value Inquiry 41 (1):31-43.
    Richard Hare described the "ethical fanatic" as an agent who appeared to be able to rationally universalize morally horrendous values by "fanatically" accepting the consequences of those values even if their universalization harmed the original agent. This challenges the project of basing ethics on universalization tests, as advocated by Hare, Immanuel Kant, and others. Hare later argued that fanatics are irrational by appealing to a "principle of prudence," but this violates his meta-principle of not basing fundamental ethical principles upon intuitions (...)
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  17. Moving Beyond Universalizability.Susan T. Gardner - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 10:117-125.
    The use of Kant’s universalizability principle as a method of determining the warrantability of an ethical claim has two fundamental flaws. On the one hand, it renders the universalizing moralizer mute in the face of fanaticism, and, on the other, it too easily dissolves into irrational rule worship. In the face of such flaws,many have argued that this “rational” approach to ethics ought to be abandoned in favor of fanning the flames of sentiment. Such a proposal suggests that we have (...)
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  18. Formal Ethics.Harry J. Gensler - 1996 - Routledge.
    _Formal Ethics_ is the study of formal ethical principles. The most important of these, perhaps even the most important principle of life, is the golden rule: "Treat others as you want to be treated". Although the golden rule enjoys support amongst different cultures and religions in the world, philosophers tend to neglect it. _Formal Ethics_ gives the rule the attention it deserves. Modelled on formal logic, _Formal Ethics_ was inspired by the ethical theories of Kant and Hare. It shows that (...)
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  19. Was, wenn jeder...? Ethische Verallgemeinerung seit Kant. Eine Kritik.Jens Gillessen - 2014 - Verlag Karl Alber.
    Moral criticism sometimes takes the form of asking: What if everyone acted the way you do? Such criticism seems to be grounded in some form of moral reasoning, which has in the past been the aim of various efforts of clarification, refutation and defense, in the guise of interpretations of Kant's Categorical Imperative as well as in Analytic Ethics. The book forms the first monographic attempt since decades to establish systematic order among contributions to the field. It examines a wide (...)
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  20. The Origin of Moral Norms: A Moderate Nativist Account.Jessy Giroux - 2011 - Dialogue 50 (2):281-306.
    In this paper, I distinguish between two families of theories which view moral norms as either “inputs” or “outputs.” I argue that the most plausible version of each model can ultimately be seen as the two sides of the same model, which I call Moderate Nativism. The difference between these two apparently antagonistic models is one of perspective rather than content: while the Input model explains how emotional dispositions constrain the historical evolution of moral norms, the Output model explains how (...)
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  21. Pleasure and Pain: Unconditional Intrinsic Values.Irwin Goldstein - 1989 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50 (December):255-276.
    That all pleasure is good and all pain bad in itself is an eternally true ethical principle. The common claim that some pleasure is not good, or some pain not bad, is mistaken. Strict particularism (ethical decisions must be made case by case; there are no sound universal normative principles) and relativism (all good and bad are relative to society) are among the ethical theories we may refute through an appeal to pleasure and pain. Daniel Dennett, Philippa Foot, R M (...)
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  22. Universalisability.R. M. Hare - 1954 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 55:295 - 312.
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  23. A Theory of Humanity: Part 2—Conditions for True Universalism.M. Rafiqul Islam - 2017 - International Journal of Political Theory 2 (1):89-121.
    The currently used humanity model is chaotic, devoid of logic or coherence. In Part 1 of this two-part paper, we examined human traits of a scientific model in absence of ‘born sinner’ starting point. We demonstrated that the so-called ‘viceroy model’ that is characterized as scientifically sustainable can replace the existing models that are based on fear and scarcity. Part Two of the paper deals with adequate definition of moral campus that conforms to the viceroy model. In this paper, it (...)
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  24. Aristotle on Teleology.Monte Ransome Johnson - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    Aristotle's has been the most influential philosophy in the whole history of science. Monte Johnson examines its most controversial aspect: Aristotle's emphasis on the importance of goals and purposes to scientific understanding--his teleology. In some cases this policy has proved deeply flawed, for example in his earth-centric cosmology, or his anthropology purporting to justify slavery and male domination. But in many areas Aristotle's teleology has been successful, and remains influential, for example in adaptationist evolutionary theory, embryology, and genetics. Johnson's book (...)
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  25. How Insensitive: Principles, Facts and Normative Grounds in Cohen’s Critique of Rawls.Daniel Kofman - 2012 - Socialist Studies 8 (1):246-268.
  26. Fletcher on Loyalty and Universal Morality.Stephen Nathanson - 1993 - Criminal Justice Ethics 12 (1):56-62.
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  27. The Principle of Sufficient Reason: A Moral Argument.Mark T. Nelson - 1996 - Religious Studies 32 (1):15-26.
    The Clarke/Rowe version of the Cosmological Argument is sound only if the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) is true, but many philosophers, including Rowe, think that there is not adequate evidence for the principle of sufficient reason. I argue that there may be indirect evidence for PSR on the grounds that if we do not accept it, we lose our best justification for an important principle of metaethics, namely, the Principle of Universalizability. To show this, I argue that all the (...)
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  28. Jonathan Dancy, JME Moravcsik, and CCW Taylor, Eds., Human Agency-Language, Duty, and Value: Philosophical Essays in Honor of JO Urmson Reviewed By.David Novitz - 1990 - Philosophy in Review 10 (1):9-11.
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  29. Bagimsiz Yasam Istegi.Hasan Bulent Paksoy - 2012 - Florence: Carrie/European University Institute.
    Universite’nin gorevi nedir? Su tanim’i yapabiliriz: dusunceleri birlestirip,ilerletmek. Dusunceleri birlestirmek ve ilerletmek neden gereklidir? Bir atilim’a gecmek icin, yer alacak olaylarin onceden ve kapsamli olarakdusunulmesi gerekir. Dusunceler, bir atilimin baslangicidir ve yalniz universite icinde gelismez.Dusunceler bir yonetim'e katilim birimi icinde gelkisebilecegi gibi, arkadastopluluklari icinde de yer alabilir. Ayrica, bir tek kisi'ce de olusturulup birkitap icinde dunya'ya sunulabilir.
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  30. Dos problemas del universalismo ético, y una solución. O de las curiosas ideas de los drusos sobre los chinos y de sus concomitancias en ciertos filósofos morales contemporáneos.Miguel Angel Quintana Paz - 2002 - In Quintín Racionero Carmona & Pablo Perera Velamazán (eds.), Pensar la comunidad. Madrid: Dykinson. pp. 223-264.
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  31. Kant's Self-Legislation Procedure Reconsidered.Adrian M. S. Piper - 2012 - Kant Studies Online 2012:203-277.
    Most published discussions in contemporary metaethics include some textual exegesis of the relevant contemporary authors, but little or none of the historical authors who provide the underpinnings of their general approach. The latter is usually relegated to the historical, or dismissed as expository. Sometimes this can be a useful division of labor. But it can also lead to grave confusion about the views under discussion, and even about whose views are, in fact, under discussion. Elijah Millgram’s article, “Does the Categorical (...)
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  32. Challenging Moral Particularism.Matjaž Potrc, Vojko Strahovnik & Mark Lance (eds.) - 2007 - Routledge.
    Particularism is a justly popular ‘cutting-edge’ topic in contemporary ethics across the world. Many moral philosophers do not, in fact, support particularism, but nearly all would take it to be a position that continues to offer serious lessons and challenges that cannot be safely ignored. Given the high standard of the contributions, and that this is a subject where lively debate continues to flourish, _Challenging Moral Particularism_ will become required reading for professionals and advanced students working in the area.
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  33. Particularism and Principles.Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen - 1999 - Theoria 65 (2-3):114-126.
  34. The Problem of Relevant Descriptions and the Scope of Moral Principles.Irina Schumski - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy 25 (4):1588-1613.
    In her seminal attack on modern moral philosophy, G. E. M. Anscombe claims that Kant's ‘rule about universalizable maxims is useless without stipulations as to what shall count as a relevant description of an action with a view to constructing a maxim about it’. Although this so-called problem of relevant descriptions has received considerable attention in the literature, there is little agreement on how it should be understood or solved. My aim in this paper is, first, to clarify the problem (...)
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  35. Can the Canberrans’ Supervenience Argument Refute Shapeless Moral Particularism?Peter Shiu-Hwa Tsu - 2016 - Erkenntnis 81 (3):545-560.
    Frank Jackson, Michael Smith, and Philip Pettit contend in their 2000 paper that an argument from supervenience deals a fatal blow to shapeless moral particularism, the view that the moral is shapeless with respect to the natural. A decade has passed since the Canberrans advanced their highly influential supervenience argument. Yet, there has not been any compelling counter-argument against it, as far as I can see. My aim in this paper is to fill in this void and defend SMP against (...)
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  36. Evolution Science and Ethics in the Third Millennium: Challenges and Choices for Humankind. [REVIEW]Steven Umbrello - 2018 - World Futures 74 (5).
    Evolution Science and Ethics in the Third Millennium is one of the most lucid academic texts on the subject of evolutionary morality to be published in the last decade. While the book does have some problematic aspects, discussed below, it nonetheless provides what is none other than a comprehensive and rational basis to substantiate the notion that evolutionary science can provide a foundation for the understanding of morality. Cliquet and Avramov take a wholly interdisciplinary approach, encroaching within and forming connections (...)
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  37. Universalismo E Relativismo Nell'etica Contemporanea.Aldo Vendemiati - 2007 - Marietti 1820.
    INTRODUZIONE 2 1. POVERA E NUDA VAI, FILOSOFIA… 19 1.1 TRA SCIAMANI E CALCOLATORI 20 1.2 AUTOCASTRAZIONI E DINTORNI 25 1.2.1 Debes, ergo potes 26 1.2.1.1 Scienze della natura e scienze dello spirito 27 1.2.1.2 Orizzonti di responsabilità 32 1.2.1.3 Ritrovare la saggezza 36 1.2.2 Potes, ergo debes 37 1.2.2.1 Disintegrando la frammentazione 40 1.2.2.2 Disarticolando lo smembramento 51 1.2.2.3 Oltrepassando l’autosuperamento 58 1.3 IL (MIO) PUNTO DI VISTA 62 2. GLOBALIZZAZIONE E UNIVERSALISMO 70 2.1 PENSARE LA GLOBALIZZAZIONE 73 2.1.1 (...)
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  38. Universalisierbarkeit und öffentliche Rechtfertigung.Fabian Wendt - 2013 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 67 (4):587ß609.
    Das Prinzip öffentlicher Rechtfertigung ist ein Kernprinzip einer Hauptströmung des zeitgenössischen Liberalismus. Es besagt, in einer von Gerald Gaus vertretenen Variante, dass Regeln der Sozialmoral ebenso wie staatliche Institutionen und Gesetze gegenüber allen betroffenen Personen mit ihren je verschiedenen evaluativen Standards rechtfertigbar sein müssen. Die Regeln, Institutionen oder Gesetze sind rechtfertigbar, wenn alle betroffenen Personen vor dem Hintergrund ihrer je verschiedenen evaluativen Standards einen hinreichenden Grund haben, sie zu akzeptieren. Das Universalisierbarkeitsprinzip dagegen ist kein normatives Prinzip der politischen Philosophie, sondern (...)
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  39. Metaethics of Golden Rule.Pouya Lotfi Yazdi - 2017 - Tehran, Tehran Province, Iran: Negah-e Moaser pub.
    Metaethics of Goldel Rule -/- --- It is worthy to mention that this book entitled "Metaethics of Golden Rule" which is an academic Persian book of Philosophy and adapted from my M.A. dissertation: Lotfi Yazdi, Mohammad Reza (2015), Survey of Meta-ethical foundation of Golden rule, Tehran: Payame Noor University, M.A. in Ethics (Moral Philosophy). --- I have been working on Golden Rule since ten years ago, directly and indirectly. It has included an introduction to Metaphilosophy and generalities of Ethics. In (...)
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